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Intelligent Networks


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Intelligent Networks

  1. 1. Intelligent Networks
  2. 2. Preface <ul><li>Intelligent Network (IN) is one concept to specify telecom services, and it has emerged from technical, business and protocol engineering point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent Networks are used by teleoperators for creation and management of value added services in telecom networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, IN has been applied in telephone and voice services, but today its meaning is also growing in the service integration of mobile and fixed telephone networks and as gateway to Internet based networks. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contents <ul><ul><li>Introduction and rationale 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of IN 11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN Architecture 22 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN Architecture Evolution 24 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN Services 28 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to Signaling System no. 7 38 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN Conceptual Model 50 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service Plane 53 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global Functional Plane 69 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Functional Plane 83 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Plane 112 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Contents <ul><ul><li>Service Creation and Management 124 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN Markets 132 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future of Telecommunications : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TMN 135 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAMEL 136 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband and Mobile IN 141 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MBS 143 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Intelligent Network (IN) <ul><li>Intelligent Network offers added value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open standards, vendor independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid service creation and deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customized services to users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized service management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New opportunities to make business i.e. new services, markets and customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid adaptation to market needs and competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>source of Competitive Advantage </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Value of Telecom Services 1990 2005 1995 2000 VALUE Digital Mobile Broadband CONNECTIVITY SERVICES VANS AND MOBILE SERVICES DIGITAL MEDIA
  7. 7. Telecom Discontinuities <ul><li>First Wave (1994-2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network operators and Service Providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance building, fight for market share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile and Value Added growth (IN, data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet becomes the Middleware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Wave (2000-2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband access technology solved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service and Content Providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third generation mobile technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Wave (2006 - ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New service and content control based architectures </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Computer Controlled Services <ul><li>TMN = Telecommunication Management Network </li></ul><ul><li>IN = Intelligent Network </li></ul>
  9. 9. Separation of IN and Basic Services NODE A NODE B NODE C IN Service Logic Basic and supplementary services offered to customers Basic call processing Basic call processing Basic call processing Hooks Hooks Hooks
  10. 10. Intelligent Network terminology
  11. 11. History of Intelligent Networks 1960 SPCs Electro- mechanical Relay switches 1970 Support for Mgmt 1980 Centralized databases, CC and 800 -services 1985 Feature Node IN/1 1990 IN/1+ AIN Rel 0.1 IN/2 CS 1995 CS1 AIN Rel 0.2 CS2 AIN Rel 1 “ Intelligence” Time
  12. 12. History of Intelligent Networks <ul><li>SPC (Stored Program Control) exchanges in 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer technology and telephone network merged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing intelligence in switches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered services call waiting and traditional PBX (AT&T) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid-1970s support for management and maintenance through Operations Support System (OSS) </li></ul>
  13. 13. History of Intelligent Networks <ul><ul><li>Databases located at network control points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value added services practical and economical to offer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralized databases in 1980s (AT&T) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First calling card and 800-services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AT&T Software Defined Network (“pre-VPN”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term ‘Intelligent Network’, Bellcore 1984 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. History of Intelligent Networks <ul><ul><li>‘ Feature Node’ concept 1985 (Ameritech) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>total separation of services and switching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vendor independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new services quickly and economically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>services offered by third party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IN/1, Bellcore 1986 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCP only a simple “number translator” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in service provision both SSP and SCP had to be updated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. History of Intelligent Networks <ul><ul><ul><li>SS#7 as common channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IN/2, Bellcore 1987 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded IN/1 functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no switch dependency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rapid deployment of new services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP concept was introduced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>project timescales discovered unrealistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IN/1+, Bellcore 1988 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interim, downsized solution to IN/2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timescales unrealistic, too </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. History of Intelligent Networks <ul><ul><li>Both IN/2 and IN/1+ were rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AIN (Advanced IN), Bleacher 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by IN/2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In co-operation with other organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solid industry standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>better interoperability with different systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>foundation for ideal IN-systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service-, switch- and equipment- independent IN-systems </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. History of Intelligent Networks <ul><ul><li>Stepwise development via number of releases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AIN Rel. 0.1, IN/1-based implementations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AIN Rel. 0.2, additional specifications for Rel. 0.1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AIN Rel. 1, target AIN-architectures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIN Rel. 1 is due out 1995-8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CS (Capability Sets), ITU-T, ETSI 1989 - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European equivalent to AIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define basic IN-services (e.g. freephone, premium rate and UPT) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. History of Intelligent Networks <ul><ul><li>Service independent building blocks, SIBs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>basic IN-service functional entities (e.g. digit collect and analyze, time and date functions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ideal service creation by grouping SIBs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development in phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CS1, published 1993 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CS2, published 199 9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CS3, design started 1997 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CS2 specifies management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interfaces and call-unrelated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>switching functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CS3 focus on mobility management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. GSM 2+ and 3 integration) and I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nteroperability of IN and other networks (e.g. CAMEL) </li></ul></ul></ul>CS1 CS2 CS3
