Assignment of cyber crimes for oumh1203

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Assignment of cyber crimes for oumh1203

  1. 1. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011 CYBER CRIMES IN MALAYSIA AND U.S.A WHAT SHOULD WE DO IN MALAYSIA?1.0 INTRODUCTIONCyber crime is entering the main stream of discussion among authorities especially those whoinvolve in law. The vast development in technology obviously has given advantages anddisadvantages to the public generally. This assignment will venture further to the definition andscope of cyber crime, classification of cyber crime, the comparison of cyber crime betweenMalaysia and USA and the suggestions on how to curb the problem.1.1 Definition and scopeCyber crime has gained increased attention because computers have become so central at severalareas of social activities connected to everyday life, including, but not limited to, personal andinstitutional finances, various recordkeeping functions, interpersonal communications, andothers. Because of its widespread accessibility, the advent of the internet has further served tofacilitate predatory personal crimes and property offenses committed with a computer. The U.S.Bureau of Census reports that in 2000, there were 94 million people in the United States whomade use of the internet (Newburger, 2001). This greatly expands both the potential victim andoffender pools for both personal and property crimes.Moreover, the nature of this forum has allowed some potential offenders to move more easilytoward actual criminal behavior because the victims can be depersonalized in the initial stages ofan offense. With the internet, an offender does not have to come face to face with a potentialtarget, which may make it easier for the offender to complete the victimization of the target. Butwhat exactly is “cyber-crime”, and is it distinct from other, more traditional forms of crime? Tobegin answering these questions, it would be helpful to briefly look at the components of crimein general. Traditionally, crime has been defined as an intentional violation of the legal code thatis punishable by the state. Central to this definition is the premise that crime occurs within theboundaries of some physical reference point, that is, a location that constitutes a specific 10
  2. 2. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011jurisdiction. For example, when a conventional case of fraud occurs, one of the importantconsiderations is where the actual offense took place so that questions of the appropriatejurisdiction for prosecution can be addressed. Officials need to know where the victim andoffender came into contact with one another in the perpetration of the offense so thatinvestigative and prosecutorial authority can be determined.However, this component is confounded when cyber crime is committed because the location isno longer a static concept. With the advent of cyberspace, jurisdiction has become much moreproblematic, transcending local, state, and even national boundaries. One needs only look at thevarious e-mail scams that emanate from such locales as Nigeria, the United Kingdom, or Chinato begin to understand how crime is being redefined in the cyber age. An equally confoundingissue has to do with the scope of cyber crime. There is a vast range of illegal behavior that couldbe identified as cyber crime. Consequently, there seems to be a degree of ambiguity about whatis beingdiscussed when the subject of cybercrime is broached. Fraud, technology theft, securitybreaches, identity theft, child pornography, and even stalking all potentially fall within the realmof cyber criminality. Even within the computer community, there seems to be some disagreementabout which kinds of behavior should be classified as criminal.There are some who would argue that certain forms of hacking, where a secure computer systemis breached and perhaps altered, should never be thought of as a criminal act. Advocates for thisposition would maintain that the motivation for these actions is often not malicious and mayeven prove to be beneficial in terms of identifying security shortcomings. Instead, this groupwould rather see a focus on only those cases where sabotage or financial gain is involved (Schell,Dodge and Moutsatos, 2002). Others, including those in law enforcement communities, wouldstrongly disagree with this position, pointing out that the so called harmless events of hackingcollectively cost billions of dollars of damage.Some definitions of cyber-crime are relativelynarrow in focus. In some cases, only hacking behavior would fall under the definition of whatconstituted cyber-criminality. For example, the Council of Europe’s Cybercrime Treaty makesreference to only those offenses that involve damage to data or to copyright and contentinfringements. However, most experts would agree that this definition is much too narrow andneeds to take into account more traditional crimes, such as fraud and stalking, which make use ofcomputers (Gordon and Ford, 2006; Zeviar-Geese, 1997-1998). 10
