Locus of control ppts


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Locus of control ppts

  1. 1. 2.3.5 Locus of Control <ul><li>Generalized Expectancies to perceive reinforcing events </li></ul><ul><li>One’s own behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond control </li></ul>
  2. 2. Internal Locus of Control <ul><li>A belief that reinforcement is brought about by one’s own behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Schultz,2008). </li></ul>
  3. 3. External Locus of control <ul><li>A belief that reinforcement is under the control of other people, fate or Luck. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Schultz 2008; Ryckman 2007). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Scales to measure Locus of Control <ul><li>I-E Scale(1966). </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal trust Scale(1967). </li></ul><ul><li>Situation Specific scales. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (1950). </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Ascription of responsibilty scale.(1965). </li></ul><ul><li>Standford preschool I-E Index . </li></ul>
  5. 7. 2.4 Related research on I-E
  6. 8. 2.4.1 Origins of I E Orientation <ul><li>(Carton&Nowicki,1994) Parents of internally oriented children are internally oriented themselves. </li></ul>
  7. 9. 2.4.2 Age and Gender Differences <ul><li>(Manger& Ekeland 2000) Girls are Internally oriented </li></ul><ul><li>(Heckhausen & Schultz 1995) College students are more Internally oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>(DeBrabander&Boone 1990) No difference between men and women,how ever differ on items </li></ul>
  8. 10. 2.4.3 Changes in I-E over the Life Span <ul><li>(Mirowsky 1995) Uneducated elderly more Externally Oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Educated elderly maintain Internal Orientation by being flexible . (Ryckman ,2007). </li></ul>
  9. 11. 2.4.4 I-E and Attribution of Responsibility <ul><li>(Phares & Lamiell 1994) Internal experience more shame and guilt when suffer defeat. Externals employ defensive strategies. </li></ul>
  10. 12. 2.4.5 I-E Academic Performance <ul><li>(Mooney,Sherman,lo presto 1991) Internal task skills are associated positively with personal Social and academic adjustments in college. </li></ul>
  11. 13. 2.4.6 I-E and Career development and Status <ul><li>( Luzzo&Ward 1995 ) Internal Students take more part time jobs congruent to their career aspirations. </li></ul>
  12. 14. 2.4.7 I-E and Romantic Relationships <ul><li>Internals have fewer romantic attachments than externals . </li></ul>
  13. 15. 2.4.8 I –E and physical Health differences <ul><li>(Phares 1993;seeman & seeman 1985) internals ,--Wear Seat belts,exercise and quit smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>(Marshall 1991) Four aspects of Locus of control as it relates to Physical health. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ryckman,robbins,Thonton 1982) Internallly oriented people are Physically healthier. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Conti <ul><li>(Lau 1982) Parents of Internals encourage them to feel them responsible for their health. </li></ul><ul><li>(Quadrel&Lau 1989) Internally oriented college students knew more about health than externals. </li></ul><ul><li>( LisaClements,reginaldYork,&Glenn rohrer 1995) Four group study on DRIE. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Conti <ul><li>(H.A.Ludtke&H.G.Schneider 1996) Corelation of Habit specific locus of control Scales with I_E Scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Internals ---High in coping and adjustments. </li></ul><ul><li>Externals ---More Habit Disorders. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Conti <ul><li>(Paul Norman,Smith,Murphy 1998) Scores on multidimensional health locus of control scale is significantly related to various health behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>People with internal Locus of control ---Higher levels of health. </li></ul>
  17. 19. 2.4.9 I-E and Psychological Health <ul><li>( Cooper,Okamura,&McNeil 1995) Internals are psychologically healthier than externals. </li></ul><ul><li>(De Moya 1997) Drug addicts Depressives Schizophrenics,neurotics ---Externally oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>(Barnet 1990) Internals cope better with stress related to divorce or bereavement. </li></ul>
  18. 20. 2.4.10 Racial and Socioeconomic differences <ul><li>(Battle & Rotter 1963) Lower socioecnomic classes and minority groups are externally oriented. </li></ul>
  19. 21. 2.4.11 I-E and Social Skills <ul><li>(Lefcourt 1982) Video tape study </li></ul><ul><li>Internals nod more ,held up conversation of their side, fill gaps in conversation as compared to externals. </li></ul>
  20. 22. 2.4.12 Behavioral differences <ul><li>Internals day dream more. </li></ul><ul><li>(findley & Cooper 1983 ) Higher in Internal Locus of Control, Higher grades in schools and standardized tests. </li></ul><ul><li>( Tiggemann &Rothblum 1997 ) weight Locus of Control and stereotype behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>(Schultz,2008:Ryckman,2007:Feist,2002). </li></ul>
  21. 23. 2.5 Locus of Control & bandura’s Concept of self efficacy <ul><li>(Judge,Erez,Bono&Thoresen 2002) Reported a strong relationship between Rotter’s Concept of Locus of Control and Bandura’s Concept of Self efficacy. (Schultz 2008). </li></ul>
  22. 24. Idea of bilocal <ul><li>Ideally healthy individuals are neither Controllers (extreme internals) nor Controllees (extreme externals) Bilocals accept external constraints as a fact of life and assume the responsibility of working productively within these constraints. They attempt to alter what can be changed and accept what cannot be changed . (wong&Sproule,1984 ). </li></ul><ul><li>(Ryckman, 2007). </li></ul>
