PREPARED BY :
MOHD ZAMIR BIN OSMAN
2011400498
NURAMALINA BT AHMAD KHAIRI
2011806192
NURDIYANA BT MUMIN
2011232572
MUHAMMAD...
 Used in India and Mediterranean regions.
 Digging tools and copper rock saws are used.
 Fire was used to the rock obst...
Image : Digging tools
Image : Tunnel in India
 Used in Babylon over 4,000 years ago.
 This method is carried out by digging a deep trench,
construct a roof at an appr...
Image : The Bergen Hill Tunnels by Cut and Cover Method
 Used to blast canal tunnel such as in France.
 Introduced in 1681.
 Canal tunnel was built to serve a shortcut.
Image : Canal du Midi in France by gun powder blasting method.
 In the form of dynamite.
 Replaced the gun powder in the process of tunnel
blasting.
Compressed air and steam were use...
Image : Western & Atlantic Tunnel completed in 1850 in Georgia
Between 1820 and 1865....
 Developed by Marc Brunel and James Greathead, the
British engineers.
 Enabling the constructi...
Image: Diagram of the tunnelling shield used to construct the Thames Tunnel.
In 1873,
By American tunneler, Clinton Haskins.
Keeping water from seeping into a railroad tunnel under construction
bel...
Image: The railroad tunnel, Pennsylvania R.R. under the Hudson River, New
York City.
Early 1900s – 1970s....
To stabilize the soil by freeze it by circulating coolant through pipes embedded at
intervals thr...
Image: Central Pacific Railroad’s Summit Tunnel, Norden, California was in
service from 1868 to 1993.
In 1907,
Is a liquid concrete that is sprayed on surfaces.
Has been used as both a preliminary and a final lining for
tu...
In 1931,
The first drilling jumbos were devised to dig tunnels that would
divert the Colorado River around the constructi...
In 1954,
Invented by James Robbins, for construction of a dam in South
Dakota.
A cylindrical device with digging or cutt...
Image: Oahe Dam, South Dakota.
Image: James Robbin’s TBM.
* It was developed between 1957 and 1965 in Austria
* Main idea is to use the geological stress of the
surrounding rock ma...
* Also known as tunnel jacking.
* Originated from pipe jacking in early 1960s.
* Small pre-cast concrete boxes were jacked...
Source :
www.berkeleyengineering.com
Source : www2.ce.metu.edu.tr
*
*Seikan tunnel – Japanese National Railway
*Constructed on 28 September 1971
*Opened on 13 March 1988
Tunnel. (2013). Retrieved March 6, 2013, from How
Products Are Made : Volume 6,
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-
6/Tunnel.ht...
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  1. 1. PREPARED BY : MOHD ZAMIR BIN OSMAN 2011400498 NURAMALINA BT AHMAD KHAIRI 2011806192 NURDIYANA BT MUMIN 2011232572 MUHAMMAD ‘IZZAT BIN SAID 2011633826
  2. 2.  Used in India and Mediterranean regions.  Digging tools and copper rock saws are used.  Fire was used to the rock obstruction before soaking it in water to crack it apart
  3. 3. Image : Digging tools Image : Tunnel in India
  4. 4.  Used in Babylon over 4,000 years ago.  This method is carried out by digging a deep trench, construct a roof at an appropriate height and cover the trench.  This techniques is still apply in the process of tunneling method today.
  5. 5. Image : The Bergen Hill Tunnels by Cut and Cover Method
  6. 6.  Used to blast canal tunnel such as in France.  Introduced in 1681.  Canal tunnel was built to serve a shortcut.
  7. 7. Image : Canal du Midi in France by gun powder blasting method.
  8. 8.  In the form of dynamite.  Replaced the gun powder in the process of tunnel blasting. Compressed air and steam were used to power drills in order to create holes for explosive charges.  Introduced in 1850.
