Green Investment, Innovation and Productivity Vol. 2/2014
• FORUM GRUP DISCUSSIAN
• FORUM GRUP DISCUSSIAN
3 • FORUM GRUP DISCUSSIAN
“Indonesia actually has high potential to utilize degraded land (DL) for
growing crops to develop the bioethanol industry which is crucial to
improving energy independence/ security. Indonesia’s available DL in
convertible forest area for Crop to Energy is around 2.33 million ha
across provinces. Optimum bioethanol production, along with overall
energy efficiency improvement, can reduce Indonesia’s gasoline
import needs, thus maintaining Indonesia’s economic growth.
Indonesia needs to restart and increase its bioethanol production, as
bioethanol is a substitute for gasoline (ICCC, 2014)”.
• EDITORIAL NOTES
In the year of 2014, Indonesia’s future is at a critical juncture. This year is filled with pressures in many areas that influence the future of climate change initiatives. The new administration and political transition will play a critical and strategic role in upholding our national commitment to reduce GHG emissions of 26% by domestic resources and the additional 15% with international support by 2020. Any backpedalling of policy will lead us on the path to un-sustainable economy and Indonesia would be branded as uncommitted to fighting climate change.
Secondly, we cannot be ignorant about the international effort that is working toward the global climate change agreement by 2015. This agreement is key to setting the future agenda that puts an ends to the battle of short-term interest among developed and developing countries. This agreement will also help translate Indonesia’s national emissions reductions contribution into new socio-economic dynamics at home, where a long-term vision and strong foundations are needed to transform the economy towards sustainable low emission development.
Thirdly, there is an interaction between globalization, the advancement of technological capabilities and socio- demographic changes that opens up a new political landscape that needs to rely less on the traditional fossil-fuel and limited sources of energy. By 2030, this changing society will see increasing demands from more than 50 million productive youths that will flood the workforce in Indonesia. This highlights the benefits of tackling climate change now rather than later. There is a hope that once we get through this period Indonesia will agree to support a leadership that steers us into this new, critical direction.
Keeping the interplay of all of the above in mind, this edition of Green Investment and Innovation and Productivity (GIIP) Magazine outlines the importance of climate change leadership of the economy and politics.. We have been listening to many prominent political figures that may be influential in transforming our everyday lives. All believe that climate change ideas should be one of the basic values of public policy development. Internalizing the external cost incurred on any climate change actions to others should be treated as a necessary to protect the public interest. Eminent personalities in this field have stated that the economy of the future can be different to what we have seen and there are many possible paths to the future. A sustainable low emission development pathway could be the best option over the current business-as-usual. Key stakeholders have expressed the importance of sustainable and robust institutional arrangements to cope with global and national political economy dynamics. This is a critical step towards rule-based governance that will lead us to substantive changes in promoting climate change agenda.
I truly believe that we will be going through large scale changes in the coming years. It is an exciting place to be.
Once again, we are honored to share the work of so many
2014: A TESTING PERIOD FOR THE Climate change AGENDA
• EDITORIAL NOTES
committed and thoughtful people. We look forward to our readers’ responses. Feedback may be submitted to our website, www.greeninvestmentindonesia.net. We are open to interesting new material on the topics that we covered. If you let us know, we hope to be able to include your case study in upcoming issues of GIIP Magazine.
We appreciate your support and are delighted to have you as a reader of GIIP Magazine.
With warmest thanks,
Editor in Chief
The 2014 General Elections are getting closer, however up to now there has been no political party which has a clear and detailed vision to address climate change issues.
Institutional climate change needs to be regulated in an act that is more binding and as a foundation for the formulation and implementation of climate change policy in the future.
Green Climate Pathways
Climate Change Laws
Green Climate Insights
Green Climate Champions
53 Book Review
Renewable Energies: Perspectives for a Sustainable Energy Future
Publisher: Federal Republic of German
54 Green Climate Highlights
• Proper: Environmental Safeguard
for Business Acti
vities in Indonesia
• A Report from the Indonesia Green Infrastructure Summit 2014
65 Facts & Figures
69 Network Updates
71 Activity Highlight
Human+Nature Harmony=Social Welfare
Promoting Green Cities
Private Sector Enthusiasm for Low-Carbon Activities at the First JCM Business Forum
Erosion In Tambling Wildlife Nature Conservation A Silent Threat In Paradise
Moekti Handajani Soejachmoen
Shinta Widjaja Kamdani
Green Investment Magazine is joinly published by National Council on Climate Change (DNPI) in cooperation with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Matsushita Gobel Foundation (MGF).
Presidential to lead Indonesia in 2014-2019.
Gedung BPPT I Lt. 16 Jalan M.H. Thamrin 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia
Tel. +62 21 3190 4635
@greenIIP greenIIP, email: greenIIP@ greeninvestmentindonesia.net
Rachmat Witoelar, Agus Tagor, Agus Purnomo, Amanda Katili Niode, Rachmat Gobel, Jusman Syafii Djamal, Atsushi Sasaki, Farhan Helmy (Secretary).
Farhan Helmy, Amanda Katili Niode,
Titi Murni Resdiana, Jun Ichihara, Manami Iida, Ricky Rachmadi.
EDITOR IN CHIEF
Stuart Bruce, Yudhiarma MK, AG Sofyan,
M Rudi Wahyono, Andira, Pristianto,
GRAPHIC DESIGN & PHOTOGRAPHERS
Sugara Adi, Masoed, Aldo.
Alfan Nasrulloh, Fahmi Januar.
Aviana MS Tjokro.
Irmawati Batavia, Jesslyn Tandella, Bramantyo Dewantoputra.
• GREEN CLIMATE PATHWAYS
By Yudhiarma, AG Sofyan, Fairuz Husaini
• GREEN CLIMATE PATHWAYS
The 2014 presidential election has just ended which was won by Joko Widodo ‘’Jokowi’’ and Jusuf Kalla as President and Vice President for 2014-2019 terms. Now, the people are looking towards the new leaders to realize their vision and mission promised during the campaign. Do not let the vision and mission remain as just words.
Related to the issue of climate change, Indonesia currently has a leader who has a strong commitment. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s announcement on Indonesia’s commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26 percent by its own efforts, and 41 percent with international support has proven this.
To achieve that goal, the government adopted the National Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RAN- GRK) in September 2011.
It also requireds each state goverment to develop an action plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the work of formulating these plans has already been completed by provinces.
Among individual sectors, the Programe on Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) is drawing a high level of interest. Progres of REDD+ includes: REDD+ cooperation under an agreement with Norway in May 2010; Task force on REDD+; Moratorium; the National Strategy of REDD+ (2012); and establishment of a new government agency for REDD+ (2013).
Indonesia is lucky compared to Australia. When Tony Abbott was elected as Prime Minister he immediately dissolved the country’s Climate Commission in September 2013, the same month in which he was sworn in. Certainly, we do not expect this to happen in Indonesia.
President-elect Joko Widodo has shown his commitment
• GREEN CLIMATE PATHWAYS
related to the issues of climate change, it canbe seen from his political agenda that he is designing climate change mitigation activities that will not only protect the environment but also support the national economy.
Indirectly, Jokowi and Jusuf Kalla in their vision and mission also offered pro- climate change programs such as in the forestry sector, where they want to preserve forests by preventing and combating illegal logging. They also plan to rehabilitate 100.7 million hectares of degraded forests and barren land. It is an important program given the very important role forests have for the global carbon flow, forests and play a significant role in addressing the dangers of climate change.
Chairperson of the parliamentary Green Economy Caucus Satya Widya Yudha, of Golkar, said that the impacts of climate change have seriously affected Indonesia; moreover, Indonesia is a tropical country and located on the equatorial line where the temperature is increasingly hot.
Ironically, he said, there are still few policies on adaptation to climate change and the awareness of the government, and also the public, about climate change is not yet optimal.
Until now, the budget allocated for adaptation to climate change is small. ‘’From a USD 13 billion fund allocated for the environment, none is for adaptation,’’ he said.
In addition, he added, the regulations made by parliament do not reach the poor, ‘’There should be an identification of problems which involve these people, so they know about and understand the regulations.’’
He referred to research conducted by BBC Media Action in cooperation with the British embassy showing that communication campaigns related to climate change do not reach rural communities.
The survey was carried out across 33,500 people in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Vietnam. The survey also discovered that, from these countries, Indonesians received the least amount of information about climate change.
A major impact of climate change is rising sea levels and, as a result, in some places the sea has covered the land, he said, adding, ‘’We have already lost twenty small islands” .
Climate change, he said, could also influence economic activity. The changes to the wet season cause many difficulties to the farmers growing rice, ‘’As a result, rice productivity is affected, therefore, climate change must be our common concern,’’ he said.
Political Party and Climate Change Issues
The Election Commission, or KPU, has officially decreed that fifteen political parties can contest the 2014 elections, consisting of twelve national parties and three Aceh-based local parties. The national parties are: the National Democratic Party, or Nasdem; the National Awakening Party, or PKB; the Prosperous Justice Party, or PKS; the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, or PDI-P; Golkar Party; the Indonesia Movement Party, or Gerindra; the Democrat Party, or PD; the National Mandate Party, or PAN; the United Development Party, or PPP; the People’s Conscience Party, or Hanura; the Crescent and Star Party, or PBB; and, the Indonesia Justice and Unity Party, or PKPI.