  19. 19. Intelligent Network Standards 1 2 3 IN Concept and Modeling Definition of next CS Recommendation for CSx Time Capability sets CSx CS2 CS1 T1 T2 Tx 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
  20. 20. Structure of IN Standards <ul><li>Q.12XY with X and Y as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>X Y </li></ul><ul><li>00 - General </li></ul><ul><li>10 - CS1 1 - Principles, Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>20 - CS2 2 - Service Plane (not included for CS1) </li></ul><ul><li>30 - CS3 3 - Global Functional Plane </li></ul><ul><li>40 - CS4 4 - Distributed Functional Plane </li></ul><ul><li>50 - CS5 5 - Physical Plane </li></ul><ul><li>60 - CS6 6 - For future use </li></ul><ul><li>70 - CS7 7 - For future use </li></ul><ul><li>80 - CS8 8 - Interface Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>90 - Vocabulary 9 - Intelligent Network Users Guide </li></ul>
  21. 21. Intelligent Network Standards <ul><li>Recommendation Q.1200 Q-Series Intelligent Network Recommendations Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1201 Principles of Intelligent Network Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1202 Intelligent Network - Service Plane Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1203 Intelligent Network - Global Functional Plane Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1204 Intelligent Network - Distributed Functional Plane </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1205 Intelligent Network - Physical Plane Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1208 Intelligent Network - Application Protocol General Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1211 Intelligent Network - Introduction to Intelligent Network </li></ul><ul><li>Capability Set 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1213 Intelligent Network - Global Functional Plane for CS1 </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1214 Intelligent Network - Distributed Functional Plane for CS1 </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1215 Intelligent Network - Physical Plane for CS1 </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Q.1218 Intelligent Network - Intelligent Network Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations Q.1219 Intelligent Network Users guide for Capability Set 1 </li></ul>
  22. 22. IN Architecture <ul><li>The key question is: How Intelligence is provided and distributed in the network </li></ul><ul><li>IN Conceptual Model (INCM) gives a framework which will be presented here </li></ul><ul><li>Other models may emerge, most probably from voice, multimedia and mobile value added services in Intranet and Extranet </li></ul><ul><li>Future broadband intelligence standards will be chosen by the market </li></ul>
  23. 23. IN Architecture SSP SSCP IP SS#7 network Signaling Management Signaling Transfer Point (STP) CCAF NAP CCAF Transport Optional FE SMP SMF SSF SSF CCF CCF SDF SCF SN SCF SDF SRF SSF CCF SRF SCP SCF SDP SDF AD SDF SCF SCE SCEF CCF CCAF SRF
  24. 24. IN architecture evolution <ul><li>Separation of switching and intelligence in the pre-IN, switch-based networks </li></ul>Control logic (intelligence) Local switch Transit switch Calling subscribers Called subscriber
  25. 25. IN architecture evolution <ul><li>Centralized intelligence in the network, phase one in IN-evolution </li></ul>Service Control Point, SCP Local switch Service Switching Point, SSP Calling subscribers Called subscriber
  26. 26. IN architecture evolution <ul><li>Flexible intelligence allocation in the network, phase two in IN-evolution </li></ul>Service Control Point, SCP Local switch Service Switching Point, SSP Service X in local service point Service Y in centralized service point Service Z in user terminal ie. phone Control logic (intelligence) Mobile services (GSM, PCS) Mobile Services Switching Center Home Location Register X Base Station System
  27. 27. IN architecture evolution <ul><li>Intelligence on demand </li></ul>Service Control Point, SCP Local switch Broadband Service Switching Point, BSSP (ATM-switch) Some of the service intelligence resides in the user terminal Intelligence required for a service is downloaded to the nearest control point Broadband IP, Media Server Control logic (intelligence) Future mobile services (UMTS, FPLMS, MBS) Media stream Control stream X
  28. 28. IN Services <ul><li>Services are the core of IN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid service creation and deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to market the competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different services for different needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideally services facilitate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the profiling of existing services as well as the provision of custom services requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>third party service provision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>service creation by the end users </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. IN Services <ul><li>Service Creation ideally SIB-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast to implement and test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible provision in different networks through standard interfaces (TCAP/INAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse of SIB-components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, present SCEs are not all SIB-based </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. IN Services <ul><li>Service categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass market services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>well-defined set of ‘basic’ service features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no customer differentiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 800, premium rate, VPN, mobile services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiled services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>same features as in mass market services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>user data can be easily and rapidly modified by the service subscriber or the users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 800 service with dynamic routing, UPT, chaining of fixed and mobile services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. IN Services <ul><ul><li>Custom services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tailored services for specific user needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>service creation and management by users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. personal assistants, VPN and mobility in Intranet, voice and media integration </li></ul></ul></ul>Mass market services Profiled services Custom services 1980 1990 2000 Service Complexity / Value to customers
  32. 32. IN Services <ul><li>Mass market services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>800-service i.e. freephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the oldest and most widely used IN-service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>business to consumer or business to business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the service subscriber is charged, not users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>based on pure number translation with or without intelligent routing e.g. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>call distribution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>call queuing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time and date dependencies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. IN Services <ul><ul><li>Premium rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>700-service (also 600-service in Finland) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>user is charged for the network and services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>typically provision of information, direct selling, chat lines and televoting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Private Network, VPN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defined as a logical closed user group, implemented over public switched telecommunications facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provision of private numbering plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>call charging on the basis of duration of usage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. IN Services <ul><ul><ul><li>usage for switched voice, switched data or both </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>single interface for all domestic and international needs e.g.Sonera’s 02040 xxxx -countrywide numbering plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile/cellular services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IN with capability of dynamic location tracking of the mobile subscriber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the fullest mobile-IN realization with GSM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Personal Telephony (UPT) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>communication between people, not devices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ just-in-time communications” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. IN Services <ul><li>Profiled services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic 800 call routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control of the service data in call routing via switching environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>subscriber can have own SMS to gather information of the service usage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank account query </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DTMF coded user ID and password </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Communications Service (PCS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>users have unique PINs (Personal identification Number) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>network access terminal independence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. IN Services <ul><li>Custom services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure customized IN-services not yet exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible scenario towards sophisticated interactive voice and multimedia services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires complete IN-system management, which encompasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>service management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>network element management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>customer management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. IN Services
  38. 38. Signaling System no.7 Secure Fault-Tolerant Speech and Data Transmission Network Signaling System no.7 Network STP (Signaling Transfer Point) X X X UNI (User Network Interface) NNI ( Network Node Interface) SP (Signaling Point) NNI
  39. 39. Signaling System no.7 OSI-RM SS7 OSI Reference model and Signaling System no. 7 Network Layers Network Part Application Layers User / Application Parts Physical Data link Network Transport Session Presentation Application MTP Level 1 MTP Level 2 MTP Level 3 SCCP User Parts TUP ISUP MUP INAP TCAP NULL
  40. 40. <ul><li>ITU-T Recommendations Q-series </li></ul><ul><li>Common channel outband signaling system (CCSS7, CCS7, SS7, SS#7) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>signaling separated from payload (voice, data) to its own network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outband signaling enables separation of switching and control intelligence in telecommunications network </li></ul>Signaling System no.7
  41. 41. <ul><li>Major benefits include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improves the speed and flexibility of call setup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows processors to exchange information rapidly for a call requiring special routing or handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enables operation companies to access customer information stored in network databases to deliver advanced telecommunications services networkwide </li></ul></ul>Signaling System no.7
  42. 42. <ul><ul><li>provides the originating switch or customer with detailed progress and processing information about the call as it is established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SS7 is an OSI-RM compliant protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>network part is responsible for network related functions (connection setups, routing, transport, error detection) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>user/application part includes the service specific functions </li></ul></ul>Signaling System no.7
  43. 43. <ul><li>Components of SS7 network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling Link, SL (MTP1-MTP2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling Transfer Point, STP (MTP1-MTP3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling Point, SP (MTP1-SCCP, includes one or more user/application parts) </li></ul></ul>Signaling System no.7
  44. 44. Signaling System no.7 <ul><li>MESSAGE TRANSFER PART (MTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides reliable connectionless service for routing messages through SS7 network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MTP1 (signaling data link) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical layer of OSI model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical and electrical characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MTP2 (signaling link) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides reliable sequenced delivery of data across signaling data link </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>layer 2 of OSI model </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Signaling System no.7 <ul><ul><li>MTP3 (signaling network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides functions for routing data across multiple STPs between signaling points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>message handling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>routing (determines the signaling link to be used) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distribution (determines the user part to which message should be delivered) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>network management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>objective is to overcome link failures or link congestion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Signaling System no.7 <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>three categories: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) signaling traffic management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) signaling link management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) signaling route management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCCP (Signaling Connection and Control Part ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>equivalent to OSI network layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>addressing capability with PC (Point Code) and SSN (Sub System Number) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destination Point Code </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originating Point Code </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>message delivery management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Signaling System no.7 <ul><ul><li>TCAP (Transaction Capabilities Application Part) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distributed SS7 processes’ dialogue management (comparable to OSI ROSE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interfaces directly with SCCP-layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>component sub-layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>manages service remote procedure call parameter coding and decoding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transaction sub-layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>manages TC-users’ communication (queries and responses) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Signaling System no.7 <ul><ul><li>INAP (Intelligent Network Application Part) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>set of different functional service elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OPERATION-elements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ERROR-elements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RESULT-elements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OSI ROSE user-protocol (TC-user) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INAP-services are defined with ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation One)- language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INAP ASN.1 descriptions are compiled to coding/ decoding entities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CS-services are defined with INAP-interfaces </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Signaling System no.7 INAP Architecture
  50. 50. IN Conceptual Model <ul><li>The IN Conceptual Model (INCM) was designed to serve as a modeling tool for the Intelligent Network. It is defined in the CCITT Recommendation Q.1201. </li></ul><ul><li>INCM is divided into four planes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service plane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global functional plane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed functional plane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical plane </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. IN Conceptual Model objectives <ul><li>INCM forms the basis for the standardization work and it forms design guidelines for the IN architecture to meet the following main objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>service implementation independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>network implementation independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vendor and technology independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INCM is the first complete approach to modular telecom service development </li></ul>
