REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES
• They ask you about menstruation.
• Say: that is a state of impurity/pollution (it is a
harmful thing for a husband to ha...
• When they have purified themselves (have
taken a bath) then may go to them as ALLAH
has ordained for you (go unto in any...
• Commencing at puberty and normally
continuing throughout the reproductive
years, human females undergo monthly
reproduct...
• Hypothalamus secretes a hormone-
releasing factor in the hypophyseal
portal system to act on the anterior
lobe of hypoph...
• In circulatory system of animals, a portal
venous system occurs when a capillary
bed drains into another capillary bed
t...
Ovarian Cycle
• The gonadotrophic hormones (FSH and
LH) produce cyclic changes in the ovaries
1. the development of follic...
• Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
induces early development of follicles,
• but
• the final stages of maturation requir...
• Primordial follicles continuously grow into
primary follicles.
• This growth is not dependant on FSH.
• Some of the prim...
• When the tertiary and Graafian follicles
have formed, the granulosa cells and
theca cells produce estrogens.
• These est...
• Lutenizing hormone causes the maturing
follicle to enter into preovulatory phase.
• Primary oocyte completes its meiosis...
• LH simultaneously converts follicular cells
(granulosa cells and theca cells) into
granulosa lutein cells and theca lute...
• Hormonal levels
Ovarian Cycle
Menstrual Cycle
• The cyclic changes occurring in the
endometrium constitute the uterine or
endometrial cycle, commonly re...
Ovarian hormones cause cyclic changes in the structure
of reproductive tract, notably the endometrium. Although
divided in...
Menstrual Phase
• First day of menstruation is counted as the
beginning of the menstrual cycle.
• The functional layer of ...
Proliferative or Follicular Phase
• This phase (days 6 to 14) coincides
with the growth of ovarian follicles
and is contro...
• Basal layer of endometrium starts proliferating,
glands increase in number and length, and
spiral arteries elongate but ...
Secretory or Luteal Phase
• This phase (days 15 to 28) coincides
with the formation of corpus luteum.
• The progesterone s...
• The glands become wide, tortuous, and
saccular.
• The endometrium thickens, partly as a
result of the increased fluid in...
Ischemic or Premenstrual Phase
• If fertilization does not occur, there is
decreasing secretion of hormones,
particularly ...
• It lasts for 1 or 2 days before menstruation
starts.
• The ischemic phase may be considered to
be the last part of the s...
Menstrual Phase
• Toward the end of ischemic phase, the
spiral arteries become constricted for
longer periods.
• Eventuall...
• As small pieces of the endometrium
become detached and pass into the
uterine cavity, the torn ends of the arteries
bleed...
• The remnants of the spongy layer and the
basal layer remain to undergo
regeneration during subsequent
proliferative phas...
Basal body temperature (BBT)
• In women, ovulation causes an increase of
one-quarter to one-half degree Celsius
(one-half ...
• Chart of Basal Body Temperature
• The tendency of a woman to have lower
temperatures before ovulation, and higher
temperatures afterwards, is known as
bip...
• The higher levels of estrogen present during
the pre-ovulatory (follicular) phase of
menstrual cycle lower BBT.
• The hi...
• If pregnancy does not occur, the
disintegration of the corpus luteum
causes a drop in BBT that roughly
coincides with th...
• If pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum
continues to function (and maintain high
BBT) for first trimester of pregnancy.
•...
• Very rarely, the corpus luteum may
form a cyst.
• A corpus luteum cyst will cause BBT
to stay elevated and prevent
menst...
• If pregnancy does not occur, the of menstrual
cycles normally continue until the end of a
woman’s reproductive life, usu...
Cycle
Cycle
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Cycle

