<ul><ul><ul><li>PENINGKATAN KAPASITAS BAPEDALDA : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pengalaman UNEP-ERP/KLH  </li></ul><...
What do we know of cities? And of urban environments? 1 Bagian
Take any of today's environmental problems faced by the inhabitants of Earth, and its causes and pressures can easily be t...
Effects, impacts,  shortages etc. Problems, causes, lifestyle issues, consumption patterns There is a clear cyclical link ...
Understanding the Scale of Environmental Problems National/ Global City/ Urban Area Community Household
Need for a New Approach <ul><li>How can we (re)define Cities? </li></ul><ul><li>Cities as human settlements and population...
Environmental Dimensions of Urban Areas Resources, processes and effects related to flora and fauna, human beings, mineral...
We should  develop a clear  urban environmental  management  framework 2 Bagian
The Urban Environmental Framework - 1/8 <ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visi...
<ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </l...
<ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </l...
<ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </l...
<ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </l...
<ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </l...
<ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </l...
<ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </l...
Much of the responsibility for urban environmental management lies with  local governments 3 Part
<ul><li>Use global trends to develop the local environment </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships need to be developed among all l...
Community Participation The old paradigm of  ‘ community participation ’  has now expanded to include many new ones …  Exp...
Local Governments World Charter on Local Governments LCA and Eco-Labeling Increased  Capacity Building and  Public adminis...
Urban  Capacity Building Urban  Governance …  for repackaging cities …  for mainstreaming urban management The need of the...
This is where  Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) come in … 4 Part
Key Principles of an Urban EMS <ul><li>Principle 1 - Commitment and policy </li></ul><ul><li>The local government should d...
Inspiration from  ISO 14001 Environmental Policy Planning Implementation and Operation Checking and  Corrective  Action Ma...
The GET Matrix Solid Waste Water Energy Transportation Housing …  Governance Education Technology Actors and actions Manag...
Governance Education Technology The “ G.E.T.” Formula EMS - capacity building - training - information management - educat...
Toolbox of Environmental Action EMS for Cities <ul><li>Provide </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Educate </li></...
External benefits Internal benefits Local Governments Urban Stakeholders (for eg. Developers Businesses Citizens Groups NG...
<ul><li>By putting in place an environmental management system (EMS), cities can effect a substantial saving of everyday r...
External Benefits   <ul><li>An EMS demonstrates a city's 'green face' to its residents and also helps in emphasizing the ...
<ul><li>For many cities 'environment' is simply not a priority  </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits of developing an EMS is not...
<ul><li>Prioritization of environment </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on long-term benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration of g...
So what? How is an EMS actually implemented  on the ground?? 5 Part
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 <ul><li>Reduction of energy use </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of water use </li></ul><ul><li>reduction ...
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 <ul><li>using e-friendly materials </li></ul><ul><li>using  e-friendly equipment </li></ul><ul><li>ac...
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 <ul><li>set ‘green’ guidelines for public works </li></ul><ul><li>set ‘green’ guidelines for housing ...
Local Government Offices Model 1: Single Action Takes only one action, such as electricity/water saving or paper recycling...
Local Government Offices Model 2: ISO 14001 Certification Obtains ISO 14001 certification, but for the city office buildin...
Local Government Offices Model 3: Utilities Certification Each office obtains ISO 14001 certification separately, and ther...
Local Government Offices Model 4: Green Procurement Local governments insist that developers and builders of urban project...
Local Government Offices Model 5: Work with Residents Local governments work with groups such as residents, children, yout...
EMS  Actions Model 6: Link Environmental Actions EMS is frequently linked to, and used as an implementation strategy, for ...
Model X: The full EMS But a ‘real’ EMS is a combination of all the five models, plus other actions and procedures outlined...
Back to basics … Cities are not  the cities that  we know … 6 Part
Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant …  of looking at urban areas as having high population and densities, …  and failing ...
Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant …  of looking at urban areas as pollution sources and consumption sinks,  …  and fail...
Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant …  of looking at urban areas as administrative units with ‘borders,’ …  and failing t...
Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant …  of looking at urban areas as breeding grounds for slums, disease and criminal acti...
Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant …  of looking at urban areas as areas of high ‘quality of life,’ …  and failing to se...
Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant …  of looking at urban areas as A PROBLEM!  …  and failing to see it as  A SOLUTION!  6
Continual learning: Keep yourself updated! 7 Part
Website: http://online.ipdf.org/farhan/ Email: [email_address] [email_address]
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Lesson Learned Capacity Building Phase 1

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Lesson Learned Capacity Building Phase 1

  1. 1. <ul><ul><ul><li>PENINGKATAN KAPASITAS BAPEDALDA : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pengalaman UNEP-ERP/KLH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity Building on Spatial Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Farhan Helmy </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Social Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>School of Decision Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Tokyo Institute of Technology </li></ul>
  2. 2. What do we know of cities? And of urban environments? 1 Bagian
  3. 3. Take any of today's environmental problems faced by the inhabitants of Earth, and its causes and pressures can easily be traced back, directly or indirectly, to urban areas. The forces and processes that constitute 'urban activity' have far-reaching and long-term effects not only on its immediate boundaries, but also on the entire region in which it is positioned. Rethinking Urban Areas
  4. 4. Effects, impacts, shortages etc. Problems, causes, lifestyle issues, consumption patterns There is a clear cyclical link between cities and urban areas on one hand, and global environmental problems on the other … Cause and Effect Cycles
  5. 5. Understanding the Scale of Environmental Problems National/ Global City/ Urban Area Community Household
  6. 6. Need for a New Approach <ul><li>How can we (re)define Cities? </li></ul><ul><li>Cities as human settlements and population concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>Cities as centers of economic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Cities as areas with high quality of life (living and infrastructure) </li></ul><ul><li>Cities as repositories of knowledge, information and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Cities as compact ecosystems </li></ul>There is a clear need for a new, comprehensive and holistic approach
  7. 7. Environmental Dimensions of Urban Areas Resources, processes and effects related to flora and fauna, human beings, minerals, water, land, air, etc Resources, processes and effects related to buildings, housing, roads, railways, electricity, water supply, gas etc. Resources, processes and effects related to human activities, education, health, arts and culture, economic and business activities, heritage - urban lifestyles in general.
  8. 8. We should develop a clear urban environmental management framework 2 Bagian
  9. 9. The Urban Environmental Framework - 1/8 <ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Info Management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>URBAN ENVIRONMENTS Urban Environments pose a challenge for effective distribution and management of global resources
  10. 10. <ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Info Management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>BALANCING ACTS There is a need to strike a balance between natural and built environments and between ecological and economic objectives. The Urban Environmental Framework - 2/8
  11. 11. <ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Info Management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>VISIONING There is a need to develop a structure of goals/visions and a methodology to achieve it in order to identify the action that has to be taken. The Urban Environmental Framework - 3/8
  12. 12. <ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Info Management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>ACTION PLANS Steps need to be taken that are relevant in the short term in order to gain wider acceptability, keeping long term goals in mind. The Urban Environmental Framework - 4/8
  13. 13. <ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Info Management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Access, sharing and dissemination of information has to be a priority to achieve greater understanding of the issues involved The Urban Environmental Framework - 5/8
  14. 14. <ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Info Management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER Collaborative efforts in 'knowledge transfer' at the city-to-city level has to be encouraged, particularly between developed and developing cities. The Urban Environmental Framework - 6/8
  15. 15. <ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Info Management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>SUSTAINABILITY There is a need to understand and enact the concept of sustainable development and sustainable living, in all its varied definitions. The Urban Environmental Framework - 7/8
  16. 16. <ul><li>Urban Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Info Management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>TECHNOLOGY Development of new technologies that are clean, green, and practical has to be encouraged and exchanged between local and city governments to combat environmental problems. The Urban Environmental Framework - 8/8
  17. 17. Much of the responsibility for urban environmental management lies with local governments 3 Part
  18. 18. <ul><li>Use global trends to develop the local environment </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships need to be developed among all local actors </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive knowledge transfer to local stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth and intensive scientific research for policy and project development </li></ul>The Environmental Challenge for Local Governments Within the orbit of the civil society!!