  52. 52. IN Conceptual Model Planes
  53. 53. Service Plane <ul><li>The Service Plane represents an exclusively service-oriented view. This view contains no information whatsoever regarding the implementation of the services in the network. What is perceived is the network's service-related behavior as seen, for example, by a service user. Services are composed of one or more Service Features (SFs), which represent the &quot;lowest level&quot; of services. </li></ul>
  54. 54. IN CS.1 Services <ul><li>Automatic Alternative Billing (AAB) </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviated Dialing (ABD) </li></ul><ul><li>Account Card Calling (ACC) </li></ul><ul><li>Credit Card Calling (CCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Distribution (CD) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Forwarding (CF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comp. of Call to Busy Subscriber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference Calling (CON) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Call Rerouting Distribution (CRD) </li></ul><ul><li>Destination Call Routing (DCR) </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-Me-Diversion (FMD) </li></ul><ul><li>Freephone (FPH) </li></ul>Mass Calling (MAS) Malicious Call Identification (MCI) Premium Rate (PRM) Security Screening (SEC) Selective Call Forward on Busy/Don’t Answer (SCF) Split Charging (SPL) Televoting (VOT) Terminating Call Screening (TCS) User-Defined Routing (UDR) Universal Access Number (UAN) Universal Personal Telecommunications (UPT) Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  55. 55. IN CS.1 Service Features <ul><li>Abbreviated Dialing (ABD) Customized Recorded Announcement (CRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Attendant (ATT) Customized ringing (CRG) </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication (AUTC) Destinating User Prompter (DUP) </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization Code (AUTZ) Follow-Me Diversion (FMD) </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Call Back (ACB) Mass Calling (MAS) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Distribution (CD) Meet-Me Conference (MMC) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Forwarding (CF) Multiway Calling (MWC) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Forwarding on Busy (CFC) Off-Net Access (OFA) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Gapping (GAP) Off-Net Calling (ONC) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Hold with Announcement (CHA) One Number (ONE) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Limiter (LIM) Origin Dependent Routing (ODR) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Logging (LOG) Originating Call screening (OCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Queuing (QUE) Originating User Prompter (OUP) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Transfer (TRA) Personal Numbering (PN) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Waiting (CW) Private Numbering Plan (PNP) </li></ul><ul><li>Closed User Group (CUG) Reverse Charging (REVC) </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation Calling (COC) Split Charging (SPLC) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Profile Management (CPM) </li></ul>
  56. 56. Example: Freephone <ul><li>FPH allows reverse charging, the subscriber accepting to receive calls at its expenses and being charged for the whole cost of the call </li></ul><ul><li>FPH allows the served user having one or several installations to be reached from all part of the country, or internationally as appropriate, with a freephone number and to be charged for this kind of call </li></ul>
  57. 57. Example: Freephone Service SSP IP/SN SCP SDP SWITCH PBX Routing A1 A1 A1 PBX Routing Detect Connect Service Logic Data Function Service Logic C1 Charging Service Logic 1. Dialling service number 0800 123 456 2. IN-Call Detection from B-number 3. Service Logic function. Database query (from SDP) 4. SDP returns programmed charging information and C-number. 5. SCP sends INAP message to switch (including charging information) 6. Switch saves special charging information 7. SCP sends INAP message to switch (including new number) 8. Switch connects call to new number 9. Alarming 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 8 7
  58. 58. Example: Premium Rate <ul><li>PRM service allows to pay back a part of the call cost to the called party, considered as an added value service provider. </li></ul><ul><li>PRM allows the served user having one or several installations to be reached from all or part of the country, or internationally as appropriate, with a premium rate number. The calling party will be charged with a premium rate for this kind of call. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a service that can be available in the public telephone network whereby, a service provider having connections to the public network can be allocated a special telephone number by a network operator, known as a Premium Rate number. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Example: PRM (cont.) <ul><li>The provider is able to earn revenue for each call successfully made to his premium rate number. In return he provides callers with some form of information service via the call connection. Calls to the premium rate number are charged to the caller at special rates to cover the price of the call and the price of the information service. The network operator administration collects the revenue for each call and shares it with the provider. </li></ul><ul><li>The geographical location of the provider is unrelated to his premium rate number i.e., he can be located anywhere in the network. The provider may specify the catchment area from which he wishes to receive calls. In the case of multi-site providers, the site to which the caller is connected can depend on the catchment area in which the call originated. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Example: Premium Rate Service SSP IP/SN SCP SDP SWITCH PBX Routing A1 A1 A1 PBX Routing Detect Connect Service Logic Data Function Service Logic C1 Charging Service Logic Connect IP Announcment Service Logic 1. Dialling service number 0700 123 456 2. IN-Call Detection from B-number 3. Service Logic function. Database query (from SDP) 4. SDP returns programmed charging information and C-number. 5. SCP sends INAP message to switch (for playing announcment) 6. Switch connects IP-device to sub- scriber line. 7. IP device plays announcment 8. SCP sends INAP message to switch (including charging information) 9. Switch saves special charging information 10. SCP sends INAP message to switch (including new number) 11. Switch connects call to new number 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 8 11 7 10
  61. 61. Example: Virtual Private Network <ul><li>VPN permits to build a private network by using the public network resources. The subscriber’s lines, connected on different network switches, constitute a virtual PABX, including a number of PABX capabilities, such as Private Numbering Plan, call transfer, call hold, and so on.As an option, to each private user, either a class of service or specific rights and privileges may be attributed. As another option, a private user may access his private network from any point in the network keeping, after authentication, his class of service or his specific rights and privileges. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Example: VPN (cont.) <ul><li>VPN the use of public network resources to provide private network capabilities without necessarily using dedicated network resources. The subscriber’s lines, connected to different network switches, constitutes a virtual private network that may include private network capabilities, such as dialing restrictions, Private Numbering Plan (PNP), hold, call transfer, and so on.A PNP may provide a group of users the capability to place call by using digit sequences having different structures and meaning than provided by the public numbering plan, or PNP may utilize the public numbering plan’s digit sequences, structures and meaning. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Example: VPN (cont.) <ul><li>VPN allows a subscriber to define and use a PNNP for communication across one or more networks between nominated user access interfaces. A PNP provides a group of users the capability to place calls by using digit sequences having different structures and meanings than provided by the public numbering plan. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Example: VPN Service (with PNP service features) SSP IP/SN SCP SDP SWITCH PBX Routing A1 A1 A1 PBX Routing Detect Connect Service Logic Data Function Service Logic C1 Charging Service Logic 1. Dialling short number (fromVPN to VPN) or company number with subnumber (to VPN) 2. IN-Call Detection from B-number 3. SCP sends message to SDP (db query) 4. SDP returns “Calling Plan etc.” 5. SCP sends INAP message to switch (including charging information) 6. Switch saves charging information 7. SCP sends message to switch (Connet line to VPN number) 8. Switch connects line 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 9 8 7 7