  3. 3. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011The legal definition of cybercrime used in the United States takes a relatively broad view of thekinds of behavior constituting computer crime. The United States Code proscribes a range ofconduct related to the use of computers in criminal behavior, including conduct relating to theobtaining and communicating of restricted information, the unauthorized accessing ofinformation from financial institutions, the United States government, and “protectedcomputers”; the unauthorized accessing of a government computer, fraud, the damaging of aprotected computer resulting in certain types of specified harm, trafficking in passwords andextortionate threats to cause damage to a “protected computer” (United States Code, Section1030 of title 18). Taking into account the statutory provisions of the United States Code, theFederalBureau of Investigation identifies a number of computer-related crimes that are part oftheir cyber mission,including serious computer intrusions and the spread of malicious code,online sexual predation of minors and child pornography, the theft of U.S. intellectual property,breaches of national security and organized criminal activity engaging in Internet fraud (FederalBureau of Investigation, 2006). Despite the specific identification of offenses, the legaldefinitionof cyber crime tends to read like a grocery list and fails to anticipate future criminalvariations in cyber offending.2.0 CONTENT2.1 Classifications of Cyber CrimesCyber crime can be classified into four major categories as cyber crime against individual, cybercrime against property, cyber crime against organization and cyber crime against society.2.1.1 Cyber Crime Against IndividualEmail spoofing,spamming,cyber defamation, harassment and cyber stalking are examples ofcyber crimes against individual. Email spoofing is a spoofed email is one in which e-mail headeris forged so that mail appears to originate from one source but actually has been sent fromanother source. Then, the crime of spamming means sending multiple copies of unsolicited mailsor mass e-mails such as chain letters. While cyber defamation occurs when defamation takesplace with the help of computers or the internet. For example when someone publishes 10
  4. 4. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011defamatory matter about someone on a website or sends e-mails containing defamatoryinformation. While cyber stalking means following the moves of an individuals activity overinternet. It can be done with the help of many protocols available such at e- mail, chat rooms oruser net groups.2.1.2 Cyber Crime Against PropertyExamples of cyber crime against property are credit card fraud and intellectual property crimes.These include software piracy, illegal copying of program and distribution of copies of software,copyright infringement, trademarks violations and theft of computer source code. In addition,internet time theft. It is the usage of the internet hours by an unauthorized person which isactually paid by another person.2.1.3 Cyber Crime Against OrganizationAn unauthorized accessing of computer which is accessing the computer or network withoutpermission from the owner is one of the instances of this type of cyber crime. It can be of twoforms. The first one is changing or deleting data. While the second form is computer voyeur. It iswhen the criminal reads or copies confidential or proprietary information, but the data is neitherdeleted nor changed. The other example of crime against organization is denial of service. Wheninternet server is flooded with continuous bogus requests so as to denying legitimate users to usethe server or to crash the server. Virus attack is also one of the examples of crime againstorganization. A computer virus is a computer program that can infect other computer programsby modifying them in such a way as to include a (possibly evolved) copy of it. Viruses can befile infecting or affecting boot sector of the computer. Worms, unlike viruses do not need thehost to attach them to. Furthermore, the email bombing in order sending large numbers of mailsto the individual or company or mail servers thereby ultimately are resulting into crashing alsocrime against organization.2.1.4 Cyber Crime Against Society This type of cyber crime includes forgery, cyber terrorism and web jacking. Forgery issomething like currency notes, revenue stamps or mark sheets which can be forged usingcomputers and high quality scanners and printers. While cyber terrorism is the use of computer 10
  5. 5. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011resources to intimidate or coerce others. In the case of web jacking, hackers gain access andcontrol over the website of another, even they change the content of website for fulfillingpolitical objective or for money.2.2 COMPARISON OF CYBER CRIMES IN MALAYSIA AND USACybercrime is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide with more than a million peoplebecoming victims every single day. The victims of cyber crime also paid dearly with a total lossof US$388bil (RM1.21bil) to cyber criminals in 2010according to the Norton Cyber crimeReport 2011. Globally, in 2008, most scammers operated from the United States. The UnitedStates still held a huge lead in active internet users then, a gap that has since closed considerably.According to statistic, in 2008, China and United