No political party has a clear and detailed vision to address climate change issues although it is a very significant issue. Unfortunately, many parties do not include the climate change issue as part of their agenda, not even in their vision and mission.
Some political parties show their concern about the environment rather than climate change issues. Nasdem, PKS, Golkar, Gerindra and Democrat Party put environmental issues in their manifesto. These political parties consider conservation of both natural resources and the environment important for future generations, and therefore these must be protected from human greed. PKB is the only party which claims to be a ‘green’ party.
Some parties do express concern about the environment, and even place it specifically in their political platform. PKS, for instance, says that environmental management and conservation are part of development. PKS believes that environmental development should be integrated with the development of other sectors in order to achieve the right balance.
Secretary General of Nasdem Party Patrice Rio Capella said his party included environmental issues in its Restoration program, which covers three issues: ideal leadership, people’s lines, and international policy.
Especially for the international policy the program aims to build a new balance in the world to be more peaceful, fairer and protectial to the environment.
Third, restoration of international policy to build a new world balance which is more just, peaceful and protects the environment.
PKB has a more explicit program on environmental issues. The party has an environmental platform, claims to be a ‘green party’, and fights to achieve a balanced ecosystem, natural resources management for all, and prosperity for the future generation.
• GREEN CLIMATE PATHWAYS
Chairperson of the PKB faction in parliament, Marwan Jafar, said that the strategic agenda of PKB is that of a green party, including thorough evaluation of legislative products related to natural resource management, and of both existing and new mining contracts between private companies and the government; and for the sake of the people’s welfare, consistently advocating for groups of people who are the victims of the unfair management of natural resources.
PKB also supports efforts to significantly reduce the use of non-renewable energy by further exploring renewables. The party has also become a pioneer for activities related to land rehabilitation, the rescue of ecosystems, energy efficiency, and it encourages pilot projects for natural resource management based on models of local wisdom, he said.
Golkar Chairperson for Energy and Mineral Resources Unit Aziz Shamsuddin, who is also deputy Chairperson of Parliament’s Commission III said “the party does care about climate change and other environmental issues. What the government has done through the National Council on Climate Change brings much benefit to the nation. Among other things, we are recognised more and more in the international environmental forum.”
Parties such as PAN, PPP, Hanura, PBB and PKPI do not have a clear platform on the environment.
PPP Chairman Suryadharma Ali however said his party supported envirinment & climate change programs the idea to enact laws on climate change.
“The issue of climate change is our common task to save the future of our children and grandchildren,” he said.
The Democrat Party, claimed it has, has a strong commitment to environmental issues, referring to the development concept made by the government.
‘’The party concept is in line with the government concept,”
• GREEN CLIMATE PATHWAYS
said Farhan Effendi. The party concept, he added Democrat Party Division on Policy Strategy Development Farhan Effendi address climate change issues which become a serious challenges which many countries in the world are already responding.
After the legislative elections and prior to presidential elections Indonesia’s political constellation changed following the formation of two major constellations of political parties in terms of their presidential and vice presidential support.
The first camp, the so-called ‘’Red-White Coalition’’ consisted of Golkar, Gerindra, PKS, PAN, PBB, PPP and carried Prabowo Subianto and Hatta Rajasa as presidential and vice presidential candidates.
The second camp is called ‘’People’s Coalition’’ and is supported by PDIP, PKB, Nasdem, Hanura and PKPI, carrying Joko Widodo and Jusuf Kalla as presidential and vice presidential candidates.
Each camp offered a clear vision and mission related to climate change issues. Prabowo-Hatta’s camp, for instance, stated Indonesia will be playing an active role in global climate change mitigation activities, taking into account the country’s situation.
After he is elected as President what is Joko Widodo’s plan related to climate change programs? Is he going to continue the current programs of climate change that President SBY has established?
According to member of Jokowi-JK’s transition team, Faisal Akbar, President-elect Joko Widodo will certainly continue President SBY’s programs related to climate change.
‘’Certainly, we will continue the good programs, improve those that need improving, and make new ones which do not exist yet. We prepare all the best for this nation, “he said.•
Source: Jakarta Globe
• GREEN CLIMATE PATHWAYS
There are many reasons why Indonesia needs a law on climate change. As well as a comprehensive reference for the various adaptation and mitigation actions on climate change, the law becomes an umbrella for a variety of regulations which tend to overlap. The newly elected President and the House of Representatives members are expected to discuss and approve the draft and pass it into law as soon as possible.
The issue of climate change is a long term issue, even up to 100 years. But the threats and the consequences are predictable and can already be felt now. As an archipelago, Indonesia is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. A study by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts Indonesia will experience a temperature rise of 1.8 to 4 degrees Celsius by 2050. The study also says the increase in global temperatures could see average sea levels rise by between 0.18 to 0.59 meters more by the year 2100 compared to 1980-1999.
Climate Change Law
Is in waiting
By Yudhiarma, AG Sofyan
• GREEN CLIMATE PATHWAYS
An analysis made by Indonesia’s National Council on Climate Change (DNPI) demonstrates that with a scenario of the rise of sea level of 50 cm, Indonesia could potentially lose 322,091 hectares, or 4.67% agricultural land area. Furthermore, there are about 40 million Indonesian people living within 10 m of the coastline who are threatened due to the change of the rising sea levels.
In addition, the results of the World Bank research shows that Indonesia will experience an increase in rainfall of 2-3 % per year, which increases the risk of flooding in Indonesia significantly. As a country located within the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area prone to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, Indonesia in terms of geographical and geological factors, has a high level of natural vulnerability.
Certainly, to anticipate those challenges Indonesia requires adequate adaptation and mitigation actions with a long- term dimension. On the other hand, the political system in Indonesia, where a president can only be elected for two terms (or ten years in total), has limitations in realizing long- term commitments in areas such as climate change. This becomes even more relevant, if the existing arrangements and commitment are made only at the level of government regulations. The existence of a piece of legislation that provides certainty and ensures long-term programs, such as those related to climate change, becomes very significant.
Executive Chair of DNPI and the President’s Envoy on Climate Change Rachmat Witoelar said that ideally, for climate change issue, there should be a comprehensive regulatory system that has the highest legal force, namely a law.
“Currently in Indonesia the regulations related to climate change are partial. We should have a law on climate change,” he said in an interview with the team from Green magazine at his office in Jakarta in June.
Executive Director of the Forum for the Environment Abetnego Tarigan supported the efforts of Indonesia as a state that plays an important role in the international forum on climate change negotiations to have a law on climate change.
• GREEN CLIMATE PATHWAYS
“A law on climate change becomes a step forward, because there is a political process involving the executive and legislative. Now, all regulations are conducted by the executive, meaning if the President and ministers are changed, the regulations are also changed,” he said earlier.
The law will give a certainty concerning the vision, mission, strategies, budget, and sustainability of the existence of the related institution, especially to address the challenges on climate change, he said.
Related to the issue of climate change, Indonesia curently has a wide range of regulations set in law, such as Presidential Regulation or “Perpres”, including Perpres No. 61 of 2011 related to the National Action Plan for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases (RAN-GRK). This plan includes 70 programs across a number of sectors such as forest and peat land, waste, agriculture, industry, energy and transport. It is followed by another Perpres No. 71 of 2011 on the national system of greenhouse gas inventory.
Perpres No. 46/2008 covers the establishment of the National Council on Climate Change or “DNPI’’, an institution under the President mandated to coordinate various climate change policies domestically and Indonesia’s a focal point in the climate change negotiations at the international level under the United Nations (the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, or UNFCCC).
There are also other regulations and laws related to climate change such as laws on indigenous peoples, agrarian reform, land use, environment, minerals and coal, national development and others. It is estimated that more than 400 regulations overlap each other, and this lead to disputes.
The existence of a law on climate change will become an umbrella for those various regulations. It will be a comprehensive reference for climate change issues, including the issues for which there is no existing regulations stipulated, such as issues on how to effectively and efficiently formulate climate finance and investment mechanisms which are able to mobilize funding opportunities at the national, bilateral and global levels.
The law on climate change also gives a signal of Indonesia’s strong commitment on climate change and simultaneously opens a wider space for engagement so that all environmental as well as climate friendly activities can be carried out in order to achieve a sustainable development in Indonesia.
Indonesia has shown its strong commitment when President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono announced a national pledge to reduce carbon emissions by 26% with its own efforts, and 41% with international assistance, by 2020.
The law on climate change covers important issues include the national strategy on emissions reduction and the integration of various mitigation and adaptation actions into its development planning. The law also covers mobilisation of resources, strengthening research and development efforts on climate change, integrated aspects of disaster and risk management, capacity building, international cooperation, law enforcement and social education.
Several developed and developing countries have introduced climate change laws as a response to impacts and future economic potential. The European Union, for instance, has a New Energy Efficiency Directive, and Australia enacted the Clean Energy Act 2011. President of United States Barack Obama has issued the so-called President’s Climate Action Plan in 2013 which contains, among others, the country’s preparation for climate change impacts. South Korea has a Framework Act on Low Carbon Green Growth / 2010.