  19. 19. Community Participation The old paradigm of ‘ community participation ’ has now expanded to include many new ones … Expanding Paradigms Informed Consent Public Choice Decision Making Processes Education & Awareness Building Urban Governance Decentralization and Local Autonomy Information Disclosure Capacity Building
  20. 20. Local Governments World Charter on Local Governments LCA and Eco-Labeling Increased Capacity Building and Public administration changes Waste reduction and resource savings E- Tools available to Local Governments Local Agenda 21 Civil society participation and Lifestyle changes Kyoto Protocol Emissions, air pollution etc. Energy saving, natural resource saving, air pollution Urban planning rules and building codes EMS and ISO 14001 Consumption and production changes
  21. 21. Urban Capacity Building Urban Governance … for repackaging cities … for mainstreaming urban management The need of the day ... Urban capacity building is a process that involves value added instruction, the training of trainers, activities with multiplier effects, and networking. It involves both institutional capacity-building, as well as human capacity-building. Urban governance refers to the complex set of values, norms, processes, and institutions by which society manages its development and resolves conflict, formally and informally. It involves the state, but also the civil society.
  22. 22. This is where Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) come in … 4 Part
  23. 23. Key Principles of an Urban EMS <ul><li>Principle 1 - Commitment and policy </li></ul><ul><li>The local government should define its environmental policy and ensure commitment to its EMS. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 2 - Planning </li></ul><ul><li>The local government should formulate a plan to fulfill its environmental policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 3 - Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>For effective implementation the local government needs to develop the capabilities and support mechanisms necessary to achieve its environmental policy and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 4 - Measurement and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>The local government should measure, monitor and evaluate its environmental performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 5 - Review and improvement </li></ul><ul><li>The local government should review and continually improve its EMS. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Inspiration from ISO 14001 Environmental Policy Planning Implementation and Operation Checking and Corrective Action Management Review EMS The ISO 14001 Cycle
  25. 25. The GET Matrix Solid Waste Water Energy Transportation Housing … Governance Education Technology Actors and actions Management Systems Urban Components
  26. 26. Governance Education Technology The “ G.E.T.” Formula EMS - capacity building - training - information management - education and awareness - lifestyle changes ... - network infrastructure - urban design - water - energy - waste management - social services ... - institutional frameworks - laws and legislation - monitoring and evaluation - decision-making - role of civil society …
  27. 27. Toolbox of Environmental Action EMS for Cities <ul><li>Provide </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Educate </li></ul><ul><li>Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Legislate </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul>
  28. 28. External benefits Internal benefits Local Governments Urban Stakeholders (for eg. Developers Businesses Citizens Groups NGOs) In developing an EMS, there are both internal concerns (to the local government) and external concerns (to urban stakeholders)
  29. 29. <ul><li>By putting in place an environmental management system (EMS), cities can effect a substantial saving of everyday resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cities can cut costs due to the review process that identifies overuse or wasteful utilization. </li></ul><ul><li>By having a broad EMS in place, it improves staff commitment and morale, highlighting their contribution to 'saving the earth'. </li></ul><ul><li>The EMS processes calls for a complete review of existing activities and their impacts leading to improved efficiency in operation and better integration in day-to-day activities. </li></ul>Internal Benefits 
  30. 30. External Benefits  <ul><li>An EMS demonstrates a city's 'green face' to its residents and also helps in emphasizing the need for greater environmental action on the part of urban stakeholders at the local level. </li></ul><ul><li>A city's EMS helps in serving as a model for other city and regional governments to emulate and replicate. </li></ul><ul><li>A city government can, from a position of strength, promote EMS replication in other stakeholders in the city, particularly the private sector </li></ul><ul><li>It also emphasizes the concept, 'environmental-action-starts-at-home', where local actions at the grassroots have global implications. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>For many cities 'environment' is simply not a priority </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits of developing an EMS is not clearly understood </li></ul><ul><li>City governments face several political and/or administrative barriers in effectively implementing the commitment under an EMS </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions within the urban planning systems exist in some countries </li></ul><ul><li>EMSs need financial commitment in order to carry out the action </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of appropriate and adequate capacity and technologies </li></ul>But there are barriers! 