  65. 65. Example: Credit Card Calling <ul><li>The CCC service allows subscribers to place calls from any normal access interface to any destination number and have the cost of those calls charged to the account specified by the CCC number. </li></ul><ul><li>The service allows the caller to be automatically charged on a bank card account, for any type of outgoing call. The caller has to dial his card number and a PIN (Personal Identification Number), then the called number. As an option forward calls may be allowed, without dialing again card number and PIN </li></ul>
  66. 66. Example: Universal Personal Telephony <ul><li>UPT is a mobility service which enables subscribers to make use of telecommunications services on the basis of a unique Personal Telecommunications Number (PTN) across multiple networks at any network access. The PTN will be translated to an appropriate destination number for routing based on the capabilities subscribed to by each Service Subscriber (SS). </li></ul><ul><li>UPT provides personal mobility by enabling a user to initiate any type of service and receive any type of call on the basis of a unique and personal </li></ul>
  67. 67. Example: UPT (cont.) <ul><li>network-independent number, across multiple networks, at any user-network access (fixed, movable or mobile), irrespective of geographic location, limited only by terminal and network capabilities. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Example: Service mappings <ul><li>Service Feature FPH CCC VPN UP T </li></ul><ul><li>ABD o o C = Core </li></ul><ul><li>ATT o O = Optional </li></ul><ul><li>AUTZ C o C (not all O’s here) </li></ul><ul><li>AUT o </li></ul><ul><li>CD o </li></ul><ul><li>LOG o o o o </li></ul><ul><li>QUE o o </li></ul><ul><li>TRA o </li></ul><ul><li>CUG o </li></ul><ul><li>COC o </li></ul><ul><li>CPM o o o </li></ul><ul><li>CRA o o o </li></ul><ul><li>CRG o o </li></ul><ul><li>DUP o o </li></ul><ul><li>FMD o C </li></ul><ul><li>ONE C </li></ul><ul><li>OUP o C o o </li></ul><ul><li>PN C </li></ul><ul><li>PNP C </li></ul><ul><li>REVC C </li></ul><ul><li>SPLC C </li></ul><ul><li>TDR o o o </li></ul>
  69. 69. Global Functional Plane <ul><li>The Global Functional Plane (GFP) models the IN-structured network as a single entity. Contained in this view is a global (network-wide) Basic Call Processing (BCP) SIB, the Service Independent Building blocks (SIBs), and Point of Initiation (POI) and Point of Return (POR) between the BCP and a chain of SIBs. The Global Service Logic (GSL) describes how service features are built using SIBs. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Global Functional Plane <ul><li>Global Functional Plane Model: </li></ul>BCP GSL POI POR SIB1 SIB2 SIB3
  71. 71. Service Independent Building Blocks <ul><li>SIBs are independent from any physical architecture considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Each SIB has an interface with one or more inputs and one or more outputs </li></ul><ul><li>SIBs are reusable modular building blocks, describing a single complete activity, and used by the service designer to create services </li></ul>
  72. 72. SIB chains in a Service SIB1 SIB2 SIB3 SIB6 SIB4 SIB5 POI Basic Call Process POR POR
  73. 73. Service Independent Building Blocks <ul><li>Algorithm Screen </li></ul><ul><li>Charge Service Data Management </li></ul><ul><li>Compare Status Notification </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution Translate </li></ul><ul><li>Limit User Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Log Call Verify </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Queue </li></ul>
  74. 74. SIB graphical representation
  75. 75. SIB inputs and outputs <ul><li>Logical start (input) </li></ul><ul><li>Service Support Data, SSD (input) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Parameters (depend on the SIB type) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CID Field Pointers (CIDFP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Call Instance Data, CID (input) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Instance Data, CID (output) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic parameters (depend on call instance) Logical end (output) </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Example: The Queue SIB
  77. 77. Example: Automatic Alternative Billing <ul><li>The AAB service enables a user to make a call from any telephone and for the call charge to be billed to the user's account which is specific to this service, and which does not refer either to the calling line or to the called line. An account code and PIN are allocated to the service user by service management procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>To invoke the service, the user dials an access code as a free call. Different access codes could be used to identify the language to be used. The user then receives announcements asking for him to dial his account code and PIN. The account code and PIN are validated, and a check could be made for expired credit limits. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Account/credit card calling is similar, with the account No. being supplied using a card wipe. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Example: AAB (Cont.) <ul><li>The AAB service allows a user to call another user and ask him to receive the call at his expenses. Two steps may be defined: the calling party is welcomed to record a brief message giving the caller's name and explaining the call reason, then the called party is alerted, receives the recorded message and is asked to accept to be charged for that call. </li></ul>
  79. 79. IN Automatic Alternative Billing
  80. 80. Example: AAB <ul><li>1 Basic Call Process </li></ul><ul><li>input POI Call Arrival </li></ul><ul><li>CID 1) dialed number 2) calling line id </li></ul><ul><li>2 User Interaction SIB </li></ul><ul><li>input SSD 1) announcement parameters 2) collected info </li></ul><ul><li>CID calling line id </li></ul><ul><li>output CID collected info. </li></ul><ul><li>End Ok </li></ul><ul><li>3 Verify SIB </li></ul><ul><li>input SSD 1) min. and max. of numbers 2) format </li></ul><ul><li>CID collected info </li></ul><ul><li>output End Ok </li></ul>
  81. 81. Example: AAB <ul><li>4 Screen SIB </li></ul><ul><li>input SSD screenlist indicator </li></ul><ul><li>CID collected info </li></ul><ul><li>output End 1) Match or 2) No Match </li></ul><ul><li>IF &quot;No Match&quot;: </li></ul><ul><li>5 User Interaction SIB </li></ul><ul><li>input SSD announcement parameters </li></ul><ul><li>CID calling line id </li></ul><ul><li>output End Ok </li></ul><ul><li>6 Basic Call Process </li></ul><ul><li>input POR Clear Call </li></ul><ul><li>output CID calling line id </li></ul>
  82. 82. Example: AAB <ul><li>IF &quot;Match&quot;: </li></ul><ul><li>7 Translate SIB </li></ul><ul><li>input SSD 1) Type 2) Filename </li></ul><ul><li>CID dialed number </li></ul><ul><li>output CID called number </li></ul><ul><li>End Ok </li></ul><ul><li>8 Charge SIB </li></ul><ul><li>input SSD Account CodeList. </li></ul><ul><li>CID Account Code </li></ul><ul><li>output End Ok </li></ul><ul><li>9 Basic Call Process </li></ul><ul><li>output POR Proceed with New Data </li></ul><ul><li>CID called number </li></ul>
  83. 83. Distributed Functional Plane <ul><li>The Distributed Functional Plane (DFP) models a distributed view of an IN-structured network by defining Functional Entities (FEs). Each Functional Entity may perform a variety of Functional Entity Actions (FEAs). SIBs can be then described by a collection of FEAs in different functional entities and information flows between FEAs. A given FEA may not be distributed across functional entities. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Functional Entities (FEs)
  85. 85. Functional Entities <ul><li>CCAF (Call Control Agent Function) </li></ul><ul><li>CCF (Call Control Function) </li></ul><ul><li>SSF (Service Switching Function) </li></ul><ul><li>SCF (Service Control Function) </li></ul><ul><li>SDF (Service Data Function) </li></ul><ul><li>SRF (Service Resource Function) </li></ul><ul><li>SMF (Service Management Function) </li></ul><ul><li>SMAF (Service Management Access Function) </li></ul><ul><li>SCEF (Service Creation Environment Function) </li></ul>
