Used in Babylon over 4,000 years ago.
This method is carried out by digging a deep trench,
construct a roof at an appropriate height and cover the
This techniques is still apply in the process of
tunneling method today.
Image : The Bergen Hill Tunnels by Cut and Cover Method
Used to blast canal tunnel such as in France.
Introduced in 1681.
Canal tunnel was built to serve a shortcut.
Image : Canal du Midi in France by gun powder blasting method.
In the form of dynamite.
Replaced the gun powder in the process of tunnel
Compressed air and steam were used to power drills
in order to create holes for explosive charges.
Introduced in 1850.
Image : Western & Atlantic Tunnel completed in 1850 in Georgia
Between 1820 and 1865....
Developed by Marc Brunel and James Greathead, the
Enabling the construction of two tunnels under the Thames
A rectangular or circular enclosure (the shield) was divided
horizontally and vertically into several compartments.
When space had been dug away, the shield was pushed
forward, and the digging process repeated.
Image: Diagram of the tunnelling shield used to construct the Thames Tunnel.
By American tunneler, Clinton Haskins.
Keeping water from seeping into a railroad tunnel under construction
below the Hudson River by filling it with compressed air.
Still used today, although presents several dangers.
Workers must spend time in decompression chambers.
Limits the emergency exits from the tunnel.
Pressure within the tunnel must be carefully balanced with the
surrounding earth and water pressure, if not will causes the tunnel either to
collapse or burst (which subsequently allows flooding).
Image: The railroad tunnel, Pennsylvania R.R. under the Hudson River, New
Early 1900s – 1970s....
To stabilize the soil by freeze it by circulating coolant through pipes embedded at
intervals throughout the area.
Waterproofing – inject grout (liquid bonding agent) into soil or fractured rock
surrounding the tunnel route.
Image: Method of placing concrete in bench walls. Top of waterproofing
suspended from top of sandwall, Bergen Hill Tunnels.
Image: Central Pacific Railroad’s Summit Tunnel, Norden, California was in
service from 1868 to 1993.
Is a liquid concrete that is sprayed on surfaces.
Has been used as both a preliminary and a final lining for
tunnels since the 1920s.
Image: Devil's Slide Tunnels, CA
The first drilling jumbos were devised to dig tunnels that would
divert the Colorado River around the construction site for Hoover
consisted of 24-30 pneumatic drills mounted on a frame welded to
the bed of a truck.
Image: Drilling jumbos.
Invented by James Robbins, for construction of a dam in South
A cylindrical device with digging or cutting heads mounted on a
rotating front face that grinds away rock and soil as the machine
Modern TBMs are customized by matching the types and
arrangement of the cutting heads to the site geology; also, the
diameter of TBM must be equal to the diameter of the designed
tunnel (including its lining).
Image: Oahe Dam, South Dakota.
Image: James Robbin’s TBM.
* It was developed between 1957 and 1965 in Austria
* Main idea is to use the geological stress of the
surrounding rock mass to stabilize the tunnel
*A concept whereby the ground surrounding an underground
opening becomes a load bearing structural component through
activation of a ring like body of supporting ground
*NATM was originally developed for use in the Alps, where
tunnels are commonly excavated at depth and in high in
situ stress conditions
* Minimise settlement
* Also known as tunnel jacking.
* Originated from pipe jacking in early 1960s.
* Small pre-cast concrete boxes were jacked under
* can be in larger span than pipe jacked with can excess
to 20 m
*Seikan tunnel – Japanese National Railway
*Constructed on 28 September 1971
*Opened on 13 March 1988
Tunnel. (2013). Retrieved March 6, 2013, from How
Products Are Made : Volume 6,
Willis, Z. (2011). Tunneling History and the East River
Tunnels. Retrieved March 6, 2013, from A
Comprehensive Study of the East River :