Developing countries also have legislation, such as Colombia and its Low Carbon Development Strategy and National Plan for Climate Change Adaptation, Mexico’s Climate Change General Law, Environmental Law and the General Equilibrium Sustainable Forestry General Law, and China is now drafting a national climate change law Drafting.
Member of Parliament from Comission VII which oversees environmental issues Satya Widya Yudha said that a bill of climate change is not included in the 2014 National Legislation Program (Prolegnas) of the House of Representatives. There are 66 bills included in the program.
“I do not know why; ask the government because the bill is made by the government,’’ he said, adding a bill will probably be deliberated by lawmakers in the 2014-2019 term. •
How about the composition of the next cabinet?
President elect Jokowi has announced the composition 18:16, in which 18 from professionals and 16 from party-based professionals. The composition is not yet final, in fact. However, Jokowihas emphasized on professionalism, meaning they have competency, strong leadership and good track record.
It will be a working cabinet with professional people who can be coming from any party, either political or non- political parties. Isupervise many issues including maritime, agriculture, education, health.
Related to environment and climate change issues, what kind of programs that the coming cabinet will carry out?
Related to the issues, yes, the transition team is working on it, but now it is closed to public unfortunately. We made the recommendations to President-elect as optional policies. Later, after the President has decided then he will announce.
Are there certain programs on the issues concerned as priority?
In general, the issues on environment and climate change get a very serious attention, not only as a political response but the fact is, we are, all human in the universe, facing challenges on the issues that no single country can solve alone, nor certain groups of countries. It requires a very serious and concerted effort. Indonesia has a very strong international commitment on the issues. On the other hand, implementation in the country is still very limited.
Since the beginning President- elect Jokowi wants the issues to be approachedin a holistic manner. There will be a very serious effort to be taken. What kind of efforts, I am sorry, I can’t disclose now. It’s a matter of ethics. He has asked several people to discuss and give recommendations to him in making decisions. It’s unethical if theyare leaked not by him.
You supervise issues on environment and climate change, what do you think about them? How important are they?
Definitely, the issues are very significant. First, it is because they become worldwide humanitarian challenges. Second, Jokowi wants a formulation of new policies, a breakthrough. Therefore, he has asked us specifically to look for these breakthroughs. There are alternative for them, as we recommended.
‘’We want a new formulation of policies, a breakthrough’’
AnisBaswedan on Jokowi’s Environment
and Climate Change programs:
It’s clear that President-elect JokoWidodo ‘’Jokowi’’ has shown his strong commitment on climate change issues given his political agenda saying his wish to improve international co-operations on climate change. Even, he has committed to address climate change issues from economic perspectives rather thanenvironmental ones.
For his coming cabinet, Jokowi has set up a special team so-called Transition Team which formulate his political agenda after he is inaugurated on October 20. The team led by RiniSoemarno, former Trade and Industri Minister with four deputies, namely HastoKristiyanto, PDIP Deputy Secretary General, AndiWidjajanto, defense and foreign affairs expert, Akbar Faisal, NasDem party politician and AnisBaswedan, Paramadina university rector.
Each deputy is supported by working groups consisting experts on respective issues. For issues on climate change, environment, people’s welfare, rural issues, agriculture, maritime and education are under AniesBaswedan’s supervisory.
Anies, also known as Indonesia’s Moslem intellectual answered questions from AgusSofyan and FairuzHusaini from Green Magazine over environment and climate change issues atRumahTransisi (Transitional House) in Menteng area, Central Jakarta as well as at his office in Paramidina University in South Jakarta earlier this month.
By AG Sofyan, Fairuz Husaini & M. Rudy Wahyono
However, again, I can’t disclose now.
You are supported by working groups, how effective are they?
I feel grateful I am supported by professional teams. First team who work as facilitator. They consist of 18 people with various backgrounds. They temporarily quit from their works in the past two months. I contacted Chief Executive Officers of several big companies to send their best people, each company two persons, to help me. They are smart and young people, around 30 year-old. They work as volunteers. They do not work on content of issue as it is handled by experts in the working groups. They question, criticize, and suggest everything done by the working groups.
As for the working groups, they consist of more than 150 experts with various backgrounds related to nine issues under my supervisory. I coordinate them. They will work until end of this month. They have made the recommendations submitted to President-elect Jokowi.
How many recommendations?
Depend on the issues. One issue can be two, three or four recommendations. One issue is different one another. It is optional (recommendation). President-elect Jokowi can choose one. One option has its own consequences.
President SusiloBambangYudhoyono has announced the national commitment to reduce ghg emission to 26% with self efforts and 41% with international assistance in 2020, what will Jokowi do to achieve the target?
I think, it’s better for Jokowi’s government to talk and explain about it. We, the transition team, only prepare recommendations for those who will be appointed as ministers. We do not make a development plan. Do not misunderstand. We just identify things to help those people who will work in the next cabinet. We do not decide who will become a minister, nor their policies in the coming five years.
Let me explain. Our duties are only two. First, to translate the campaign promises to be coming true. How to make those promises real, not in a year or two, but in a month, if possible. Therefore, this team identifies things related to the issues, for instance, who are the right man in the right place. Second, this is a transition from President SBY to President-elect Jokowi. Which programs of SBY need to be continued or not, we give optional views as recommendations. Jokowi will decide.
Will Ministry of Environment be maintained?
As long as I know there is a very serious attention over the environment issues, but how is the posture, until now it has not decided.
What about climate change body like the National Council on Climate Change ‘’DNPI’’ or other related agencies under Presidential institution? What will they be?
There are many such institutions. We have identified around 50 including DNPI, REDD+. They will not be changed simultaneously in October. There will be a process of consolidation. What agency becomes what, I can’t say yet now. How their position in the cabinet, President-elect Jokowi will decide.•
General elections 2014 should emerge better leaders including those who are concerned about environmental and climate change issues. Thus, presidential and legislative candidates, political parties should have a clear and decisive vision to address the issues.
Governance of climate change requires a strong support as well as enggagement from various parties not only government agencies but also other stakeholders. Indonesia over the last five years, under the leadership of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has laid a significant foundation on the the governance of climate change in the government, ranging from the provincial level as well as in the governmental institutions in supporting and responding to climate change issues. In the future, the existing policies and institutions need to be sustained given the climate change commitment has a long-term dimension.
Many countries plan to agree a global deal in the UNFCC’s 21st COP held in Paris in 2015, designed to set global commitments after 2020. Therefore, the next government needs to pay a serious attention to this strategic issue. As President’s Envoy for Climate Change and Executive Director of the National Council on Climate Change Rachmat Witoelar delivers his perspectives about climate change nationally and globally.
Amidst his tight schedules Green Magazine interviewed him at his office at DNPI in Jakarta a few weeks ago.
The 2014 Elections: Hoping for Environmental LeadershipS
Executive Chair of National Council on Climate Change, President’s Special Envoy on Climate Change
The legislative and presidential elections have taken place, what do you expect from the leaders-elect?
First, the 2014 elections are golden opportunities for Indonesian people to determine their fate over the coming five years. And second thing, the threats and dangers of climate change is one of the strategic issues that should never be ignored.
Big floods and other disasters that hit this country prove that climate change is undeniably threatening life of the people. Therefore, both legislative and presidential elections should have an impact on its preventive efforts. Please vote leaders - President and Legislative members - who are concerned about the environment and climate change. DNPI is neutral and stands for all parties for the sake of saving the environment and addressing climate change issue. The most dangerous threat today is not war nor terrorism but climate change. Indonesia needs the right leader who is able to continue President SBY’s efforts related to the issues. .
Climate change’s impacts and threats affected to various aspects of our life. To respond these threats, the approach of development strategy should address all sectors, ranging from food availability to physical infrastructure, which adopt climate change mainstreaming. On the other hand, coordination among sectors remains a weakness of bureaucracy in achieving a comprehensive, effective and efficient development.
We hope the coming leaders, the legislative members and President- elect will be more sensitive to climate change issues and strengthen the existence of DNPI. DNPI has a very important role regarding to sustainable climate change management in Indonesia as well as at the global level.
Nevertheless, the change of leadership in 2014 is quite concerning especially in regarding to the climate change commitment of the new leaders. What if those elected leaders do not tune in, or do not even care with DNPI? If so, then it will be something very detrimental to our future, to be honest.
Why do you think so?
Learning from the experience of other countries, usually once the government is changed, the existence of the climate change body becomes unclear. In Australia, for example, the new government has
removed various policies on climate change namely, the Climate Change Authority, Clean Energy Finance Company, and Domestic Carbon Pricing Scheme. Their national policy has completely changed. I hope it will not happen to Indonesia. If this institution, DNPI, does not continue, meaning we will be back to zero. Where would the funding, already available in 2014, be allocated?
The change in commitment on the reduction of carbon emission also takes place in Japan. In the COP-19 held in Warsaw, Poland, Japan officially announced its commitment from 25 percent in 1990 became 3.8 percent from its 2005’s emissions. Japan was still shocked by the tragedy in its nuclear plant in Fukushima. Japan still seeks opportunities to use nuclear though it may be difficult.
Learning from those experiences in other countries, what are your thoughts for Indonesia in the future?
In fact, ideally there should be a comprehensive legislation on climate change issues, or a law. If we want our existence is globally legitimate, we have to start it from the domestic level first. Now, Indonesia does not have it. . What we have are partial regulations and laws. However, we are in the process. The coordination between related ministries is underway to establish an institutional reference.
