Analgesics (also calledpainkillers, painmedications, pain relievers)are drugs designed tosuppress the painmechanism.
ANALGESICS is any memberof group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia )
The word analgesics derivesfrom Greek an-(“without”) and algos(“pain”).
-Analgesic drugs act in various ways onthe peripheral and central nervoussystems.-Include paracetamol, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, andopioid drugs such as morphine andopium.-There are distinct from anesthetics, -
Important medicines include ibuprofen (Motrin), naproxen(Aleve) and Aspirin. Can reduce fever and suppress inflammation. Work by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme in varioustissues that produce the chemical mediators which are thecause for inflammation, related pain, and fever. Aspirin besides acting as a pain killer also has anti-plateletproperties, which helps in the treatment for heart attacks andstrokes.
Not exactly pain killing medicines but they are anti-inflammatory. But due to their inflammatory processes, they can reduce pain.For example, a patient with arthritis may be relieved from injections of steroids into the inflamed joint.
1) • The opioid analgesics relieve pain by binding to opioid receptors in the central nervous system.2) • are also known as narcotics.3) • act as agonists to produce the effect of analgesia.4) • give relief for moderate to severe pain.5) • used when pain is too severe to be controlled by NSAID analgesics.6) • All narcotic analgesics are prescription medications.
oCertain drugs that are mainly used forneurologic and psychiatric conditions butthey can also relieve neuropathic pain, whichoccurs without any external pain triggers likeheat or sharp points.o include the antidepressant amitriptyline(Elavil) and the anticonvulsant gabapentin(Neurontin).
Pain relief at times is required with anerve blockade. An anesthetic drug, like lidocaine, can beinjected into a nerve branch so that acertain part of the body becomesdesensitized to pain. For example, anesthetic injection aroundthe spinal cord produces pain relief in areasin the lower half of the body.
NEGATIVIE EFFECTS WILL DEPEND UPON :- 1) • The type of analgesic being used. 2) • The number of analgesics consumed. 3) • How long the analgesics are being used for. 4) • The health of the user. 5) • Existing medical conditions. 6) • Whether other drugs are also being used.
Used for a short period of time. Should never be used for morethan three days without medicalsupervision. To treat severe pain.
SEVERAL THINGS TO REMEMBER BEFORE USE ANALGESICS :-Analgesics should be used strictly as directed. Read theinstructions on the label and take the recommended dose. Taking more than the recommended dose will notincrease the positive effects, and may cause unpleasantside effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea or dizziness. Analgesics should only be used when in date (the expirydate is on the packet). Paracetamol becomes toxic after its expiry date. If the pain persists, visit your doctor.
AN ESI C W LL N T :- ALG S I OCure whatever is causing your pain. Prevent a headache. Boost your energy levels.
Injury Mechanical injuries, such as pressure, punctures and cuts or chemical (burn) stimuli injure tissues. Reception A specialized nerve cell called a nociceptor senses the stimulus and the chemicals released from injured tissues. Transmission The signals travel up the spinal cordThe nociceptor sends signals to the to the brain through a "neural brain through several neurons freeway" called the spinothalamicwithin the central nervous system. tract.
Pain center reception Within the brain, a relay station Areas like the somatosensory cortex called the thalamus distributes the process the information and you feelsignals to various parts of the brain; pain. there is no single pain center. Pain suppression or relief (analgesia) prevent inflammation and block key enzymes andthe release of chemicals that stimulate nociceptors.
o Analgesics are aclass of drugs usedto relieve pain.They are alsoreferred to aspainkillers.
o There are twocategories of analgesics:non-narcotics andnarcotics.
o Acetaminophen ismost effective for mild tomoderate pain. It isextremely important tofollow the prescribinginstructions.
o Patients must be awareof the cumulative effectof acetaminophen since itis found in so manyproducts, includingcold, sinus, cough, andallergy medications.
o There are twocategories ofnarcoticanalgesics -opiates and
o O oi ds bi nd t o piopi oi d r ecept or s i nt he cent r al ner voussyst em andgast r oi nt est i nalt r act .
o Opioids arestronganalgesics, typicallyreserved forsevere, chronicpain.
o There arecommon sideeffects associatedwith opioids.
o There are lesscommon side effectsassociated withopioids.
o Severe sideeffects andadversereactions arepossible withopioids.
Analgesics are a class drugsused to relieve pain. While these drugs do not treatwhatever is causing the pain, theycan provide enough relief to makepeople more comfortable and toallow them to carry out theirdaily routines. They are many types ofanalgesics such as opioids andetc.
REFERENCES• The Facts of Analgesics (Painkillers) , Analgesics: Drugs Designed To Relieve Pain, Carol Eustice, Retrived August 02, 2012http://arthritis.about.com/od/analgesic/a/factsanalgesics.htm• Analgesics - 10 Things You Should Know , Analgesic Safety Decreases UnwantedSide Effects , Carol Eustice , Retrieved August 02, 2012http://osteoarthritis.about.com/od/osteoarthritismedications/a/analgesics.htm• What are Analgesics? , Carol Eustice, Retrieved August 02, 2012http://arthritis.about.com/od/analgesic/g/analgesic.htm• Analgesics Research & Articles, Analgesics, Retrieved August 02, 2012http://www.bookrags.com/research/analgesics-woc/• Pharmaceutical Drug Manufacturer, Types of Analgesics , Retrieved August 02, 2012http://www.pharmaceutical-drug-manufacturers.com/articles/types-of-analgesics.html• Medications , How do analgesics work on pain? , Craig C. Freudenrich and DiscoveryFit & Health , Retrieved August 02, 2012http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/how-analgesics-work-on-pain