  32. 32. <ul><li>Prioritization of environment </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on long-term benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration of global effects of urban living </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of good practices </li></ul><ul><li>Raising awareness for the need for action </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-stakeholder partnerships </li></ul>Prioritized action is needed ! Limitations and Barriers Priority Action
  33. 33. So what? How is an EMS actually implemented on the ground?? 5 Part
  34. 34. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 <ul><li>Reduction of energy use </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of water use </li></ul><ul><li>reduction of solid wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of recycling </li></ul><ul><li>green procurement </li></ul><ul><li>conserving water and clean air </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate control of chemicals </li></ul>Promotion of Eco-Office Developing an EMS for Cities
  35. 35. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 <ul><li>using e-friendly materials </li></ul><ul><li>using e-friendly equipment </li></ul><ul><li>accelerate use of recycled materials </li></ul><ul><li>green public engineering works </li></ul><ul><li>develop green technology </li></ul><ul><li>promote greening </li></ul>Promotion of Eco-Projects Developing an EMS for Cities
  36. 36. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 <ul><li>set ‘green’ guidelines for public works </li></ul><ul><li>set ‘green’ guidelines for housing </li></ul><ul><li>enhance public transportation </li></ul><ul><li>capacity building </li></ul><ul><li>apply EMS to the whole city </li></ul>Green City Planning Developing an EMS for Cities
  37. 37. Local Government Offices Model 1: Single Action Takes only one action, such as electricity/water saving or paper recycling … using the “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle” approach Very Common. Many cities in Australia, Europe and USA have implemented such action Examples
  38. 38. Local Government Offices Model 2: ISO 14001 Certification Obtains ISO 14001 certification, but for the city office buildings only involving all departments of the local government. More than 200 local governments in Japan have obtained ISO 14001 Certification. Examples
  39. 39. Local Government Offices Model 3: Utilities Certification Each office obtains ISO 14001 certification separately, and there is no link to local government or between utilities. Water Utility Elec. Utility Gas Utility Trans- portation York, Canada Honolulu, USA Examples
  40. 40. Local Government Offices Model 4: Green Procurement Local governments insist that developers and builders of urban projects, and suppliers of materials have ISO 14001 certification; Developers and builders Material Suppliers Scotsdale, USA Frankfurt, Germany Heidelburg, Germany Examples
  41. 41. Local Government Offices Model 5: Work with Residents Local governments work with groups such as residents, children, youth, women etc. to implement ‘green action’ through an EMS Residents and Citizens Groups Children and school students Minamata, Sendai and Tokyo in Japan Examples
  42. 42. EMS Actions Model 6: Link Environmental Actions EMS is frequently linked to, and used as an implementation strategy, for other environmental initiatives such as Local Agenda 21. Local Agenda 21 Basic Environment Plan Other E-initiatives Hailton-Wentworth, Canada Huddersfield, UK Examples
  43. 43. Model X: The full EMS But a ‘real’ EMS is a combination of all the five models, plus other actions and procedures outlined in the ISO 14001. Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Together, with other actions, is an EMS!! Manningham, Australia Seattle, USA Penang and Kuching, Malaysia Examples
  44. 44. Back to basics … Cities are not the cities that we know … 6 Part
  45. 45. Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as having high population and densities, … and failing to see that the people themselves as a resource 1
  46. 46. Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as pollution sources and consumption sinks, … and failing to see cities as ‘reservoirs of ideas’ and knowledge. 2
  47. 47. Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as administrative units with ‘borders,’ … and failing to see its impacts on the hinterland and even beyond national boundaries. 3
  48. 48. Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as breeding grounds for slums, disease and criminal activities, … and failing to see the real causes behind these ‘problems’. 4
  49. 49. Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as areas of high ‘quality of life,’ … and failing to see that the real need is for a better lifestyle that is sustainable, equal and fulfilling. 5
  50. 50. Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as A PROBLEM! … and failing to see it as A SOLUTION! 6
  51. 51. Continual learning: Keep yourself updated! 7 Part
  52. 52. Website: http://online.ipdf.org/farhan/ Email: [email_address] [email_address]

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