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  2. 2. • Research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
  3. 3. Implying that the process : Is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies. Use Is designed to be unbiased and objective. i) Procedures ii) Methods iii) Techniques
  4. 4. reliability Quality of a measurement procedure
  5. 5. validity Ensures correct procedures have been applied in finding answers for the questions.
  6. 6. Unbiased and objective i) Have taken each step ii) Drawn each conclusion to the best of your conclusion without your own vested interest.
  7. 7. The paradigms in research • Your philosophical orientation may stem from one of the two paradigms in research. 1) Positivism 2) Naturalism
  8. 8. • How the natural sciences approach the physical world, i.e. combining mainly deductive logic with empirical and predominantly quantitative methods in order to seek generally applying regularities. Positivism Predominantly : mostly or mainly Empirical : based on experience
  9. 9. • Assumes only the existence of a social world external to the researcher which can be accessed through the sense and research. Naturalism
  10. 10. A process for collecting , analysing and interpreting information to answer questions .
  11. 11. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH 1. Controlled 2. Rigorous 3. Systematic 4. Valid and verifiable 5. Empirical 6. Critical
  12. 12. 1. Controlled In research process, we find out about the “cause and effect relationships” . And it is important to be able to link the effects with the causes and vice versa.
  13. 13. 2. Rigorous (be careful) Must be extremely careful in ensuring that the procedures followed to find answers to the questions are ; i- relevant ii-appropiate Iii-justified
  14. 14. 3. Systematic The procedures adopted to undertake an investigation folllow a certain logical sequence.
  15. 15. 4. Valid and verifiable Whatever you conclude on the basis of your findings is correct and can be verified by you and others.
  16. 16. 5. Empirical Means that , any conclusions drawn are based upon hard evidence gathered from information collected from real life experiences or observation.
  17. 17. 6. Critical Critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the methods employed, is crucial to a research inquiry . The process of investigation must be foolproof and free from any drawbacks.
  19. 19. An Eight- step Model Formulating a research problem Conceptualizing a research design Constructing an instrument for data collection Selecting a sample Writing a research proposal Collecting data Processing data Writing a research report
  20. 20. • Formulating a research problem is the most important step in research process. • The more specific and clear you are the better. • It is equally important to identify any gaps in your knowledge of relevant input such as statistic, required for analysis.
  21. 21. • It is the use of scientific methods. • A research design should include: The study design perse & the logistical arrangements The measurements procedures & the sampling strategy The frame of analysis The time frame
  22. 22. • Anything that becomes a means of collecting information for you research is called a ‘research tools’ or ‘research instrument’. • For example : Observation form Interview schedules Questionnaires
  23. 23. • The accuracy of your estimates largely depends upon the way you select your sample. • The basic objective of any sampling design: To minimize within the limitations of cost To minimize the gap between the values obtained from your sample To minimize those prevalent in the population
  24. 24. • Research proposal should contain: A statement of the objectives of the study A list hypothesis ,if you are testing any The study design you are proposing to use The setting for your study The research tools you are planning to use Information on sample size & sampling design Information on data processing procedures An outline of proposed chapters for the report The study problems & limitations The proposed time frame
  25. 25. • After all the steps, next collect the data from which you will draw inferences & conclusion for your study. • For example: Commence interviews Mail out a questionnaire
  26. 26. • The way you analyze the information you collected largely depends upon 2 things: The type of information The way you want to write your report The way to analyze the information
  27. 27. • This report inform the world of what you have done, what have you discovered, what conclusions you have drawn for your finding. • Your report should be written in a academic style(APA style), be divided into difference chapters based upon the main themes of your study.
  30. 30. QUALITATIVE • Purpose of the study is to describe a : • Situation information is gathered • Phenomenon through the use of • Problem/event variables measured (nominal/ordinal) • aims at understanding. It answers primarily to ‘how?’ –questions.