States each has approximately 200 millioninternet users, and most of the world has grown commensurately. As the user population havegrown abroad, so havetheir scammer populations also increase day by day. Several countriesstand out in 2008 as have disproportionately huge populations of scammers are Nigeria,Romania, the Netherlands and China. Lottery and fake money transfer (AFF)frauds seem to bethe specialty of the Nigerians. The United States still leads in identity theft and phishing orspoofing fraudbased on The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in collaboration with theInternet Crime Complaint Center (IC3).Cyber crimes do not only cost victims financially but emotionally too. However, victims couldhave saved themselves of money and regret as the type of cyber crimes which they have been avictim to be preventable. In Malaysia, the report found that the most common type ofcybercrimes is malware, scams and threats targeted at mobile devices. However many peopletend to underestimate the dangers of online crime thinking that it will happen to everyone elsebut themselves. The survey found that seven out of 10 adults thought they would more likely bea victim of physical crime rather than an online crime. Although Malaysia was not in the list ofcountries studied in the report, national cyberspace police Cybersecurity Malaysia said thefindings are representative of the Malaysian threat landscape. It is the same environment, sowhatever that is happening in the world will definitely affect us the same way. 10
  6. 6. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011Cyber crime causes damage to global economics in billions dollars and many experts think that itis a promptly increasing threat for national security and social well being.In Malaysia, thespecific law that governs the misuse of computer is the Computer Crimes Act. Given theincrease in computer related crimes and computer abuse, the enactment of the Computer CrimesAct was timely to govern and regulate this ‘cyberspace’ activity and impose sanctions forcriminal acts related to it.FIGURE 1.0 Top Ten Countries by Count (Perpetrators)These locations are among the most populous in the country. 1. United States 66.1% 2. United Kingdom 10.5% 3. Nigeria 7.5% 4. Canada 3.1% 5. China 1.6% 6. South Africa 0.7% 7. Ghana 0.6% 10
  7. 7. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011 8. Spain 0.6% 9. Italy 0.5% 10. Romania 0.5%2.3 SUGGESTIONS ON HOW TO CURB CYBER CRIMESCyber crime refers to illegal activities that take place online, including fraud, spam, identitytheft, computer viruses and worms, cyber stalking, drug trafficking, sexual predators, malware orspyware andphishing. There are a lot of ways on how to curb cyber crime. Firstly, we can avoidit by education. As we know, the hackers are not the only ones who can gain power frominformation. By educating ourselves about the types of scams that exist on the internet and howto avert them, we are putting our self one step ahead of the cybercriminals. Since phishing isprevalent, read up on the latest phishing scams and learn how to recognize a phishing attempt.We need to remember that, phishing is when hackers attempt to lure us into revealing personalnew stories, so keep informed on the latest news related scams.Secondly, we can use a firewall. Firewalls monitor traffic between our computer or network andthe internet and serve as a great first line of defense when it comes to keeping intruders out.Make sure to use the firewall that comes with our security software. And if we have a homewireless network, enable the firewall that comes with our router. We need to be careful not toclick on any links in messages from people we do not know. The link could take us to a fakewebsite that asks for our private information, such as user names and passwords, or it coulddownload malware onto our computer. Even if the message is from someone we know, becautious. Some viruses replicate and spread through email, so look for information that indicatesthat the message is legitimate.Then, we also should practice safe surfing. When navigating the web, we need to takeprecautions to avoid phony websites that ask for our personal information and pages that containmalware. Use a search engine to help us navigate to the correct web address since it will correctmisspellings. That way, we would notwind up on a fake page at a commonly misspelled address.We may also want to use a product like McAfee software to help our computer navigate. The site 10