  86. 86. Functional entities <ul><li>Call Control Agent Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the interface between user and network call control functions. It has the following characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides for user access, interacting with the user to establish, maintain, modify and release, as required, a call or instance of service; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accesses the service-providing capabilities of the Call Control Function, using service; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Functional Entities <ul><ul><ul><li>requests (e.g. setup, transfer, hold, etc.) for the establishment, manipulation and release of a call or instance of service; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>receives indications relating to the call or service from the CCF and relays them to the user as required; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maintains call/service state information as perceived by this functional entity; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Functional Entities <ul><li>Call Control Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The CCF is the Call Control Function in the network that provides call/connection processing and control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>establishes, manipulates and releases call/ connection instances as “requested” by the CCAF; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides the capability to associate and relate CCAF functional entities that are involved in a particular call and/or connection instance (that may be on SSF requests); </li></ul></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Functional Entities <ul><ul><ul><li>manages the relationship between CCAF functional entities involved in a call (e.g. supervises the overall perspective of the call and/or connection instance); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides trigger mechanism to access IN functionality (e.g. passes events to the SSF); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>managed, updated and/or otherwise administered for its IN-related functions (i.e. trigger mechanisms) by the Service Management Function SMF; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Functional Entities <ul><li>Service Switching Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Service Switching Function, which, associated with the CCF, provides the set of functions required for interaction between the CCF and Service Control Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extends the logic of the CCF to include recognition of service control triggers and to interact with the SCF; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Functional Entities <ul><ul><ul><li>manages signaling between the CCF and the SCF; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>modifies call/connection processing functions (in the CCF) as required to process requests for IN provided service usage under the control of the SCF; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is managed, updated and/or otherwise administered by an SMF; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Service Switching Function Model
  93. 93. Originating Basic Call State Model
  94. 94. Functional Entities <ul><li>Service Control Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The SCF commands call control functions in the processing of IN provided and/or custom service requests. The SCF may interact with other functional entities to access additional service logic or obtain information (service or user data) required to process a call or service logic instance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interfaces and interacts with SSF/CCF, SRF and SDF functional entities ; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Functional Entities <ul><ul><ul><li>contains the logic and processing capability required to handle IN provided service attempts; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interfaces and interacts with other SCFs, if necessary; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is managed, updated and/or otherwise administered by an SMF; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Service Control Function Model
  97. 97. Functional Entities <ul><li>Service Data Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The SDF contains customer and network data for real time access by the SCF in the execution of IN provided services . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interfaces and interacts with SCF as required; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interfaces and interacts with other SDFs, if necessary; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is managed, updated and/or otherwise administered by an SMF; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  98. 98. Service Data Function Model
  99. 99. Functional Entities <ul><li>Service Resource Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The SRF provides the specialized resources required for the execution of IN provided services (e.g. digit receivers, announcements, conference bridges, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interfaces and interacts with SCF and SSF (and with the CCF); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is managed, updated and/or otherwise administered by an SMF; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  100. 100. Functional Entities <ul><ul><ul><li>may contain the logic and processing capability to receive/send and convert information received from users; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>may contain functionality similar to the CCF to manage bearer connections to the specialized resources; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  101. 101. Service Resource Function Model
  102. 102. Functional Entities <ul><li>Service Management Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This function allows deployment, provision and support of IN provided services. Particularly, for a given service, it allows the coordination of different SCF and SDF instances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>billing and statistic information are received from the Scoffs; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>modifications in service data are distributed in SDKs; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  103. 103. Functional Entities <ul><li>Service Management Access Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This function provides an interface between service managers and the SMF. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Creation Environment Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This function allows services to be defined, developed and tested. Output of this function would include service logic, service management logic, service data template and service trigger information. </li></ul></ul>
  104. 104. Relating GFP to DFP <ul><li>SIB SSF/SCF SCF SRF SDF </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm * </li></ul><ul><li>Charge * * </li></ul><ul><li>Compare * </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution * </li></ul><ul><li>Limit * * </li></ul><ul><li>Log Call Information * * * </li></ul><ul><li>Queue * * * </li></ul><ul><li>Screen * * </li></ul><ul><li>Service Data Management * * </li></ul><ul><li>Status notification * * * </li></ul><ul><li>Translate * * </li></ul><ul><li>User Interaction * * * </li></ul><ul><li>Verify * </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Call Process * * </li></ul>
  105. 105. Example: The Queue SIB Queue SSD Max Active Max Number Max Time Announcement Parameter CIDFP - Resource CIDFP - Error Call Reference Resource CID Resource Available Call Party Abandon Q Timer Expiry Q Full Error Time spent on Queue Error Cause
  106. 106. SIB as a combination of Fees <ul><li>Sibs are described using FEAs and information flows between them </li></ul><ul><li>FEAs are numbered with XYYZ where </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X presents the FE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CCF/SSF = 2, SRF = 3, SDF = 4, SCF = 9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YY presents the SIB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BCP = 0, Algorithm = 1, ... , Verify = 13 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Z distinguishes the FEAs with common XYY </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Example: Queue with announcement <ul><li>Information flows between FEAs are INAP operations: </li></ul><ul><li>Request Report BCSM req.ind (REQREPBCSM) </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to Resource req.ind (CONNTORES) </li></ul><ul><li>Play Announcement req.ind (PLAYANN) </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnect Forward Connection req.ind (DISCFWDCONN) </li></ul>
  108. 108. INAP operation description
  109. 109. Example INAP operation <ul><li>ConnectToResource ::= OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>ARGUMENT ConnectToResourceArg ERRORS { MissingParameter SystemFailure TaskRefused UnexpectedComponentSequence UnexpectedDataValue UnexpectedParameter } </li></ul><ul><li>Connects a call from SSP to IP with SRF </li></ul>
  110. 110. ASN.1 example: ConnectToResourceArg <ul><li>ConnectToResourceArg ::= SEQUENCE { CHOICE { ipRoutingAddress [0] IPRoutingAddres legId [1] LegId both [2] SEQUENCE { ipRoutingAddress [0] IPRoutingAddres legId [1] LegId }, </li></ul><ul><li>none [3] NULL }, </li></ul><ul><li>extensions [4] SEQUENCE SIZE (0..MAX) OF ExtensionField OPTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>}, </li></ul>
  111. 111. ETSI Core INAP <ul><li>ETS 300 374-1 (Sept 1994) defines the INAP for support of CS-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Supports interactions between SSF, SCF and SRF </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions with SDF missing in Part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Contains simplifications to in ITU-T Q.1214 (several operations replaced by InitialDP and EventReportBCSM) </li></ul>
  112. 112. Physical Plane <ul><li>The Physical Plane models the physical aspects of IN-structured networks. The model identifies the different Physical Entities (PEs) and protocols that may exist in real IN-structured networks. It also indicates which functional entities are implemented in which physical entities. </li></ul>
