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Alzheimer’s disease ppt

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Alzheimer's Disease - Pathophysiology and Treatment

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Alzheimer’s disease ppt

  1. 1. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND TREATMENT Presented by: Fariha Fatima JR-1 Department of Pharmacology
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION: • Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the commonest progressive, dementing neurodegenerative disease in elderly, which affects innumerable people each year, and these numbers are likely to further increase as the population ages. • In addition to the financial burden of AD on health care system, the disease has powerful emotional impact on caregivers and families of those afflicted.
  3. 3. Aloysius ”Alois” Alzheimer • German psychiatrist • Described symptoms + pathology • Neuronal loss • Plaques • Tangles Cipriani et al. (2011) Neurological Sciences, 32(2), 275-279. 1864-1913
  4. 4. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: • Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions. • This loss results in gross atrophy of the affected regions , including degeneration in the temporal lobe and parietal lobe and parts of frontal cortex and cingulated gyrus.
  5. 5. • The main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease includes: extracellular deposition of ß-amyloid (Aß) plaques, intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. Loss of cortical cholinergic neurones in AD probably accounts for memory impairment.
  6. 6. • Further research, particularly in the genetic domain, led to identification of APP and Presenilin genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2) and mutations in these genes as cause of rare forms of early-onset familial AD. • On other hand, ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been recognized as a major risk factor for late-onset AD.
  7. 7. • Later, insight into the molecular pathogenesis of AD came through many transgenic mouse models and tissue culture studies of AD which led to the proposition of the “amyloid cascade hypothesis”.
  8. 8. • However, there is growing evidence for the role of additional factors such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD.
  9. 9. DIAGNOSIS: • Detailed patient history • Information from family and friends • Laboratory tests like: Rule out vit B12 and folate deficiency Rule out hypothyroidism with TFT tests Blood cell count , serum electrolyte and LFT • Other diagnostic tests: CT, PET or MRI scans may aid diagnosis.
  10. 10. • Currently, clinical diagnosis of AD is based on the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke—Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS–ADRDA) criteria. • As the diagnostic criteria is based on the appearance of clinical symptoms, the time when AD pathology has progressed sufficiently they fail to detect subjects at preclinical stage.
  11. 11. Therefore, there is a growing need for the development of measures which can detect patients at an early stage. Various biomarkers in AD can at least partly serve this purpose. They can detect the patients with AD in their preclinical stage, monitor the disease progression.
  12. 12. TREATMENT: There is NO CURE for Alzheimer’s disease!!!
  13. 13. • Improving symptomatic decline by improving cognitive function, daily activities, and behavior • Current therapy • Arrests the neurodegenerative molecular process • Research needed Primary goals of therapy are:
  14. 14. TARGETS OF DRUG ACTION FOR A.D.
  15. 15. Future of AD Research 1. Symptomatic Treatments: - Nicotinic-receptor Agonists/Antagonists - Serotonin-receptor Agonists/Antagonists 2. Disease-modifying Treatments: - Inhibition of amyloid formation - beta and gamma-secretase inhibitors - Inhibition of abeta aggregation - Tau phosphorylation inhibitors
  16. 16. The “Do-It-Yourself” Approach: - Diet control - Use of exercise - Stress control - Herbal remedies
  17. 17. CONCLUSION: • Cholinergic agents initially improve and transiently maintain cognitive abilities in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. • Cognitive abilities worsen over time, indicating treatment does not stop (but may delay) the progression of AD. • New treatments that maintain cognitive ability and stop the progression of AD are needed .

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