Have you talked or approached those parties joining in the 2014 elections?
We did. We approached several candidates informally and we keep doing it more intensively after elections. We conveyed our message that Indonesia must remain committed to climate change issues. We have called on public and eligible voters to vote for figures who have concern on environment and climate change issues.
A country’s commitment to reduce its carbon emissions is very important otherwise the impacts of climate change will threaten the earth and its population.
The United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki Moon has always encouraged all leaders of states and governments to increase their commitments to tackle climate change issues. On September 23rd, 2014, there will be the UN Climate Summit, which is held a day before the UN General Assembly. Indonesia is still consistent with its commitment to reduce carbon emissions by 26 percent with its own efforts, and 41 percent with international assistance, by 2020.
We hope the coming leaders, the elected legislative members and President will be more sensitive to climate change issues in order to strengthen the existence of NCCC
& Remote Sensing Technology Solution
Head of Remote Sensing Data Center of the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (Lapan)
The phenomenon of climate change is usually signalled by weather anomalies, the dry season lasting longer than the rainy season, and hydrometeorological disasters such as droughts and floods, and forest fires, which have repeatedly hit the country. How far can we rely on technology to overcome these problems?
We can rely on technology, for sure. For example, to monitor the amount of carbon in the forestry sector as mitigation against climate change impacts, we can use remote sensing technology. This technology can detect the vulnerability of an area, especially in coastal areas, by monitoring rising sea levels caused by climate change. Moreover, this space-based technology can calculate which islands are going to sink.
This space-based remote sensing technology can anticipate impacts of climate change. These impacts of climate change can be reduced by observing a number of variables, such as sea level rise, deforestation, and the increase of carbon in the air.
So far, Lapan has observed most of the- se variables via satellite with remote sen- sing technology, for example, measuring the rate of forest degradation, the increase in sea water temperature, areas of peat land, and estimations of carbon stocks.
However, Lapan does not have its own satellite. Some countries do, such as the United States, European countries, Japan, China, India and Brazil. They are part of the Global Earth Observation System to Systems (GEOSS).
Only a few people know Lapan has a carbon accounting system, called Indonesia’s National Carbon Accounting System (Incas), used to calculate biomass classification, land cover change analysis, forest disturbance class mapping, carbon stock estimation, and carbon accounting and reporting models.
What kind of technology does Lapan have then?
We have a ground station in Pare- Pare, South Sulawesi, which captures the signals from satellites to obtain data with low, medium and high resolution. For low-resolution data, the frequency to receive data is on a daily basis, for medium resolution within every 30 minutes, and for high- resolution is real time data. Under the new Space Act, this data is distributed freely to ministries, institutions and local government.
The Pare Pare station can cover the whole country, but not the rest of the world. The geographical position of
Environmental crises continue to occur, and have worsened in recent years. Global warming, the extinction of species, prolonged drought, water scarcity, environmental pollution, air pollution, and forest fires are environmental problems that could destroy human civilization sooner or later.
Technology can be a solution. Mitigation of climate change impacts can be helped by remote sensing that observes rising sea levels, deforestation, and the increase of carbon in the air. The Green Magazine recently interviewed in Jakarta the Head of the Remote Sensing Data Center of the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space Agency (Lapan), Orbita Roswintiarti.
Indonesia, positioned on the equator line, makes us independent in terms of outer space.
The incoming data will be directly input to a system called the National Spatial Data Network. However, sometimes not all data obtained is clear because of weather factors such as cloud cover. If the sky is cloudy, we have to repeat the next recording. Lapan plans to open a new ground station in Rumpin, Bogor. Besides that, software development is also underway.
Can you explain what are the duties of Lapan?
Lapan’s duty, amongst other things, is to provide high-resolution satellite remote sensing data under license to the Indonesian government and to improve the capacity and operation of the data acquisition system.
We also provide data through radiometric and spectral corrections, create metadata from the incoming data based on national standards, store the data, and, together with the Geospatial Information Agency, quality control the data.
For activities related to remote sensing, Lapan’s duties are to plan, build and operate satellites and remote sensing ground stations; the procurement of high-resolution remote sensing data; the preparation of standard methods and quality of data processing; and to organize the storage and distribution of data through the National Sensing Data Bank, as input to the National Spatial Data network. Lapan has also established guidelines for the use and dissemination of remote sensing information.
Does Lapan co-operate with other Institutions?
So far we have co-operation with certain government institutions such as the Presidential Work Unit for Development Monitoring and Control (UKP4) on the provision and use of remote sensing data to support the decision support system in Bina Graha on March 2, 2012. In addition, it also supports the decision support system in Bina Graha.
We have a role to remind the public of the urgency of climate change education, and to do that we have worked a number of times with the National Council on Climate Change to organize the Climate Change Education Forum & Expo. •
INDONESIA’S ROLES IN PROMOTING INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION
Moekti Handajani Soejachmoen
Secretary Working Group on International NegotiationS of the National Council on Climate Change
With the existence of the National Council for Climate Change (NCCC), Indonesia’s role is increasingly recognized and more effective in battling environmental issues in international for a. Moreover, Indonesia successfully hosted a global event, the COP-13 United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Nusa Dua, Bali, on 3-14 December 2007.
The various negotiating steps taken by Indonesia have made the country one of the pillars that has strengthened the bargaining position of developing countries toward future climate agreement applicable to all countries.
You are known to be quite vocal in battling for the aspirations of developing countries when dealing with developed countries? Can you tell me about your experiences engaging in such international for a?
What do you feel these days? Alternating heat waves and rain? That the seasons do not follow the plot any longer? This phenomenon is a general picture of climate change impacts. It does not happen only in Indonesia, but around the world. Given these impacts, which affect all mankind on earth, it is not wrong to say that the discussion about efforts to tackle climate change cannot be left to one or two countries alone. It has to be a common obligation.
That’s why every year all countries in the world gather to discuss climate change. Sponsored by the UNFCCC, this international gathering is called the Conference of the Parties (COP), and is held to discuss and figure out the best solution to overcome climate change impacts. Besides the COP, there is another annual event called the Kyoto Protocol.
These two global meetings aim to discuss and evaluate the implementations of commitments that were the result of previous meetings, as well as unveiling new agreements.
For instance, COP-17 in Durban, South Africa, resulted in the Durban Platform. There were two major agreements; first, the extension of the mandate of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG- LCA), and second, the establishment of a new agency called the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform (AWG-DP) .
The AWG-DP is mandated to agree a multilateral climate change framework with two main options, namely to form a new protocol, or through another legal format which will have legal certainty following the end of the second commitment of the Kyoto Protocol.
COP-17 in Durban also agreed an extension of the term of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol/AWG- KP which, among other things, means the agreement of a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol from 2013 to either 2017 or 2020. Indonesia welcomes the outcome of COP-17. The Durban Platform is legally binding, particularly for developed countries’ commitments on climate change.
Any other experiences?
We hosted COP-13 in Bali in 2007.
Later, at COP-19 held in Warsaw, Poland, Indonesia through the NCCC maintained its commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26%.
The Japanese government officially announced a change to its emission reduction commitment from 25% to 3.8%. Australia has removed a number of its climate change policies such as the Climate Change Authority, the Clean Energy Finance Company, and its Domestic Carbon Pricing Scheme. As responsible citizens of the world, we uphold our commitment to emissions reductions.
The estimation of greenhouse gas emissions in Indonesia in 2005 was 2.1 gigatonnes (gt). Indonesia has committed to reducing carbon emissions by 26% by 2020, or approximately 0.767 gt. Around 78% of the 26% commitment belongs to the Ministry of Forestry which is making progress to reduce deforestation.
Indonesia, through the Ministry of Transport, has received international funding assistance to build an environmentally friendly mass transportation system called Sustainable Urban Transport Initiative-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action/SUTRI NAMA. The UK and Germany are the donor countries.
Besides Indonesia, other countries including Chile, Costa Rica and Colombia also received international assistance. Indonesia and Colombia are the first parties to receive such international assistance for activities in the transportation sector.
Four important decisions emerged from COP-19 in Warsaw. First, the financing issues around climate change will be directly mobilized in the developed countries in order to increase climate control actions in developing countries; second, the demand from developing countries regarding a loss and damage mechanism related to climate change; third, technical issues around REDD+; and fourth, funding assistance to cover monitoring and reporting. These stages all lead towards COP-21 to be held in 2015 in Paris.
The UNFCCC parties have agreed to adopt, at COP21, a protocol or other instrument which is legally binding and applicable to all parties as the basis for a new global framework to deal with post-2020 climate change issues. The draft post-2020 agreement will be formulated at COP 20 to be held in Lima, Peru, in 2014.
What is the meaning of your struggle and the Indonesian delegation’s struggle, through for this country in particular, and developing countries in general?
The discussion on the legal form of the climate change deal cannot be separated from the fact that some UNFCCC members are developing countries which have experienced rapid economic and political growth in the last decade. As a consequence, the emission levels in these countries have increased significantly, some even
beyond the standard of greenhouse gas emissions of some Annex I (developed country) members.