  113. 113. Physical Plane SSP SSCP IP SS#7 network Signaling Management Signaling Transfer Point (STP) CCAF NAP CCAF Transport Optional FE SMP SMF SSF SSF CCF CCF SDF SCF SN SCF SDF SRF SSF CCF SRF SCP SCF SDP SDF AD SDF SCF SCE SCEF CCF CCAF SRF
  114. 114. Physical Entities (PEs) <ul><li>Network Access point (NAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Service Switching Point (SSP) </li></ul><ul><li>Service Control Point (SCP) </li></ul><ul><li>Service Data Point (SDP) </li></ul><ul><li>Adjunct (AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent Peripheral (IP) </li></ul><ul><li>Service Node (SN) </li></ul><ul><li>Service Management System (SMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Service Creation Environment (SCE) </li></ul>
  115. 115. Physical Entities <ul><li>Network Access Point , NAP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a Physical Entity that includes only the CCAF and CCF functional entities and it has the ability to determine when IN processing is required. It must send calls requiring IN processing to an SSP. </li></ul></ul>
  116. 116. Physical Entities <ul><li>Service Switching Point , SSP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PSTN exchange modified to recognize IN-services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can have dialogues with different SCPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>trigger point defines required service in calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interconnections via Signaling Transfer Points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogues with SCPs based on SS7 signaling - no actual payload is transmitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSP+”SCF”+”SDF” = SSCP, Service Switching and Control Point </li></ul></ul>
  117. 117. Physical Entities <ul><li>Service Control Point , SCP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service logic is controlled by Service Logic Processing Program (SLP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services are run in Service Logic Execution Environment e.g. OS, runtime modules, management procedures etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service data can be located in Service Data Point ie. (relational) database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usually integrated to SCP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be a commercial product (Oracle,Sybase) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  118. 118. Physical Entities <ul><ul><li>Service interfaces to SSP abstracted with TCAP and INAP (OSI application layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerance with doubled and/or mated pair systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjunct , AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionally equivalent to SCP, but has </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>direct communications link to SSP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supports one-to-one relationship with SSP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usually small geographical coverage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  119. 119. Physical Entities <ul><li>Intelligent Peripheral , IP or Service Resource Point , SRP (from CS.2 onwards to separate from Internet Protocol, IP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to SSP over a high speed bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages resources such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>announcements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>speech recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digit collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protocol conversions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled by SSP or SCP (or SN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interface to SSP incl. both signaling and data, </li></ul></ul></ul>
  120. 120. Physical Entities <ul><ul><ul><li>but to SCP (or SN) only signaling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Node , SN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete set of resources and services for advanced IN services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can have the functionality of both SCP and IP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>point-to-point connection to SSPs (via STPs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Management System , SMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports both commercial and technical IN service management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>service users can e.g. change PIN (Personal Identification Number) in UPT-service </li></ul></ul></ul>
  121. 121. Physical Entities <ul><ul><ul><li>service subscriber to an 800-service can configure call routing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>operator can load new services to the SCP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>operator can gather statistics and billing data to the OSS (Operations Support System) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles service management in the distributed IN systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data consistency in SCPs’ databases (SDPs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually closely coupled with the SCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no standard SMS-SCP interface protocols exist </li></ul></ul></ul>
  122. 122. Physical Entities <ul><li>Service Creation Environment , SCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Framework for defining, developing and testing SLPs e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>graphical SIB-based ‘drag and drop’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>graphical SDL-based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high level, 4GL language based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low level C-language based with special resources e.g. libraries and runtimes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proprietary graphic and/or text based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services are loaded via SMS to SCPs </li></ul></ul>
  123. 123. Relating DFP to Physical Plane <ul><li>PE:s SCF SSF/CCF SDF SRF </li></ul><ul><li>SCP C * C * </li></ul><ul><li>SN C C C C </li></ul><ul><li>AD C * C * </li></ul><ul><li>SSP O C O O </li></ul><ul><li>IP / SRP * * * C </li></ul><ul><li>SDP * * C * </li></ul><ul><li>SSCP C C C O </li></ul><ul><li>NAP * C (CCF only) * * </li></ul><ul><li>C: Core </li></ul><ul><li>O: Optional </li></ul><ul><li>*: Not allowed </li></ul>
  124. 124. IN Service Creation Service Description Service Analysis Service Testing Service Deployment Service Management Service Modeling Service Development Service creation process for IN services Service Maintenance
  125. 125. IN Service Deployment Operations Support System Product development Requirements SPECS IF : IF + : SLP: SDF: Physical plane fault management billing charging delivery customer service New services SLP SDF Building Production R&D Pilots ( IF ) (IF+ ) Service Creation X 2 X 1 X N
  126. 126. IN Service Management BUILDING SUPPORT Customer service DELIVERY BILLING PRODUCTION CHARGING FAULT MANAGEMENT SCP Delivery system Filter Sort Filter Sort Filter Sort Product configur- ation VIEW Service Management SDP CDB Fault Base Prices Billing DB Event Base
  127. 127. Example of IN Service Creation <ul><li>Core INAP compliant service creation process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>service analysis and modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evaluation of interfaces between SLP and SSP/IP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>service logic design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>database structure and service data definitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definition of managed service data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>design of management user interfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CASE tools recommended </li></ul></ul></ul>
  128. 128. Example of IN Service Creation <ul><ul><li>service data functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>write definitions and service specific db-actions for managed service data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>service database creation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>service logic programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>service logic described with SDL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low level functions with C-language (e.g. string operations, operating system services ...) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>service testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SSP simulator, traffic generator and phones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  129. 129. Example of IN Service Creation <ul><li>A very simple 700-service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simple number translation service depending on the time of day e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9.00am - 7.00pm 700-hothothot calls are routed to number +358 53 6243270 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.00pm - 9.00am 700-hothothot calls are routed to number +358 53 6243271 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if the service is not in use, an announcement is played </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>billing is implemented in SSP </li></ul></ul>
