Nutrition and inflammation - Nadia Rudenko, BA, MS


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This presentation is a short overview of the interconnection between the immune system and inflammation. It identifies the role of acute and chronic inflammation in many “age-related medical conditions." The author identifies several methods of prevention and prophylactics to improve symptoms and quality of life. Optimal nutrition is emphasized, not diminishing all other components of healthy life style. They are as important as a good diet.

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Nutrition and inflammation - Nadia Rudenko, BA, MS

  1. 1. Nutrition and Inflammation Nadia Rudenko Msc. R.D.
  2. 2. Objectives: Definition Types of immune system & inflammation Mechanism of combating infection /disease Components of anti-inflammatory lifestyle
  3. 3. Inflammation in broader sense , is the bodys response to tissue injury More precise definition:Inflammation is a response to cellular injury marked by vasodilation, white blood cell infiltration, redness, heat, pain, swelling, and often loss of function; a mechanism for eliminating noxious agents and damaged tissue It is a normal process of healing mediated by immune system
  4. 4. Immune system Innate or non specific  Adaptive (acquired) or immune system. specific immune system − Fist line of defense Takes time to react system  Antigen specific − Quick to respond to invaders  Remembers previous encounters − Not antigen specific − Does not remember previous encounters
  5. 5. Types of inflammatory response Acute: involves  Chronic inflammation does vasoconctraction not always arise from uncontrolled acute followed quickly by inflammation. vasodilation, leaky  Often marked by slow and endothelial cells. often asymptomatic onset. The names given to  Secondary to persistent conditions refers to infection tissue site  Exposure to exogenously or endogenously produced toxic agents
  6. 6. Chronic inflammation Chronic inflammation is the underlying cause of many “so-called” age-related diseases. The main complication of it is overproduction of collagen (the main protein of connective tissue) leading to the condition known as a fibrosis . Cells – fibroblasts enter the damaged tssue and produce collagen.
  7. 7. Examples of acute and chronic inflammation Acute:  Chronic: Meningitis or Encephalitis  Arthritis Pericarditis  Atherosclerosis Esophagitis or Colitis  Lupus Appendicitis  Celiac disease Hepatitis or Pancreatitis  Vasculitis COPD Osteomyelitis (Bone)  Tuberculosis Cellulitis(Subcutaneous tissue)  IBD Arthritis  Psoriasis & Pancreatitis
  8. 8. In addition There is evidence that chronic inflammation involved in: − Alzheimers − Fibromyalgia − Cancer All of these conditions are stem from the common denominator of uncontrolled, often undetected systemic inflammation
  9. 9. The endothelium is the “gatekeeper” of the blood vessels. Functions: Vasoconstriction / vasodilation Inflammation Blood clotting/ blood viscosity Platelet adhesion /plaque accumulation The formation of new blood vessels The passage of WBC in/out of the blood stream Fluid balance
  10. 10. Sources of Endothelial Dysfunction Immune complexes  Hypoxia Blood lipids  Acidosis Angioplasty  Smoking Germs  Aging HTN  DM Stress  Trauma  Surgery
  11. 11. Chronic inflammatory diseases thatcontribute to Endothelial dysfunction Obesity Infections Periodontal disease Environmental toxins, drugs and tobacco Autoimmune disease
  12. 12. Endothelial dysfunction has beenassociated with all known CVD
  13. 13. Sources of damaged endothelial cellsOxidative stress or free radicals (excessive production of oxidative substances)Insufficient amount of antioxidants to neutralize free radicals from endogenous or exogenous sources.
  14. 14. Several possibilities for prevention Risk assessment and control Analyzing Markers of inflammation Diet Therapy Physical Activity Smoking cessation Lifestyle modification