  8. 8. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011advisor software is a free browser tool that tells us if a site is safe or not right in our searchresults, so we are warned before we click. Then, in order to practice safe shopping, we also needto be careful where we shop online. Be cautious when shopping at a site that we have nevervisited before and do a little investigation before we enter into payment information. Mostpeople become victims of these at one time or another, but there are ways to avoid or deal withcyber crime by protecting yourself appropriately.Besides that, we must use comprehensive security software and keep our system updated. Itis because the hackers have a wide variety of ways to access the system and information. So, weneed comprehensive security software that can protect us from all angles. Just make sure that wekeep our security software up to date by selecting the automatic update function on your securitycontrol panel and do not forget to perform regular scans. The other way to prevent cyber crime issecure our wireless network it is because hackers can access data while it is in transit on anunsecured wireless network. We can keep the hackers out by enabling the firewall on our routerand changing the router’s administrator password. The cybercriminals often know the defaultpasswords and they can use them to hack into our network. Then, we may also want to set up ourrouter so, it only allows access to people with passwords that are encrypted. We must check ourowner’s manual for instructions on setting up encryption.In order to protect our system from being the victim of cyber crime, we must use strongpasswords. Although it may be easier for us to remember short passwords that reference ourbirthday, middle name, or pet’s name, these kinds of passwords also make it easy for hackers.Strong passwords can go a long way in helping secure our information, so choose a passwordthat is at least ten characters long and consists of a combination of letters, numbers and specialcharacters. Also consider changing the password periodically to reduce the likelihood of it beingcompromised.Last but not least, use common sense is also a proper way to curb cyber crime. Despite thewarnings, cybercrime is increasing, fueled by common mistakes people make such as respondingto spam and downloading attachments from people they do not know. So, use common sensewhenever we are on the internet. Never post personal information online or share sensitiveinformation such as our social security number and credit card number. Exercise caution whenclicking on any links or downloading any programs. Althoughwe do take some effort, remember 10
  9. 9. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011that there are a lot of resources and tools to help us. And by adopting a few precautions and bestpractices, we can help keep cyber crime from growing.3.0 CONCLUSIONCyber crime means any criminal activity in which a computer or network is the source, tool ortarget or place of crime. Cyber crime comes in many forms, but most of these crimes deal withstolen information. The most common types of cyber crime include identity theft, phishingscams and fraud. It is crimes committed with the use of computers or relating to computers,especially through internet. Crimes involving use of information or usage of electronic means infurtherance of crime are covered under the scope of cyber crime committed against person. It canbe classified into four major categories as cyber crime against individual, cyber crime againstproperty, cyber crime against organization and cyber crime against society, property andgovernment.Therefore we need to take a serious action and a drastic ways in order to curb cyber crime frombecoming more serious like in United States. The United States still leads in identity theft andphishing. We need to make sure that the antivirus, anti malware, and anti spyware programmers tare to be updated from the internet to keep up with newly introduced malicious computerprogrammers. Then, make sure that our system having effective firewalls to keep out maliciousprogrammers from entering into a local or wide area networks. Besides that, the encryptiontechnologies must work well and use a strong password in order to protect our computer.In conclusion, Malaysia, in its bid to be technologically advanced has put into place its variousnational Information Communication and Technology (ICT) projects such as the MultimediaSuper Corridor and the various technology parks to promote the use and development of ICT.Such promotion will result in a widespread use of the Internet and the Internet culture. It issubmitted that Malaysia must have up-to-date laws to effectively deal with the cybercrimes thatcomes along with the Internet. To this end, Malaysia must constantly check and conductmeasurements to determine the use utility of its current laws to combat cybercrime. One cannot 10
  10. 10. Assignment Of Cyber Crimes. OUMH1203.Faridah Husin. 751008035900001. Sem.3. 2011deny that the online environment cannot and will never be rid of cybercrimes due to theInternet’s unique architecture.4.0 REFERENCES The Future Challenges of Cyber Crime: Volume 5; Proceeding of the Future Working Group; Toby Finnie, Tom Petee and John Jarvis, Quantico Virginia 2010. Cybercrimes continue to rise. Retrieved November 7, 2011, from http://www. Apecdoc.org/ site/Malaysia/ 2011 / 09 / 26 / cybercrime Consumer Fraud Reporting Crime Statistics, Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://www. consumer fraud reporting. Org/ internet-scam-statistics. html. Top 10 Steps to Protect Against Cybercrime. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://www. dell. com/ 10 steps to protect against cybercrime_dell_en. pdf. How to Prevent Cyber Crime. Retrieved November 7, 2011, from http://www. ehow. com _4967690_ prevent cyber-crime-html. 10

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