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# Flood and Water Scarcity in Jakarta

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### Flood and Water Scarcity in Jakarta

1. 1. Find The Root Problem of Water (Flooding & Scarcity of Raw Water) Fortuga ITB FATCHY.M – June 2013 Jl B mawar 39, Cipete Jak Sel 021-75900389 , fatchy@indosat.net.id
2. 2. JAKARTA PROFILE & FACTS  JKT area = 661 Km2  JKT population ( 2012 ) = 10,1 million people  Rainfall = 2,300 mm/Year ( 2.3 M3/M2/Year )  Need water = 737.3 million M3 / Year  Dry season JKT shortage of water = 10 M3/sec  Amount of rainwater in JKT = 1.5 billion M3 / Year  JKT flooding if rainfall > 40 mm/ 2 hours
3. 3. The Root Problem of JAKARTA • “ Land use change without conservation “ • “ Flood solution always by horizontal drainage method“ • When C (Coef Run Off ) increase in size resulted Q ( Discharge ) it getting bigger after that will be enlarged A ( cross section area ). Q = 0,278 C x i x A Q C I A : Discharge (m3/sec) : Coefisien run off : intensity rainfall (mm) : catchment area ( km2 ) Q=VxA Q : Discharge (m3/sec) V : Velocity (m/sec) A : cross section area ( m2 )
4. 4. Ideal Cycle , The Time of Prabu Siliwangi : year 1.482 – 1.521 Forest Delta Q <<
5. 5. Ideal Cycle , The Time of Prabu Siliwangi : year 1.482 – 1.521 P = SR + I + ( T + E ) Forest & Village Infiltration ( I ) = 73% ~95% 1 I Surface Run Off ( SR ) = 5 % ~ 27% 2 I 3 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Un Con CLAY-1 Confined-1 CLAY-2 Confined-2 5 SR SEA LEVEL
6. 6. Change of Land use – 1 Tea Garden Puncak : Dutch Time, Year 1900
7. 7. Change of Land use – 1 Flood Canal by Prof H van Breen th 1920 Q = 0,278 C I A Q=VxA Tea Garden P Infiltration = 50% ~ 70% 1 I 2 Surface Run Off = 30% ~ 50% I 3 SR Q 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Un Con CLAY-1 Confined-1 CLAY-2 Confined-2 5 SEA LEVEL
8. 8. Change of Land use - 2 Mampang river : mirror of Jakarta July 2006 (100 % Catchment Area 31 Km2 at JKT) Feb 2007
9. 9. Change of Land use - 2 JKT 2013 flooding if rainfall > 40 mm/2 hours Big City • Infiltration = 5% ~ 27% • Surface Run Off = 73% ~ 95% West Canal 1 I “OVERLOAD” 2 East Canal ? 3 Reduce Ground Water 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Un Con CLAY-1 Confined-1 CLAY-2 Confined-2 5 SR Flooding SEA LEVEL RISE
10. 10. SOLUTION for JAKARTA “ Total Conservation “ Change the Paradigm : horizontal drainage  vertical drainage Big City + Conservation • Infiltration = 73% ~ 95% P • Surface Run Off = 5% ~ 27% 1 West & East CANAL 2 People easy To get Ground Water “Light Load” 3 Ground Water Abundant 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Un Con CLAY-1 Confiined-1 CLAY-2 Confined-2 5 Free Flooding SEA LEVEL
11. 11. I. Flood solutions ( North Jakarta ) 1. Muara Baru Dam 2. Pond ( polder system ) 3. Rain Harvesting
12. 12. II. Flood solutions ( South JKT ) : Change the Paradigm : horizontal drainage to vertical drainage 1. Development of Green space (RTH ) to 30 % 2. Development of Blue space ( RTB ) to 12 %. (Waduk/ Danau/ Embung Resapan ) 3. Artificial Recharge ( 3.7 million Sumur Resapan ) by Pemda DKI 60 % and by middle – upper class society 40 % 4. Lower class society ( biopori )
13. 13. III.Parcel Flood Solutions : from Depok, Bogor & Puncak 1. Waduk resapan at “ Old River “ • Location : Angke river, Pesanggrahan river, Grogol river , Krukut river , Ciliwung river , Cipinang river and Sunter river. • Raw water from Waduk Resapan for PDAM Jakarta 2. Vertical deep tunnel > 300 m until Bojongmanik /Klapanunggal formation( Limestone ) , water loss formation.
14. 14. Potential catchment areas Jakarta
15. 15. Vertical Drainage SAMPLE of SUMUR RESAPAN - PEMDA SUMUR RESAPAN CONTROL BOXES ROAD SURFACE
16. 16. Cross section ( Bogor –Jakarta )
17. 17. Engineering Geologic Map of Jakarta Bogor Area Potential sites of “waduk resapan” Raw water from Waduk Resapan for PDAM Jakarta
18. 18. Zero Run Off Program Vertical drainage ( Sumur Resapan ) Kantong Air Sumur resapan Zero Run Off Sumur resapan Sumur resapan Kantong Air
19. 19. Sample of Horizontal Drainage
20. 20. Thank you, arigato gozaimasu, terima kasih.