  9. 9. Image : Western & Atlantic Tunnel completed in 1850 in Georgia
  10. 10. Between 1820 and 1865....  Developed by Marc Brunel and James Greathead, the British engineers.  Enabling the construction of two tunnels under the Thames River.  A rectangular or circular enclosure (the shield) was divided horizontally and vertically into several compartments. When space had been dug away, the shield was pushed forward, and the digging process repeated. TUNNELING SHIELD
  11. 11. Image: Diagram of the tunnelling shield used to construct the Thames Tunnel.
  12. 12. In 1873, By American tunneler, Clinton Haskins. Keeping water from seeping into a railroad tunnel under construction below the Hudson River by filling it with compressed air. Still used today, although presents several dangers. Workers must spend time in decompression chambers. Limits the emergency exits from the tunnel. Pressure within the tunnel must be carefully balanced with the surrounding earth and water pressure, if not will causes the tunnel either to collapse or burst (which subsequently allows flooding).
  13. 13. Image: The railroad tunnel, Pennsylvania R.R. under the Hudson River, New York City.
  14. 14. Early 1900s – 1970s.... To stabilize the soil by freeze it by circulating coolant through pipes embedded at intervals throughout the area. Waterproofing – inject grout (liquid bonding agent) into soil or fractured rock surrounding the tunnel route. Image: Method of placing concrete in bench walls. Top of waterproofing suspended from top of sandwall, Bergen Hill Tunnels.
  15. 15. Image: Central Pacific Railroad’s Summit Tunnel, Norden, California was in service from 1868 to 1993.
  16. 16. In 1907, Is a liquid concrete that is sprayed on surfaces. Has been used as both a preliminary and a final lining for tunnels since the 1920s. Image: Devil's Slide Tunnels, CA
  17. 17. In 1931, The first drilling jumbos were devised to dig tunnels that would divert the Colorado River around the construction site for Hoover Dam. consisted of 24-30 pneumatic drills mounted on a frame welded to the bed of a truck. Image: Drilling jumbos.
  18. 18. In 1954, Invented by James Robbins, for construction of a dam in South Dakota. A cylindrical device with digging or cutting heads mounted on a rotating front face that grinds away rock and soil as the machine creeps forward. Modern TBMs are customized by matching the types and arrangement of the cutting heads to the site geology; also, the diameter of TBM must be equal to the diameter of the designed tunnel (including its lining).
  19. 19. Image: Oahe Dam, South Dakota. Image: James Robbin’s TBM.
  20. 20. * It was developed between 1957 and 1965 in Austria * Main idea is to use the geological stress of the surrounding rock mass to stabilize the tunnel *A concept whereby the ground surrounding an underground opening becomes a load bearing structural component through activation of a ring like body of supporting ground *NATM was originally developed for use in the Alps, where tunnels are commonly excavated at depth and in high in situ stress conditions * Minimise settlement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Austrian_Tunnelling_method http://www.ritchiewiki.com/wiki/index.php/New_Austrian_Tunn eling_Method#ixzz2Mqv8uNSG
  21. 21. * Also known as tunnel jacking. * Originated from pipe jacking in early 1960s. * Small pre-cast concrete boxes were jacked under existing infrastructures. * can be in larger span than pipe jacked with can excess to 20 m http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunnel#Box_jacking http://www.ritchiewiki.com/wiki/index.php/Tunnel_Jac king
  22. 22. Source : www.berkeleyengineering.com Source : www2.ce.metu.edu.tr
  23. 23. * *Seikan tunnel – Japanese National Railway *Constructed on 28 September 1971 *Opened on 13 March 1988
  24. 24. Tunnel. (2013). Retrieved March 6, 2013, from How Products Are Made : Volume 6, http://www.madehow.com/Volume- 6/Tunnel.htm#b Willis, Z. (2011). Tunneling History and the East River Tunnels. Retrieved March 6, 2013, from A Comprehensive Study of the East River : http://eastriverhistory.webs.com/transportation /tunnelhist.htm

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