  15. 15. Risk factors contributing to inflammation and endothelial dysfunction MS/ DM /Prediabetes Blood Markers(App B; A-1; TG; SDLDL; Oxidazed LDL, Antibodies against LDL; Lipoprotein (a;) Homocysteine. IL-6; CRP;
  16. 16. Understanding C- Reactive proteinCRP is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation. Any condition that leads to inflammation will cause the production and release of CRP. Smoking, genetics, stress, arthritis, diabetes, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, high blood pressure colorectal cancer, the aging process, and damaged and an inflamed arterial endothelium will all cause an elevation of C reactive protein. It is an indirect, non-specific measurement of inflammation and oxidation.
  17. 17. Interpretation hs-CRP & Homocysteine ResultsCRP Lower than 1.0 mg/L- Low RiskCRP- 1.0-3.0 mg/L-Average RiskCRP higher than 3.0 mg/L-High RiskHomocysteine less than 6.5 = Low Risk for CVDHomocyseine 8.1 to 10.4 = Moderate-High Risk for CVDHomocysteine greater than 10.4 = High Risk for CVD
  18. 18. Methods for reducing inflammation Drugs: Drugs  NSID- (Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Diet Cox-2 inhibitors) Activity  Aspirin Smoking cessation  Statins & Fibrates Side effects: liver, nerve, muscle, and heart damage,
  19. 19. Statin drugs have been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory effect, and it is the modest anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory effect that is responsible for a reduction in oxidized LDL cholesterol and arterial inflammation. Less oxidized LDL cholesterol and less arterial inflammation, the less plaque that will build up within the arterial endothelium.
  20. 20. However, natural antioxidants, vitamin C, turmeric extract, essential fatty acids (fish oil) do more to reduce oxidized LDL cholesterol and arterial inflammation and lower CRP than cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, AND without the dangerous side-effects of statins (liver, nerve, muscle, and heart damage, ….let alone death). The B complex vitamins and betaine (tri-methly-glycine) lower homocysteine levels, which means less “scratching up” of the endothelium, i.e., less arterial inflammation, and lower CRP levels.
  21. 21. Role of Diet & Activity Fat: Omega-3, Omega-6, Ratio of n-6/n-3 Monounsaturated fats:Plants sources include avocado, raw soaked nuts (almonds, cashews, pecans and macadamia) and olive oils. Eating monounsaturated fats reduces inflammation by interfering with leukotrienes (naturally produced molecules that contribute to inflammation
  22. 22. Helpful Diets Mediterranean Diet: Portfolio Diet: Optimal Diet:
  23. 23. Portfolio DietNutsPlants sterols(soy protein flax seeds)Soluble Fiber (oatmeal, chia seeds, berries...)Vegetable Protein (soy beens, lentils, beans, amaranth, quanua)Greens, crusifirous vegetablesOmega- 3 (chia seed/ flax seed
  24. 24. Optimal Diet
  25. 25. Role of Diet & Activity Dietary pattern
  26. 26. Supplements & SpicesSpices:Turmeric,Curry,Ginge r,Garlic and chili peppersSupplements:Vit C, B , D,Fish oilOlive extract,Grape seed Extract
  27. 27. Anti-inflammatory foodsFoods that contain omega-3 fatty acids(Fish like tuna, cod, herring, trout, salmon, sardines, snapper)Nuts and seeds like walnuts, almonds, hemp seeds, chia seeds, hazelnuts, pumpkin seeds, flaxseeds/linseeds.Good oils like olive oil, avocado oil (be careful of the amount of oil you are eating – as they are still high in fat!!)Fish oil supplements can also be taken if you don’t eat
  28. 28. Foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids:Animal Sources: wild salmon, anchovies, mackerel & sardinesPlant Sources: hemp, chia seeds, flaxseed meal and walnuts
  29. 29. Pro-inflammatory foods Junk foods and processed foods Fast foods and take-away foods High-fat dairy foods like full cream dairy products – choose low fat options Fatty cuts of meat, especially red meats, mince and chops Processed meats (luncheon meats, hot dogs etc) High-sugar foods
  30. 30. Web Resourceswww.Nutrition MD.orgwww.CancerProject.orgwww.drmcdougal.comwww.vrg.org
  31. 31. Q/A