In addition, the IPCC report warns that greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere must be reduced significantly by 2020, and these GHG emissions in the atmosphere stabilized after 2020, in order to avoid disaster due to an average temperature rise above two degrees. How these dynamics and trends can be reflected in the ambition to reduce emissions both pre-2020 and post-2020 will remain one of the major issues within the climate change negotiations until 2015.
Changes in the direction and demands of the negotiations affects Indonesia and other countries like Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Mexico, which are all experiencing rapid economic growth, as well as an increase in GHG emissions. Compared to many other developing countries, Indonesia has more advanced thinking on climate change. Besides giving birth to the Bali Action Plan, Indonesia was the first developing country to pledge a commitment to voluntarily reduce emissions, by as much as 26%.
COP-19 in Warsaw mainly talked about the increase of pre-2020 ambition, and the post-2020 framework. As one of the developing countries considered as having an important role in climate change negotiations, the position and role of Indonesia to these two different periods, pre- 2020 and post-2020, is interesting to follow and discuss.
Can you explain about the role of Indonesia?
The urgency of Indonesia’s position and role is not only for the negotiations but also for the domestic implementation of its international commitments. This shows that Indonesia has intensified its contribution and its role in the climate change negotiations.
With current conditions, where our rapid economic growth will bring Indonesia to the point where we will be required to participate actively, it is important for this country to be able to determine our long term target and type of participation, especially post- 2020. It has to be considered carefully, given that the new treaty to be imposed after 2020 will be applicable to all parties. Therefore, it is important for Indonesia to start thinking about our target and the type of long-term participation in climate change issues.
And what is your suggestion?
For adaptation issues, Indonesia requires recognition for all the efforts we have undertaken, and how to get access to allow us to take even bigger actions.
Certainty on the access concerned also applies to components of the means of implementation, including funding, technology and capacity building. What we have fought for at the international level should be in line with our domestic preparedness, in anticipation that those international scenarios will favour Indonesia. We need legislation to regulate climate change control, so that any international assistance received by Indonesia is accountable.
Now for domestic issues, we will be in a transitional period of power due to the 2014 elections. Do you think this situation will affect climate change mitigation efforts?
Of course it will, because we will enter into a transitional period leading to a newly elected leadership. Our expectation to immediately have an act on Climate Change will also be delayed. We hope the incoming elected parliament and president will be seriously committed to environmental issues.
The fact is, our government will continue to face challenges in how to tackle climate change. At the same time, the government must ensure the right conditions for sustainable economic growth. There will a number of challenges, such as the decline in the quantity and quality of resources, unprecedented climate change impacts, and institutions incapable of respon- ding to these climate change issues. Meanwhile, efforts to address climate change issues are very complicated. It requires a strong will and skill to make good decisions.
In addition, there is also an idea to increase the status of the NCCC to become an agency instead of a council, to provide it with more authority in climate change mitigation efforts.•
The Government Plays a Key Role
By AG Sofyan
Shinta Widjaja Kamdani
The Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Deputy Chairwoman for environment and Climate Change
Climate change has impacted on many sectors. The business world is no exception. Tough competition is inevitable due to the increasing depletion of natural resources, as raw material production around the world is not expanding. The Living Planet Report shows that mankind is consuming resources at a rate up to 1.5 times faster than the earth’s ability to regenerate these resources.
The Living Planet Report is a biennial report on the health condition of the earth. The report shows that the increase in world population has automatically pushed demand for natural resources higher, causing tremendous pressures on biodiversity and impacting on the health, welfare and safety of the future inhabitants of the earth.
The report is launched at the International Space Station, in particular by Dutch astronaut André Kuipers, who gives his unique perspective on the planet’s condition. “We only have one earth. From up here I can see the ecological footprints left by humans such as forest fires, water pollution and erosion - all are challenges summarized in the Living Planet Report,” said Kuipers.
“Despite ongoing environmental destruction, we still have a chance to save the earth, not only for the sake of our current benefit but also for future generations,” said Kuipers.
The Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, through its deputy chairwoman for Environment, Climate Change and Sustainable Development Shinta Widjaja Kamdani, pays attention to the Living Planet Report. She highlights the specific item stating that the depletion of Earth’s resources is 50% greater than the earth’s ability to provide sustainably, and this will have a major impact in the future.
“If we do not stop and change our way of life from now on, let’s see what is going to happen in the next two decades; even two planets would not be able to meet our needs,” she is quoted as saying. The Living Planet Report also analyzes the impact of population growth, suggesting that over-consumption places massive pressure on the environment.
“The Living Planet Report is a kind of medical check-up for the earth, and the result indicates that our planet is very sick now,” said Jonathan Baille, Conservation Program Director of the Zoological Society of London. “Ignoring this diagnosis will bring a very big impact for humanity. We can restore the health of the Earth by reviewing the root of problems, namely high population growth and excessive consumption,” he added.
For Indonesia, Shinta said, a climate change act is required to respond to the various challenges and dynamics of climate change at the national, regional and global level. In fact, she added, Indonesia should have passed such an act soon after the country declared its commitment to tackle climate change in 2009.
Legislation on climate change will be successful if the government has good coordination, especially regarding the act’s implementation. “But do not create legislation which becomes a new reference and thus complicates business competition in Indonesia or even globally,” she said
Shinta, who is also chief executive officer of the Synthesis Group, said it will require a stronger commitment from the government if it is to achieve its target of reducing emissions by 26% by 2020. She expressed her concerns that the achievement of the target has no long-term foundation.
“The commitment seems to have no long-term foundation, nor any decent effort to achieve the target,’’ she said, adding that it is, however, not just the fault of the government.
Instead of pointing the finger at anyone, she prefers to approach all parties to solve the issue together through concrete actions. “If we do not have that foundation, let’s make it. Better late, than do nothing. The key is good coordination between related ministries in elaborating technical things related to emissions reduction targets.” she said, adding that currently initiatives mostly came from non-governmental parties.
According to Shinta, who also serves as the President of the Indonesia Business Council for Sustainable Development, the 2014 leadership succession will not affect Indonesia’s long-term commitment on climate change. ‘’Whoever will be the new leader, he or she must commit to protect Indonesia from environmental damage,’’ she said.
The coming elections should produce figureheads who have a clear vision and a platform on environmental issues and climate change. “In fact, there is still a concern that many candidates are trying to answer that vision, not because they think it is necessary, but rather to satisfy the public’s desire. Commitment is the key. If the current government has a strong strategy, then the next cabinet will learn faster,” she said.
When asked about the challenges faced by business people related to environmental issues, she admitted that fierce competition is inevitably unavoidable due to the decreasing availability of raw material sources.
“Business people will obviously be concerned about the challenges posed by climate change, because it will determine their business and investment in the future. They will do their best to secure their assets in which they have invested for so many years. Now the question is, why is it so difficult for the
government to concretely support this concept of sustainability? In fact, this country has numerous and valuable assets compared to other countries,’’ she said.
The best thing the government can do is to formulate an environmental balance, to measure the value of the assets we own and the size of the responsibility needed to secure them. “We have to move quickly, otherwise we have no competitiveness in global competition,” she said.
So-called green initiatives have actually developed among the younger generation, given the increasingly broad access to information, either from media reports or social media, she asserted.
“However, daily application that reflects green awareness is still relatively low. I even think the media is not quite ready to report about the ‘green initiative’, therefore this issue is not so popular. The media should also be aware of the issues in a balanced way, not just quoting parties voicing certain interests. The media should be part of the educated civil society in encouraging a significant change,” she said.•
She also said that currently business community in Indonesia has seen a big opportunity for a green investment.
“We appreciate the support given by the government to encourage business people to take this chance,” she said.
On the other hand, Indonesia has also opened the way in finding a solution for a profitable green investment by among others sponsoring a meeting between Agriculture Ministry, Delegation from European Union for Indonesia, Department of International Development of the United Kingdom, and Indonesia-based World Wild Fund to formulate proper incentives that contribute to address economy, environment and climate changes issues, she said.
One example, she added quoting Deputy Minister of Agriculture Rusman Heriawan as saying that sustainable agriculture has become the main priority for Indonesia now. The government regulation No. 12/2012 issued on January 9, 2011 on the incentives for Protection of Sustainable Agricultural Land for Food underlines the strong commitment of the government to make the agricultural sector as major frontline to achieve its commitment to achieve a sustainable development in Indonesia. The government of Indonesia also puts priority in supporting the sustainable agriculture and investment models especially for for small farmers in rural areas.•
Shinta Kamdani with Garuda Indonesia President Director Emirsyah Satar and BNI Deputy Director Felia Salim at IBCSD, Jakarta.
If we do not stop and change our way of life from now on, let’s see what is going to happen in the next two decades, even two planets would not be able to meet our needs
Shinta Widjaja Kamdani is the owner and CEO of the Synthesis Group, a multi-sector company in Indonesia which has several subsidiaries dealing with consumer and industrial products, property and energy.
Shinta is actively involved in, and leads, many charitable organizations and businesses related to environment, community and businesses in Indonesia. She is a founder of the Global Entrepreneurship Program Indonesia; chairwoman of the Indonesian Employers Association (APINDO), President of the Indonesian Business Council for Sustainable Development (IBCSD); Chairperson of Women in Network; Chairwoman of the Young Presidents Organization ‘(YPO); Member of the Executive Board of the Indonesia World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF-Indonesia); and a member of both the Indonesian Aids Foundation (YAI) and Indonesian Business Coalition on AIDS (IBCA).