  23. 25. 2.7 Implication for therapy <ul><li>Low freedom of Movement </li></ul><ul><li>High Need Value. </li></ul><ul><li>Maladjustment is due to difficulties at any point in ‘ predictive Formula ”. </li></ul>
  24. 26. conti <ul><li>2.7.1 Changing Goals </li></ul><ul><li>2.7.2 Eliminating Low expectancies </li></ul><ul><li>2.7.3 Alternative Courses of Action </li></ul>
  25. 27. 2.8 Critical Evaluation <ul><li>2.8.1 Comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>2.8.2 Precision and testability </li></ul>2.8.3 Parsimony 2.8.4 EmpiricalValidity 2.8.5 Heuristic Value 2.8.6 Applied Value
  26. 28. 3 Walter Mischel’s Cognitive Social Learning Theory
  27. 29. Content <ul><li>3 Biographical sketch </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Walter Mischel’s Social Cognitive Theory of Personality Structures. </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 The Nature of Personality Structure. </li></ul><ul><li>3.3 Basic Assumptions of Theory </li></ul><ul><li>3.3.1 Trait Situation Interaction and Situational Variables </li></ul><ul><li>3.4 Cognitive Affective Personality System (CAPS) </li></ul><ul><li>3.4.1 Cognitive Affective Units </li></ul><ul><li>3.4.2 Demonstration with related Research </li></ul><ul><li>3.5 Theory’s Implication to Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>3.7 6 Critical Evaluation </li></ul>
  28. 30. 3 Biographical sketch <ul><li>Walter Mischel born on 22 feb 1930. </li></ul><ul><li>Studied under George Kelly & julian Rotter. </li></ul><ul><li>(1965)Participated in peace corps assessment project—Global Traits measure poor assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality & assessment 1965. (Pervin ,2008 ). </li></ul>
  29. 31. View about Person <ul><li>A person is being who can use language to reason in Past Present and future tense about themselves and the World . </li></ul><ul><li>(Harre&Secord 1972). </li></ul>
  30. 32. 3.1 Walter Mischel’s Social Cognitive Theory of personality Structure <ul><li>3.1.1 Competencies and skills </li></ul><ul><li>3.1.2 Beliefs and Expectancies </li></ul><ul><li>3.1.3 Behavioral or Evaluative Standards </li></ul><ul><li>. Moral Verses Immoral Sanction against killing </li></ul><ul><li>(Osofsky,Bandura,Zimbardo 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>3. 1.4 Personal Goals </li></ul>
  31. 33. 3.2 Nature of these Personality Structures <ul><li>Personality can not be reduced in to simple scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed to fixed stages of development. </li></ul>
  32. 34. 3.3 Contribution in personality Psychology <ul><li>4.1 Trait Situation Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Idea about Introvert & Extrovert. </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Variables </li></ul><ul><li>(Mischel & Ervin Staub 1965)— Both Situation and person’s expectancy for success are important. </li></ul>
  33. 35. 3.4 CAPS Model <ul><li>C Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding strategies , Competencies and Self regulatory Strategies , Expectancies and Beliefs, Goals an Values . </li></ul><ul><li>A Affective </li></ul><ul><li>Affective Responses includes feelings and emotions as well as the affects that accompany physiological reactions </li></ul><ul><li>P Personality </li></ul><ul><li>S system e.g Brain ,or computer . </li></ul><ul><li>All these Cognitive Affective representations interact dynamically and influence each other reciprocally </li></ul>
  34. 37. Behavioral Signatures <ul><li>A when X </li></ul><ul><li>B when Y </li></ul><ul><li>Study by (Kammrath,Mendoza,&Mischel,2005 ) Lay persons anticipate IF-THEN variability in different situations. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mischel 1994) Summer camp study. </li></ul><ul><li>(Pervin,2008). </li></ul>
  35. 38. 3.4.2 Research <ul><li>The Marsh Mallow Experiments (Bandura&Mischel,1965) </li></ul><ul><li>High -Modeled Low </li></ul><ul><li>Low -Modeled High </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Symbolic Model </li></ul><ul><li>No model- </li></ul><ul><li>Re administerd after 5 weeks. </li></ul>
  36. 40. An Analysis of Reaction to the O.J Simpson Verdict <ul><li>A system that considers a set of cognitive affective units is a better predictor of people’s reactions to racially sensitive issues than ethnic back ground. </li></ul><ul><li>(Feist&Feist 2002:Pervin 2008). </li></ul>
  37. 45. 3.5 Theory’s implication to therapy <ul><li>Delay of Gratification </li></ul><ul><li>Some times we need to stop doing some thing </li></ul><ul><li>,( by our will power) </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking, Overeating, driving Car. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Verses Cool Encoding </li></ul><ul><li>If Distract attention---(Can delay reward), COOL Encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Giving in to Impulsive reactions----HOT Encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Self Regulatory dynamics---Creates Balance between hot emotional Go system and Cool Cognitive Know system </li></ul>
  38. 46. <ul><li>Understanding of Processing Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Encodings ---Self directed change. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt Psychologically distant Perspective to cognitively re represent their experience. </li></ul>
  39. 47. 3.6 Critical Evaluation <ul><li>3.6.1 Comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.2 Precision and testability </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.3 Parsimony </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.4 Empirical Validity </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.5 Heuristic Value </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.6 Applied Value </li></ul>