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Cycle

  1. 1. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES
  2. 2. • They ask you about menstruation. • Say: that is a state of impurity/pollution (it is a harmful thing for a husband to have sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses), therefore keep away from women (your wives) during menses and do not go unto them till they are clean (from menses).
  3. 3. • When they have purified themselves (have taken a bath) then may go to them as ALLAH has ordained for you (go unto in any manner as long as it is in their vagina). • Truly, ALLAH loves those who turn unto HIM constantly in repentance and loves those who keep themselves pure and clean. • Surah 2. Al-Baqarah. Ayat 222. Para 2.
  4. 4. • Commencing at puberty and normally continuing throughout the reproductive years, human females undergo monthly reproductive (sexual) cycles involving activities of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries, uterus, uterine tubes, vagina, and mammary glands. • These cycles prepare the reproductive system for pregnancy.
  5. 5. • Hypothalamus secretes a hormone- releasing factor in the hypophyseal portal system to act on the anterior lobe of hypophysis (pituitary gland). • This causes cyclic release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland.
  6. 6. • In circulatory system of animals, a portal venous system occurs when a capillary bed drains into another capillary bed through veins, without first going through the heart. • Both capillary beds and the blood vessels that connect them are considered part of the portal venous system.
  7. 7. Ovarian Cycle • The gonadotrophic hormones (FSH and LH) produce cyclic changes in the ovaries 1. the development of follicles, 2. ovulation, and 3. the formation of corpus luteum. • This is called ovarian cycle
  8. 8. • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) induces early development of follicles, • but • the final stages of maturation require Lutenizing Hormone (LH) as well
  9. 9. • Primordial follicles continuously grow into primary follicles. • This growth is not dependant on FSH. • Some of the primary follicles are selected by Allah (SWT) and they grow further under the influence of FSH.
  10. 10. • When the tertiary and Graafian follicles have formed, the granulosa cells and theca cells produce estrogens. • These estrogens are responsible for the increased production of LH from hypophysis cerebri.
  11. 11. • Lutenizing hormone causes the maturing follicle to enter into preovulatory phase. • Primary oocyte completes its meiosis I and enters into meiosis II. • The surge of lutenizing hormone (LH) also causes the rupture of the fully mature Graafian follicle and ovulation.
  12. 12. • LH simultaneously converts follicular cells (granulosa cells and theca cells) into granulosa lutein cells and theca lutein cells. • The process is called luteinization. • These cells produce progesterone. • In fact the remaining follicle is converted into corpus luteum.
  13. 13. • Hormonal levels
  14. 14. Ovarian Cycle
  15. 15. Menstrual Cycle • The cyclic changes occurring in the endometrium constitute the uterine or endometrial cycle, commonly referred to as the menstrual cycle because menstruation is an obvious event in 90 percent of healthy young women. • The length of endometrial cycles ranges between 23 and 35 days. • It is under influence of ovarian hormones.
  16. 16. Ovarian hormones cause cyclic changes in the structure of reproductive tract, notably the endometrium. Although divided into 3 phases for descriptive purposes, it must be stressed that menstrual cycle is a continuous process; each phase gradually passes into the next one.
  17. 17. Menstrual Phase • First day of menstruation is counted as the beginning of the menstrual cycle. • The functional layer of the endometrium is sloughed off and discarded during menstruation, • It typically occurs at 28-day intervals and lasts for three to six days.
  18. 18. Proliferative or Follicular Phase • This phase (days 6 to 14) coincides with the growth of ovarian follicles and is controlled by estrogens secreted by follicular cells.
  19. 19. • Basal layer of endometrium starts proliferating, glands increase in number and length, and spiral arteries elongate but do not reach the surface during this phase. • Early during this phase, a continuous surface epithelium covers the endometrium. • There is 2 to 3 fold increase in the thickness of endometrium during this phase.
  20. 20. Secretory or Luteal Phase • This phase (days 15 to 28) coincides with the formation of corpus luteum. • The progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum stimulates the glandular epithelium to produce a material rich in glycogen.
  21. 21. • The glands become wide, tortuous, and saccular. • The endometrium thickens, partly as a result of the increased fluid in the stroma. • As the spiral arteries grow into the superficial compact layer, they become increasingly coiled.
  22. 22. Ischemic or Premenstrual Phase • If fertilization does not occur, there is decreasing secretion of hormones, particularly progesterone, by the degenerating corpus luteum. • There are vascular changes due to decrease in hormone. Spiral arteries constrict intermittently.
  23. 23. • It lasts for 1 or 2 days before menstruation starts. • The ischemic phase may be considered to be the last part of the secretory phase. • The vascular changes and hormones withdrawal results in stoppage of glandular secretion, a loss of interstitial fluid, and a marked shrinking of the endometrium.
  24. 24. Menstrual Phase • Toward the end of ischemic phase, the spiral arteries become constricted for longer periods. • Eventually, blood begins to seep through the ruptured walls of the spiral arteries into the surrounding stroma. Small pools of blood soon form and break through the endometrial surface, resulting in bleeding into the uterine lumen and the beginning of another menstrual phase/cycle.
  25. 25. • As small pieces of the endometrium become detached and pass into the uterine cavity, the torn ends of the arteries bleed into the uterine cavity, resulting in an average loss of 35 ml of blood. • Eventually, over 3 to 6 days, the entire compact layer and most of the spongy layer are discarded in the menstrual flow.
  26. 26. • The remnants of the spongy layer and the basal layer remain to undergo regeneration during subsequent proliferative phase of the endometrium. • The cyclic activity of the uterus is intimately linked with cyclic changes in the ovary.
  27. 27. Basal body temperature (BBT) • In women, ovulation causes an increase of one-quarter to one-half degree Celsius (one-half to one degree Fahrenheit) in basal body temperature. • Monitoring of BBT is one way of estimating the day of ovulation.
  28. 28. • Chart of Basal Body Temperature
  29. 29. • The tendency of a woman to have lower temperatures before ovulation, and higher temperatures afterwards, is known as biphasic pattern. • Charting of this pattern may be used as a component of fertility awareness.
  30. 30. • The higher levels of estrogen present during the pre-ovulatory (follicular) phase of menstrual cycle lower BBT. • The higher levels of progesterone released by corpus luteum after ovulation raise BBT. • The rise in temperature can most commonly be seen the day after ovulation, but this varies and BBT can only be used to estimate ovulation within a three day range.
  31. 31. • If pregnancy does not occur, the disintegration of the corpus luteum causes a drop in BBT that roughly coincides with the onset of the next menstruation.
  32. 32. • If pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum continues to function (and maintain high BBT) for first trimester of pregnancy. • After first trimester, woman's body temperature drops to her pre-ovulatory normal as placenta takes over functions
  33. 33. • Very rarely, the corpus luteum may form a cyst. • A corpus luteum cyst will cause BBT to stay elevated and prevent menstruation from occurring until it is resolved, which could take weeks or months.
  34. 34. • If pregnancy does not occur, the of menstrual cycles normally continue until the end of a woman’s reproductive life, usually between the ages of 47 and 52 • If pregnancy occurs, the menstrual cycles stop and the endometrium passes into the pregnancy phase. • After pregnancy and birth of baby, the ovarian and menstrual cycles resume after a variable period of time (usually 6 to 10 weeks if the woman is not breast-feeding her baby).

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