Shinta graduated from Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, in 1989 and from Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA in 2002. She has been the recipient of many awards, including from the Asian Business Leadership Forum in Abu Dhabi in 2012; FORBES in 2012 as one of Asia’s 50 Most Powerful Businesswomen; Indonesia Women’s Award for Private Sector for Manufacturing in 2012; Asia’s Leading Businesswoman of the Year Award in 2013; and Women In Leadership Forum.
• GREEN INDUSTRY
Are We Ready For
A Green Industry?
By AG. Sofyan
Success in economic development should be balanced with environmental conditions. The existing natural resources that Indonesia possesses have huge potential to produce eco- products within the framework of a green industry. Some ideas come up to drive its acceleration. On the other hand there is a desire for a standard of green industry which is in accordance with the conditions in Indonesia.
• GREEN INDUSTRY
Currently, Indonesia is facing a critical phase in its political life due to a change of administration in 2014. In this transitional period, there are also new challenges to achieve high economic growth while simultaneously increasing efforts to reduce carbon.
Indonesia has to deal with the growing demand for developing a so-called eco / green product which has become a strategic and important issue of global economic competitiveness. Global trends are leading towards eco-product markets and this can be good opportunity for Indonesia. Therefore, a variety of supporting instruments - such as technology and policies - to achieve a green industry are increasingly significant for improving the nation’s competitiveness.
Indonesia has huge potential in its diversity of natural resources; a very profitable potential that must be used optimally to meet the demands of global markets. In addition, developing eco-products will not only boost Indonesia’s exports, but also can be a stronghold for its national economy when dealing with imported products that are increasingly penetrating the domestic market.
Green investment becomes one of the real solutions in the efforts to develop eco-products. It must be done immediately. Many believe green investment will provide and strengthen goals that give benefits to people, especially when associated with issues on climate change.
Also, green investment can provide an answer to help Indonesia overcome major obstacles to its economic growth. At the same time, it supports the Government of Indonesia’s commitment to achieve low-carbon, sustainable development since green investment is able to create new markets for goods, services and labor.
Head of the Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) Mahendra Siregar said that significant green investment is needed in order to ensure an institutional transformation to oversee higher economic growth.
“In terms of green investment, of course, there is a process to be passed to meet the regulatory provisions, ranging from obtaining permits to approvals from various institutions, both central and local government,” he said in an interview with Green magazine team at his office in Jakarta in June.
The process, he added, from time to time should become simpler, quicker, and more transparent and accountable. Another thing related to green investment is structural issues, especially around the condition of infrastructure in Indonesia which is still not optimal. Besides reforms in Indonesia’s legal conditions, law enforcement should be well considered. In addition, we should not forget simultaneous efforts to improve matters related to the green industry and the response to climate change.
‘’The key to success in addressing the issues of climate change - which very complex - is strong political will and responsive and accomodating policies, especially in terms of the implementation of global commitments. In this case, the government has a strong commitment on it,’’ he said, referring to the Indonesian government’s commitment to reduce carbon emissions by 26 percent by 2020 with its own efforts and 41 percent with international assistance.
This commitment shows Indonesia has a strong commitment to achieve economic development with a green paradigm or a green economy, he said.
The Government has been, and continues to, facilitate conducive conditions to respond to climate change challenges, including ensuring that greenhouse gas emissions are reducing, he said.
“In terms of policies and regulations, we at BKPM have already put in effort to this. However, these efforts should not depend on the government alone, but all parties, to achieve a common goal: sustainable economic growth, “he said.
Mahendra pointed out some challenges regarding responses to climate change issues, namely the lack of the quantity and quality of resources as well as anticipation from all parties regarding the impacts of climate change which are unprecedented. “Even the government also noted that existing institutions are less active in responding to climate change issues,” he said.
Meanwhile, Chairman of the Indonesian Renewable Economic Community (METI) and Deputy Chairman of the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kadin) Rachmat Gobel identifies at least four challenges in relation to green industry development. First, the dynamics of the present and the future will be shaped by an intensive and massive interaction between technology , the dynamics of globalization, demographic changes, changes in society and the availability of energy resources.
Second, the demographic challenge. Currently, the world’s population is more than 7 billion people. Indonesia’s population alone is approaching 240 million and is expected to peak in 2030, when more than 50 million new members of the productive age group will need jobs.
“The reality shows a major challenge in fulfilling not only our substantial needs, but looking for a pattern of development
• GREEN INDUSTRY
which is environmentally sustainable and also gives significant value added,” he said.
Third, the challenge of energy supply. In the short term, there is not much expectation of a drastical change of policy on fossil fuel dependency, whether on its supply or demand.
“The use of new and renewable energy still has many policy and implementation obstacles, despite the richness and diversity of Indonesia’s natural resources. Budget inefficiency for a subsidy of more than 200 trillion per year, or about 10 percent of the total budget, for fuel shows the importance of a fundamental adjustment in its energy policy, “ he said.
Fourth, climate change issues. Development which is not low- emission is projected to increase emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere from 1.6 to 2.6 Gton CO2e between 2010 and 2030. In 2030, more than 40% will come from the energy sector (DNPI, 2014). Therefore, a consistency in the policy to reduce emissions by 26% by our own efforts, and 41% with international support, by 2020, should continue and become the foundation for low-carbon development policies, he said.
‘’These challenges show the importance for a national comprehensive policy on energy. It’s a signal for a long-term commitment which is able to mobilize resources in support of the transformation towards a green economy, “he said.
According to Rachmat, who is also President Director of PT Gobel International, Green Industry has a vision to encourage a sustainable pattern of production and consumption, where the use of materials and energy resources is conducted in an efficient, low-emission and environmentally friendly way, with an unbroken recycling process. This potential is developing the industry to respond to new innovations and breakthroughs for an environment and climate friendly industry.
Based on these challenges, he proposed some strategic ideas could be learnt by looking at the experience of other countries. A proposal to build 10 eco-industrial estates would apply an intergrated chain in terms of policy, management, application of green technology and interaction among industrial actors and the local government.
These integrated industrial estates can be a driving force for the growth of a wide range of mobility of environmentally friendly goods and services that will meet the supply and demand within and outside of the territory. On the other hand, the green industrial estate can be an example for implementing the One Map policy to resolve issues of space allocation and licensing, which are often overlapping.
Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) are a strategic target when developing green industry, in particular because of limited access to financial resources and technical capacity that will result in impacts to the environment and environmentally unfriendly goods and services.
Infrastructure support from the government - including policies, regulations and incentives - will encourage SMEs and finally green industry, he said.
Chairman of the Association of Indonesian Employers (APINDO) Sofjan Wanandi said that green industry in Indonesia should not merely refer to those practiced in developed countries, which are sometimes not suitable with the conditions in Indonesia.
‘’If we want to improve our competitiveness, the government should use green industry standards similar to those in competitor countries. If the standard is too high, there will be no industry in Indonesia that can pass the requirements and be awarded the title of green industry,’’ he said in a discussion on ‘’Building Green Industry’’ held earlier in Jakarta.
Amidst fierce global competition, each country sometimes has standards that could potentially interfere with other countries’ trade, he said citing Indonesia’s industries in rubber, pulp and paper which were disrupted by ‘’green industry’’ issues.•
Head of Investment Coordinating Board
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
Joint Crediting Mechanism, a low-carbon growth partnership between Indonesia and Japan
By Ratu Keni Atika and Aryanie Amellina, Indonesia JCM Secretariat and Jun Ichihara, JICA
After three years of discussion, the governments of Indonesia and Japan finally agreed to establish a low carbon growth partnership under the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) scheme. The bilateral agreement was signed in August 2013 in Jakarta by Indonesia’s Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs Hatta Rajasa and Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs Fumio Kishida.
The JCM scheme aims to promote investment and deployment of low carbon technologies, products, systems, services and infrastructure in order to achieve low-carbon growth in Indonesia. It is expected to encourage the Japanese private sector to invest in Indonesia, particularly in low-carbon growth activities through incentives provided by the Government of Japan. As a climate change mitigation mechanism, JCM also aims to support fulfilment of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets of both countries. Carbon credits are issued based on the measured amount of GHG emission reductions under the JCM projects that will be shared by the two countries (See Figure 1).
Figure 1. JCM Bbasic Cconcept
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
Currently, JCM is in its early stage and still operating as a non-tradable credit type mechanism. Later, it is expected to produce tradable credits. . Although the JCM was developed by referring to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), it is intended to be more simple, practical and flexible while ensuring transparency, credibility and environmental integrity by applying measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) methodologies.
To make the JCM program work effectively, the governments of Japan and Indonesia have established a Joint Committee, chaired by two co-chairs representing each country. As a decision-making body, the main tasks of the committee are to develop JCM rules and guidelines, register JCM projects, monitor the implementation of JCM, and agree on credit issuance.
The Committee also approves JCM methodologies. These methodologies must be used as reference to calculate the real GHG emissions reduction from related JCM projects and to prepare the project design document (PDD). As of June 2014, the Joint Committee has approved one methodology for power generation by waste heat recovery in the cement industry.
In its first meeting held in October 2013, the Joint Committee adopted the JCM Rules and Guidelines including JCM Rules of Implementation and JCM Project Cycle Procedure. All documents are available on JCM Indonesia website (www.jcmindonesia. com).