  130. 130. Example of IN Service Creation From relational model . . . to object model . . . <ul><li>700-service data modeling </li></ul>700-numbers Use prohibited Restrictions 700-number Beginning time C-number Tariff / min
  131. 131. Example of IN Service Creation <ul><li>Service logic design with SDL and coding with C </li></ul><ul><li>( * CVOPS state-automaton for 700-service *) </li></ul><ul><li>(* state </li></ul><ul><li>input </li></ul><ul><li>actions *) </li></ul><ul><li>idle </li></ul><ul><li>InitialDP { </li></ul><ul><li> (* Call c-function that checks </li></ul><ul><li> calledPartyNumber *) </li></ul><ul><li> result=numberTranslationService() </li></ul><ul><li> if(result==700SERVICE){ </li></ul><ul><li> (* send query to database </li></ul><ul><li> and wait for reply *) </li></ul><ul><li> db_nt_request </li></ul><ul><li> start(wfDbTimer) </li></ul><ul><li> to(wf_nt_resp) </li></ul><ul><li> } </li></ul><ul><li> else </li></ul><ul><li> if(result==SERVICE_NOT_IN_USE){ </li></ul><ul><li> (* Play annoucement to user *) </li></ul><ul><li> ConnectToResource </li></ul><ul><li> messageId=123 </li></ul><ul><li> PlayAnnouncement </li></ul><ul><li> ReleaseCall </li></ul><ul><li> to(idle) </li></ul><ul><li> } </li></ul><ul><li> else{ </li></ul><ul><li> (* error *) </li></ul><ul><li> ReleaseCall </li></ul><ul><li> to(idle) </li></ul><ul><li> } </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>} </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>wf_nt_resp </li></ul><ul><li>db_nt_resp { </li></ul><ul><li> stop(wfDbTimer) </li></ul><ul><li> if(dbStatus==OK){ </li></ul><ul><li> ... </li></ul>
  132. 132. IN Markets <ul><li>Market projections (OVUM Ltd, 1993) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IN services will compromise in excess 30 % of Telco revenues by the year 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenues from mobile services 25 - 33 % of total IN service revenues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In fixed network 800, premium rate and VPN excess 75-80 % of IN service revenues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The total market for IN equipment will reach US$7,9 billion in USA and US$4.8 billion in Europe by the year 2000 </li></ul></ul>
  133. 133. IN Markets <ul><ul><li>The vast majority of capital will be spent on SSF/CCF functionality and SCP-related products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>competition rises prices fall dramatically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expect strategic partnerships and alliances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal mobility (PCS) killer application ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberation of Telco industry in Europe 1998 will fierce the competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the 21th century revenues from service content, not access or transport network </li></ul></ul>
  134. 134. IN Markets
  135. 135. Future of Telecommunications: Beyond IN . <ul><li>TMN (Telecommunications Management Network) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total service, network element and customer management through open standard interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports distributed network management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN+TMN+ODP = TINA (Telecommunications Information Network Architecture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supports customer oriented distributed services in open distributed network </li></ul></ul></ul>
  136. 136. Future of Telecommunications: Beyond IN . <ul><li>CAMEL ( Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic) </li></ul><ul><li>GSM was originated before Intelligent Network (IN) and hence Intelligent Network features have been added to GSM later </li></ul><ul><li>CAMEL is not a service but new architecture that enables creation of IN based services in GSM </li></ul><ul><li>CAMEL architecture supports GSM phase 2+ and adds some Intelligent Network features to GSM network </li></ul><ul><li>Supports Operator Specific Services globally and enables service roaming </li></ul>
  137. 137. Future of Telecommunications: Beyond IN . <ul><li>CAMEL is a Working Group relating to GSM, under the control of two Sub Technical Committees SMG3 WPC and SMG1 WPA in ETSI </li></ul><ul><li>CAMEL is standardized in two phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1 supports fast service creation and induces limited call control features (subset of CS.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2 supports extended features (including full CS.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the first phase CAMEL feature supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile originated and forwarded calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile terminating calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any time interrogation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression of announcements </li></ul></ul>
  138. 138. Future of Telecommunications: Beyond IN . <ul><li>BCSM Basic Call State Model </li></ul><ul><li>DP Detection Point </li></ul><ul><li>EDP Event Detection Point </li></ul><ul><li>GMSC Gateway MSC </li></ul><ul><li>gsmSCF GSM Service Control Function </li></ul><ul><li>gsmSSF GSM Service Switching Function </li></ul><ul><li>HPLMN Home PLMN </li></ul><ul><li>IPLMN Interrogating PLMN </li></ul><ul><li>O-CSI Originating CAMEL Subscription Information </li></ul><ul><li>OSS Operator Specific Service </li></ul><ul><li>SLPI Service Logic Program Instance </li></ul><ul><li>TDP Trigger Detection Point </li></ul><ul><li>VPLMN Visited PLMN </li></ul>CAMEL Abbreviations
  139. 139. Future of Telecommunications: Beyond IN . CAMEL Architecture HLR gsmSCF HPLMN MAP MAP CAP MAP CAP IPLMN VPLMN GMSC GSSF VLR VSSF VMSC HLR
  140. 140. Future of Telecommunications: Beyond IN . <ul><li>CAMEL Application Part (CAP) is a subset of ETSI Core INAP (CS.1) specified by ETS 300 374-1 on top of SS#7 TCAP </li></ul><ul><li>CAP includes basic Mobile Application Part (MAP) operations </li></ul><ul><li>CAP is used for call control between (V/G)SSF and gsmSCF </li></ul><ul><li>CAP is specified by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single/Multiple Association Control Function Rules (SACF/MACF) for the protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations transferred between entities (given in ASN.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions taken at each entity (given in SDL) </li></ul></ul>
  141. 141. <ul><li>Broadband and mobile IN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATM-switched networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATM-switch can be considered as Broadband SSP, BSSP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCP or SN manages virtual channels and paths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>framework for sophisticated interactive services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>third generation mobile system (post DECT/GSM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>integrates data services for mobile usage </li></ul></ul></ul>Future of Telecommunications: Beyond IN .
  142. 142. <ul><ul><ul><li>hierarchical cell structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in-building ‘pico cells’, tens of meters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>neighborhood ‘micro cells’, hundreds of meters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>suburban ‘macro cells’, kilometers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>global ‘satellite’, unlimited reach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>up to 2 Mbit/s throughput at 2 GHz band (pico) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>routes IP-packets or ATM-cells to mobile users’ terminals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>real implementations in 2001 </li></ul></ul></ul>Future of Telecommunications: Beyond IN .
  143. 143. <ul><ul><li>MBS (Mobile Broadband System) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evolutionary follow-up to UMTS (not a replacement) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>real broadband access for the mobile users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>34 Mbit/s at 60 GHz band </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mobile interactive multimedia services </li></ul></ul></ul>Future of Telecommunications: Beyond IN .
  144. 144. Intelligent Network - Summary <ul><li>Intelligent Network, IN offers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open standards, vendor independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid service creation and deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total network and customer management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customized services to users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New opportunities to make business ie. new markets and customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid adaptation to market needs and competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive edge </li></ul></ul>