Jen Allen Ethnocultural Crop Ipm


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Jen Allen Ethnocultural Crop Ipm

  1. 1. IPM of Ethnocultural Crops Jennifer Allen Vegetable Crop Specialist OMAFRA - Guelph
  2. 2. Growing Ethnocultural Crops If you grow it, they will come…..
  3. 3. What is IPM? <ul><li>IPM incorporates a variety of cultural , biological and chemical methods to efficiently manage pest populations while lowering dependence on chemical means of control.  </li></ul><ul><li>IPM, through its multi-tactical approach 1) lessens the potential for pesticide resistance 2) reduces chemical costs 3) limits human exposure to pesticides and 4) lowers the environmental impact of pest management. </li></ul>
  4. 4. IPM and Ethnocultural Crops <ul><li>Wonderful opportunity! </li></ul><ul><li>Limited products registered in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on cultural controls and allow the build up biological control agents (e.g. natural enemies, predators, and parasitoids) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Today’s Focus <ul><li>Indian Tinda </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Okra </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Karela </li></ul><ul><li>Calalloo </li></ul><ul><li>Choy Sum </li></ul><ul><li>Oriental Eggplant </li></ul>
  6. 6. Indian Tinda <ul><li>Scientific Name : Praecitrullus fistulosus </li></ul><ul><li>Common Names: round melon, squash melon, apple gourd, Indian baby pumpkin </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Family: Cucurbit </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: Culinary, Medicinal </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Practices: - very similar to watermelons - irrigation - pollination - 60 days to maturity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Indian Tinda
  8. 8. Indian Tinda <ul><li>Pest Complex : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>downy mildew, powdery mildew, bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aphids, mites, thrips, cucumber beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weeds </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. IPM for Indian Tinda <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 yr rotation out of cucurbits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid planting near other cucurbits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support natural populations of lacewings, ladybird beetles, ground beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no registered products in Canada </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Biological Control Agents Lacewings Ladybird beetles Hover flies Ground beetles
  11. 12. Indian Okra <ul><li>Scientific Name : Abelmoschus esculentus </li></ul><ul><li>Common Names: calalou, gumbo, ocra </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Family: Mallow </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: Culinary, Medicinal, Fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Practices: - direct seeding/transplant </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- variety of soil types </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- many varieties; focus on growing area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 50 days (from transplant) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Indian Okra
  13. 14. Indian Okra <ul><li>Pest Complex : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Ontario: unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In U.S: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- flea beetles, cucumber beetles, corn earworm, loopers (foliage and pod feeders) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- fusarium wilt, powdery mildew, nematodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- weeds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. IPM for Indian Okra <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 yr rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not follow crops that are attractive/susceptible to root-knot nematode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crop debris management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of protective coverings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no registered products in Canada </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Indian Karela <ul><li>Scientific Name : Momordica charantia </li></ul><ul><li>Common Names: bitter melon, bitter cucumber, balsam pear, alligator pear, cerasse </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Family: Cucurbit </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: Culinary and medicinal </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Conditions: - warm, humid summers - transplants - trellising - irrigation - pollination - 65-70 days from transplant </li></ul>
  16. 17. Indian Karela
  17. 18. Indian Karela <ul><li>Pest Complex : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>downy mildew, powdery mildew, bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aphids, mites, thrips, cucumber beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weeds </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. IPM for Indian Karela <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 yr rotation away from cucurbits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plant away from other cucurbits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trap crops an option for cucumber beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no specific predators/parasitoids; similar generalists to tinda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use only registered products (herbicide and fungicide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no established thresholds </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Calaloo <ul><li>Scientific Name : Amaranthus gangeticus </li></ul><ul><li>Common Names: Chinese spinach, edible amaranth, bayam </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Family: Amaranth </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: Culinary, Grain </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Conditions: - currently grown in Ontario - muck and mineral soils - seeded in June - 25-50 days to maturity; variety specific - sequentially planted </li></ul>
  20. 21. Calaloo
  21. 22. Calaloo <ul><li>Pest Complex : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tarnished plant bug, flea beetles, leafminers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fungus stem and leaf blights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weeds </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. IPM for Calaloo <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 yr rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grow under cover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generalists (e.g. ground beetle, ladybird beetles etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimize insecticide applications at beginning of season </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no established thresholds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use only registered products </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Choy Sum <ul><li>Scientific Name : Brassica rapa var. parachinensis </li></ul><ul><li>Common Names: Flowering white cabbage, tsoi sim, yu choy sum </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Family: Brassicas </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: Culinary </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Conditions: - currently grown in Ontario - muck and mineral soils - not frost hardy - 40 days to maturity - sequentially planted </li></ul>
  24. 25. Choy Sum
  25. 26. Choy Sum <ul><li>Pest Complex : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anything that likes brassicas, including broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower will feed on choy sum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>caterpillar complex (ICW, DBM, CL), flea beetles, swede midge, thrips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>downy mildew, powdery mildew, alternaria, white rust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weeds </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. IPM for Choy Sum <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 yr rotation out of brassicas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>field selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crop residue management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good weed management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>timing of planting dates (e.g. flea beetle) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generalists and some species specific predators/parasitoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimize insecticide applications at beginning of season; use biological insecticides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>established thresholds on other brassicas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use only registered products </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Oriental Eggplant <ul><li>Scientific Name : Solanum melongena var. esculentum </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: Chinese, Indian, Japanese, Thai </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Family: Solaneceous </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: Culinary and medicinal </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Conditions: - seeds or transplants - support systems - drip irrigation/fertigation - mulches - 58-65 days to maturity </li></ul>
  28. 29. Oriental Eggplant
  29. 30. Oriental Eggplant <ul><li>Pest Complex : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anthracnose, early blight, verticilium wilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado potato beetles, flea beetles, cutworms, tarnished plant bug, European corn borer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weeds </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. IPM for Oriental Eggplant <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 yr rotation out of solaneaceous crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>place plantings away from previous fields and away from corn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crop debris destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimize insecticide applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no established thresholds but scouting is critical to pesticide timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of products (see Pub. 363) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Summary <ul><li>Planning is critical for an effective IPM program </li></ul><ul><li>Take cues from how we grow crops in the same family </li></ul><ul><li>Learn as much as you can before you start </li></ul><ul><li>Become good friends with your seed supplier! </li></ul>