The Joint Committee also designates third-party entities that are responsible for project design validation and GHG emissions reduction verification. Currently there are six third- party entities in Indonesia designated by the Joint Committee, most of them Japanese. However, the third-party entities who conduct validation and verification of JCM projects in Indonesia should include Indonesian personnel in their team in order to facilitate and support Indonesian entities.
The Joint Committee has two secretariats established both in Jakarta and Tokyo to support technical work.
So far, Indonesia is the only country among 12 JCM host countries which has a national-level secretariat. The Indonesia JCM Secretariat was established by the Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs to assist in project monitoring and evaluation, methodology preparation, assessment of new activities, and develop technical instruments, among others. The Coordinating Ministry cooperates with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in the Secretariat activities and several policy assessments and studies under the technical cooperation project.
The Indonesia-based JCM Secretariat also facilitates project participants to perform project-based capacity building, establishment and maintenance of registry developed by the Joint Committee and development of new necessary instruments such as the draft sustainable development criteria for JCM projects. This uses 15 indicators covering the four main perspectives of environment, economy, social and technology.
From 2010 to 2014, there have been 75 feasibility studies conducted in Indonesia under the JCM scheme. The feasibility studies include issues on forestry, REDD+, renewable energy, agriculture, transportation, waste handling and disposal, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and SNG, and low-carbon cities (see Table 1).
Studies deemed feasible may be developed into projects. During the 2013 fiscal year, the Japanese government approved 8 projects for the JCM financing support. All projects are related to energy efficiency and renewable energy. As of August 2014, three projects have installed the technology. For instance, one project has replaced an old chiller in a textile factory with a new high-efficiency chiller. Another project installed high-efficiency chillers with natural refrigerant, inverter-controlled air-conditioners, and LED lighting in two Alfa Midi mini-markets in Jakarta. By the end of December 2014, 11 more mini-markets are planned to be covered.
All parties are working together to solve challenges in the implementation of the projects, including the communication
Table 1. JCM Feasibility Studies in Indonesia, FY2010-2014
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
process between project participants, or between the Government of Indonesia and the JCM secretariat, particularly related to technical changes and delays in schedules.
In the current fiscal year, the Government of Japan has announced 5 new projects consisting of four energy projects and one renewable energy project for JCM financing support. More projects are expected to be approved in Japanese fiscal year 2014. The first Project Design Document (PDD) and more methodologies will also be submitted for Joint Committee approval in the third JC meeting, due to be held in the second half of 2014. More JCM projects are expected to be developed.
JCM promotion activities
The JCM needs to be promoted to fulfil its huge potential in Indonesia to relevant stakeholders through forums, workshops, trainings, and communication tools/ media. Therefore, in April 2014, the first JCM business forum was held by DNPI, JICA and the Secretariat in collaboration with Energy Nusantara, aiming to introduce JCM to the private sector in Indonesia, including research centres, business and finance organisations, and potential project developers. General concepts and opportunities were shared and discussed in the forum (see more details in the JCM business forum report).
To promote the technical aspects of the JCM, several workshops and training on issues related to JCM projects such as rules and guidelines, project methodologies and PDD, and potential projects are to be conducted.
Promotional activities are also held through participation in national and international exhibitions and expos. For instance, in 2013 the JCM held a side event discussion at the Indonesian and Japanese Pavilion at COP 19 in Poland, and similarly at the Carbon Expo in Germany in cooperation with OECC Japan. Similar activities will be expected to be held this year given that such exposure is crucial to gain recognition and acceptance for JCM as it aims to have cooperation on low carbon growth under relevant United Nations programs.
The Indonesia-based JCM Secretariat and JICA are jointly managing a publically accessible JCM Indonesia website. The content of the website is updated with news and information related to JCM activities, rules and regulations, project information, etc. The website also accommodates public comments on JCM proposed methodologies.
In addition to the promotion of JCM in Indonesia, several assessment studies with JICA will be conducted to support further mainstreaming and smooth implementation of JCM in Indonesia.
Last but not least, the existence of JCM is expected to be a tool of preference to support low-carbon growth in Indonesia with proportional advantages enjoyed by all parties. For complete information on JCM in Indonesia, please visit www.jcmindonesia.com.•
Table 2. List of Projects with JCM Financing Support: FY 2013-2014
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
Private Sector Enthusiasm for Low- Carbon Activities at the First JCM Business Forum
By Aryanie Amellina, Indonesia JCM Secretariat
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
Thanks to the extensive list of Energy Nusantara’s online newsletter subscriber, the Forum welcomed an overwhelming 72 participants. They are mostly from the energy (oil and gas and renewables) business, although executives from other lines of business such as manufacturing, forestry, agriculture were also present, as well as academic and governmental institutions.
The participants were introduced to the JCM by Mr. Rizal Edwin Manansang, Assistant Deputy Minister for Multilateral Economic Cooperation and Financing, Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs, also Co-Chair of JCM Joint Committee (the JCM steering committee and decision- making body). He expressed the Indonesian government support for the JCM as green investment scheme for low- carbon projects in Indonesia.
From the Japanese government, Mr. Osamu Ishiuchi, the Secretary for Forestry, Fishery and Nature Conservation of the Embassy of Japan and member of JCM Joint Committee took the floor to share the JCM development in 10 countries (the number has grown to 11 countries by the time this article is written) and the flow of JCM activity from feasibility study to pilot projects. He also mentioned that methodologies to quantify greenhouse gas emissions reduction must be developed jointly by Indonesia and Japan.
Discussion grew more technical as Mr. Dicky Edwin Hindarto, Head of Indonesia JCM Secretariat, spoke about the JCM project features and the JCM position in the UNFCCC negotiations. He invited the private sectors involvement in the JCM by conducting feasibility study and/ or project, becoming a supporting financial institution, and becoming Third-Party Entities.
Outside the JCM framework, Mr. Darwin Trisna, Head of Advisory, PT. Sarana Multi Infrastruktur and Mr. Gigih Prakoso, SVP Corporate Strategic Growth, PT. Pertamina shared their view on green growth. Mr. Trisna emphasized the importance of cash flow and risk management in infrastructure project financing while Mr. Prakoso highlighted the necessity of infrastructure to support predicted changes of energy use behaviour.
Many participants were evidently familiar with UNFCCC’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), shown by the number of questions raised about the JCM comparison to CDM. The Forum clearly noted that in its initial stage, unlike CDM, the JCM will issue non-tradable carbon credits which will be divided between Indonesian and Japanese government to help achieving their national greenhouse gases emissions reduction commitments.
Nevertheless, the enthusiasm about new financing opportunity, especially for renewable energy, forestry, and energy efficiency, was shown through discussions on the JCM accessibility. Indonesian-Japanese business partnerships will be key players in the JCM and it will only support measurable greenhouse gas emissions reduction activities that use state- of-the art and proven technologies.
The participants remained active until the open-discussion session moderated by Mr. Joi Surya Dharma of Energy Nusantara, in which development of Measurement, Reporting, and Verification procedure under the JCM was briefly discussed.
The Forum was an important milestone for the JCM in Indonesia, as it was the first official introduction to the business community. It was a pleasure to see the community’s enthusiasm in investing in low-carbon activities. We expect to see stronger efforts by the Indonesian private sectors to support low-carbon development in Indonesia and the JCM active contribution to it.•
JICA, DNPI and the Indonesia Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) Secretariat, in collaboration with Energy Nusantara, held the first JCM Business Forum on April 8, 2014 in Jakarta. The Forum was held in Four Seasons Hotel, Kuningan to grasp response and potential barriers to low-carbon activities from business perspective, publicize the JCM, and gather inputs for the development of JCM.
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
EROSION IN TAMBLING WILDLIFE NATURE CONSERVATION
A SILENT THREAT IN PARADISE
By Fairuz Husaini
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
Erosion caused by climate change has been going on for decades in coastal areas around Tambling Wildlife Nature Conservation, threatening lives and biodiversity in this beautiful place. The idea to make TWNC a model for REDD+ will not only protect the coast and biodiversity richness of that place but also help to protect similar areas elsewhere in Indonesia.
You do not have to go to Africa to see a savannah with dozens of deers clustered, nor go to Russia in Europe to see tigers walk around the beach. Just go to Tambling Wildlife Nature Conservation in the West of Lampung province in Sumatera island of Indonesia, where you can see these two amazing scenes at the same time.
Tambling is a name derived from the abbreviation of two districts - Tampang and Belimbing - in the Southern tip of Bukit Barisan National Park on Sumatera island.
South Bukit Barisan National Park has been awarded “Nature World Heritage Site” by the National Committee of World Heritage in 2004.
Comprising a total area of 60,000 hectares, of which forest accounts for 45,000 hectares and the rest is coastal area and beach, TWNC is not only incredibly beautiful but also important for the environmental protection. It is also a place for breeding and raising endangered animals like Sumatran tigers, Sumatran elephants and clouded leopards, not to mention the dozens of species of reptiles and varieties of biodiversity in its rivers, lakes and seas. Also, many rare plants, such as aerial-rooting banyan trees, jelatong, meranti, and more are preserved and well maintained.
TWNC has been managed since 1996 by Artha Graha, a business network owned by one of Indonesia’s leading businessmen Tommy Winata.