  31. 31. • Examples : Description of an observed situation. The historical enumeration of events. An account of the different opinions people have about an issue. A description of the living conditions of the community
  32. 32. QUANTITATIVE • You want to quantify : • the variation in a phenomenon, situation, problem/issue • If the analysis is geared to ascertain the magnitude of the variation. • aims at (causal) explanation. It answers primarily to why? –questions.
  33. 33. • You want to know “how many” and/or “how often” • You want to profile a target audience by determining what proportion of the audience has certain behaviors, behavioral intentions, attitudes, knowledge related, and whether specific determinants predict behaviors at a statistically significant level.
  34. 34. • Examples : How many people have particular problem? How many people hold a particular attitude?
  35. 35. QUICK REVIEW!!
  36. 36. QUALITATIVE aims at understanding. It answers primarily to ‘how?’ –questions. Methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, and reviews More subjective: describes a problem or condition from the point of view of those experiencing it QUANTITATIVE aims at (causal) explanation. It answers primarily to why? – questions. surveys More objective: provides observed effects (interpreted by researchers) of a program on a problem or condition
  37. 37. QUALITATIVE Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. (Text-based) Can be valid and reliable: largely depends on skill and rigor of the researcher QUANTITATIVE Data is in the form of numbers and statistics. (Number-based) Can be valid and reliable: largely depends on the measurement device or instrument used
  38. 38. • The linking of the terms “action” and “research” highlights the essential features of this method: trying out ideas in practice as a means of increasing knowledge about or improving curriculum, teaching, and learning (Kemmis & McTaggart, 1988)
  39. 39. To bring about the development of the practice of the educators by analysing existing practice and identifying elements for change To help educators feel in control of their own professional situation. Schoolbased curriculum development, professional development, systems planning, school restructuring, and as an evaluative tool. To enhance educators development through the fostering of their capability as knowledge makers, rather than simply as knowledge users
  40. 40. To develop a deeper understanding of classroom practice as basis for change An alternative to teachers who have been encouraged to look to others, rather than to themselves and their students, for ways to help students improve their quality of learning For educator to better understand the aspect of his/her teaching that is of interests or concerns Done by teachers to study the weakness in their own teaching in order to improve it
  41. 41. • It is not the usual things teachers do when they think about their teaching. Action Research is systematic and involves collecting evidence on which to base rigorous reflection. • It is not just problem-solving. It is motivated by a quest to improve and understand the world by changing it and learning how to improve it from the effects of the changes made. • It is not research on other people. Action Research does not treat people as objects. • It is not the scientific method applied to teaching. Action Research is not about hypothesis-testing or about using data to come to conclusions. It is concerned with changing situations, not just interpreting them.
  42. 42. • the issue or problem is monitored and described. Useful data is recorded and kept. Observation phase • observations are interpreted and shared so that the issue or problem can be better understood. Reflection phase • actions are proposed to address the issue or problem Planning phase Action phase the plan is implemented and the cycle starts again as outcomes are observed, recorded, and shared
  43. 43. Keep it manageable – focus on small scale. It should be interesting to you – you may need some perseverance to see the inquiry through! It should be workable It is not too disruptive of normal routines. (Important here to think not just of your own, but others’ that your actions might affect).
  44. 44. • Research is one way of collecting & understanding information and finding answer to your questions. • The differences between research and other ways is that research you works within a framework of a set of philosophies, use methods that have been tested validity & reliability, attempt to unbiased & objectives. CONCLUSION
  45. 45. REFERENCES • How to Conduct Research, Retrieved 6 March, 2011, from • Ways to conduct accurate research, Retrieved 6March,2011, from • Action research? Anyone can!, Retrieved 6 March, 2011, from Anyone • Themes in Education. Action Research, Retrieved 6 March , 2011, from research pdf • Quantitative Methods, Retrieved 6 March, 2011, from ntent/quantiativemethods.htm • Qualitative versus Quantitative, Retrieved 6 March, 2011, from • Key concepts in social research, Retrieved 6 March,2011 From