Under his strong hand, relocating hundreds of families who used to live in the forest, Tommy Winata has returned the forest to purity as a protected tropical forest.
As stated on its website, TWNC is a paradise for flora and fauna conservation.
According to Ari Yana, senior staff of TWNC, since Artha Graha managed TWNC there is no more illegal logging, fishing and or hunting which for years were practiced and damaged the protected forest.
“We repair the damaged areas and maintain the existing ones, and plant more trees. We have planted a lot of trees in Tambling. There are many changes since we managed that place,” he said.
On its website, TWNC said that at least 10,000 trees have been planted by Artha Graha since 1998 through its reforestation program.
TWNC is also a place to breed and raise the endangered Sumateran tiger (Panthera Tigris Sumatrae). According to him, in 2013, there were at least 33 tigers in the forest, including nine in the rescue center.
“Before we managed TWNC we just heard about the existence of the Sumateran tiger but we never saw it. Now, we can see tigers walk around the beach, a scene which according to Panthera, can only be seen in Russia,” said Ari, who is also a vet.
Panthera is a conservation organization with a mission to ensure the future of wild cats through scientific leadership and global conservation action. In cooperation with TWNC, Panthera has made a census of Sumateran tigers in TWNC in 2013 and 2014 and found that at least six tigers were found in every 100 km²2 including young ones, the highest population of Sumateran tigers in Southeast Asia.
Panthera, presented award “Tigers Forever” to Indonesia in July 2014 for the country’s success in conserving Sumatran tiger.
Not only tigers, but other animals like deers, elephants, bears, monkeys, and reptiles can be found in TWNC. In addition, marine biodiversity, tropical forest, a lake and a hundred year- old historical tower are other eco tourism attractions that TWNC offers to the world.
TWNC has attracted many visitors, including celebrities, and national and international institutions such as UNESCO, the
Dr. Kusman Suriakusumah, Sp.Kj.MPH.,
Expert Staff for Addiction and Rehabilitation of BNN.
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
World Bank, and UNODC. In 2012, the international diva Kylie Minogue visited Tambling when her tour arrived in Indonesia. At least 15 foreign ambassadors visited TWNC during the Krakatau Festival in 2009.
According to Rachmat Witoelar, the President’s Special Envoy for Climate Change and Executive Chair of the National Council on Climate Change (DNPI), although small, TWNC can be a model on how to manage the forest properly.
“From the climate change perspective Tambling can be a model of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) for other forests in Indonesia on how to mange the nature in an environmentally friendly and climate change friendly manner,” said Witoelar, who has visited Tambling several times.
However, silently Tambling and all its biodiversity richness and beauty is facing a challange due to climate change: erosion of its coastal area.
This erosion has been going on for decades and is feared to have disturbed the marine biodiversity in TWNC.
There has been no official data issued by TWNC relating to the areas being eroded, but Wikipedia reports that several coastal areas have been eroded by as much as 20 meters, due to global warming impacts to the coastline.
According to Ari Yana, this erosion is taking place particularly along the west coast of Tambling where the currents of the Pacific and Indian oceans meet.
At this moment, he added, TWNC is coping with the issue using both natural and non-natural ways, namely by putting in breakwater and planting mangroves and other trees.
“We put in breakwater, and also use the shipwrecks to withstand the ocean currents,” he said.
According to Rachmat Witoelar, planting as much mangrove as possible would be a better solution than building breakwater or other constructions.
“The natural way is the best by continuously planting mangrove; do not use constructions,” he said.
Unlike breakwater, mangrove does not need to be renewed every year. Besides preventing abrasion, mangrove is also very important to protect marine biodiversity such as fish, crabs, and, shrimps.
Go Green Drug Rehabilitation
Tambling is not just a paradise for tigers and other rare animals and plants. No less noble, it is a place to help former drug addicts by providing skills and certainly a lesson of life on how to love and protect the environment.
Since 2012, the Indonesian National Narcotics Agency, or BNN, has been working in co-operation with TWNC, and a number of
Dr. Diah Setia Utami, Sp.Kj.MARS,
Deputy for Rehabilitation of BNN.
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
times has sent former addicts to undergo a post rehabilitation program in Tambling. Once there, these former addicts stay on for a few months to learn and work.
For this special program, TWNC has got an appreciation from the the Commission on Drugs and Drugs of the United Nations Agency for Drugs and Crime (UNODC). In December 2012 UNODC’s Executive Director Yury Fedotov visited TWNC.
In Tambling, the former addicts do not just learn how to take care of the environment by maintaining forests, beaches and animals, but they are also given training in agriculture, nurseries, farming, and so on.
Why should we send them to the forest? According to Kusman Suriakusumah, expert staff in rehabilitation at BNN, the approach taken by BNN to send former drug addicts to the forest is not only bringing them to live closer to nature, but also giving them a peaceful place for their soul - something that has been missing inside them.
‘’A post-rehabilitation nature conservation based program is one form of therapy healing for drug addict patients, as they are directly in contact with nature which is good for the recovery process,’’ said Kusman, one of the initiators of the program .
According to Kusman, in Tambling these ex-addicts were given activities directly involving nature, whether obvious or not, like looking after and maintaining the forest, caring for coral reefs, raising animals, and so on.
The Program, known as After Care, has been developed in various countries as a new way to address drug problems, said Kusman.
In the United Kingdom, for example, he said, there is a well- known foundation called Natural England which is responsible for maintaining the natural environment in England. The foundation, led by the British royal family, has a variety of activities to help the victims of drug addicts by employing them in the forest such as looking after the forest, or numbering individual trees in the forest.
It is clear that for BNN this post-rehabilitation program is a very important one. Deputy Head of BNN for Rehabilitation Diah Utami said that the post-rehabilitation program is very helpful for these former addicts to prepare them before they return to society and start to live normal lives.
“Once out of rehab, a former drug addict’s rehabilitation is not yet complete, and he still needs to follow a long process. Therefore he should be mentally strengthened to be able to face any situation without having to run to the drug as a solution, because the real rehabilitation is in the community,” said Diah in an interview with Green magazine in early February in her office at BNN’s headquarters in East Jakarta.
While at the rehabilitiation center, the drug addicts are well protected, “Whenever they are in a bad mood they can go to a counsellor, if they feel sick there is a doctor, if they need someone to talk to they go to a psychiatrist. Everything is available in the rehabilitiation center, but outside? How if he, for instance, argues with his wife, where does he go to complain?
If his personality is not strong enough to cope with a problem, he could turn to drugs again,” she said.
Relapse is something that BNN pays careful attention to, given that the tendency of this phenomenon occurring is quite high.
• GREEN CLIMATE INSIGHTS
According to BNN’s data, year on year the number of drug addicts in Indonesia is increasing, despite vigorous efforts to combat this. In 2012, for example, the figure reached approximately 4.5 million people, up from 3.6 million the previous year. Surprisingly, this increase in the number of addicts comes not only from newcomers, but also from old users who have relapsed again, despite having undergone a rehabilitation process.
According to Kusman, “Nearly 80% of drug addicts who come out of rehab will relapse again.”
Many factors trigger a relapse, he added, including the absence of support from the community.
“The stigma of being an addict is still perceived negatively in our communities, so they do not welcome these former addicts. It happens not only in the wider community, but even within their own family, even though they are already free of drugs, “ he said.
According to Kusman besides being a positive rehabilitation program, this eco-friendly rehabilitation also brings added value to tourism.
‘’If it is managed creatively for tourism, it can provide income for the nation,’’ he said.
In the future, he said, this nature-based post-rehabilitation within an area of natural conservation can be a destination for tourists, by opening the program up to patients from all over the world.
According to him, health program based tourism has now become a trend across the world. An example is yoga tourism to India. In Thailand, said Kusman, rehabilitation programs for drug addicts are set up in Buddhist temples.
In Italy, there is a famous location for rehabilitation called San Patrignano. Addicts come here from all over the world. In San Patrignano, they are cured and then trained in various skills, such as cookery, baking cakes, making cheese or wine, or learning about hotel services: laundry and so on.
Indonesia, he said, has a huge potential for something similar, given that Indonesa has a lot of nature conservation areas, both forest and marine, which are widely known as being outstandingly beautiful.
According to Diah, the go-green post-rehabilitation program is clearly a positive one, although it needs to be improved given that the program is relatively new; the National Narcotics Agency itself was only established in 2012.
It requires an understanding from all parties involved in the program, whether the former addicts who will be sent there, or our own officials who escort them, she said.
“I also have to educate our staff. Those working out in the field must know and understand about go-green rehabilitation, what this concept means, what nature conservation means,” she said.
For this purpose, she said, BNN is planning to work together with the National Council for Climate Change by inviting environmental experts from the NCCC to educate BNN staff about the environment, ranging from theory to program.
This, she added, is very important considering that eco- rehabiliation is a relatively high cost program. To send twenty people for a 50-day stay in the forest costs at least 400 million, she said.
“That’s not cheap at all, nor easy if all those costs fall on BNN,” she said.
In the future, a cost-sharing system with the relevant institutions will be proposed. In addition, BNN will also search for alternative locations where it can send former addicts.
“Maybe we do not have to send them all away to far-flung destinations; we can also start with places closer to home, for example here in Jakarta they could clean Ciliwung River,” she said.