UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:
DR. NAVAL ARORA
STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
A Leadership Style refers to a
leader’s behavior. Leadership
styles are the patterns of
behavior, which a leader adopts
in influencing the behavior of
his followers (subordinates) in
the organizational context.
LEADERSHIP STYLE TYPES:
I. Based on the amount of authority
retained by the leader
II. Based on Task versus People
III. Based on the assumptions about
people by the leader
IV. Likert’s four styles
V. Entrepreneurial leadership styles
I) STYLES BASED ON AUTHORITY
1) Autocratic Leadership
2) Participative Leadership
3) Free rein Leadership
1) AUTOCRATIC OR AUTHORITARIAN
The autocratic leader gives orders,
personal praise and criticism,
determines policies and future
plans without consulting the
group, but simply tells the group
what immediate steps they must
Positive (benevolent autocrat)
2) PARTICIPATIVE OR DEMOCRATIC
Participative leadership style
favors decision making by the
group and sharing of power. A
democratic leader is one who
gives instructions only after
3) FREE REIN OR LAISSEZ FAIRE
A free rein leader does not
lead, but leaves the group
entirely to itself. He depends
largely on the group to
establish its own goals and
work out the problems.
Example: Chairman of the
II) STYLES BASED ON TASK VERSUS PEOPLE
defining roles of the
when, where and how
tasks are to be
Establishing channels of
to the group
High Task and Low Relationship (AUTOCRATIC STYLE)
High Task and High Relationship (PARTICIPATIVE
High Relationship and Low Task (SUPPORTING STYLE)
Low Relationship and Low Task (FREE-REIN STYLE
AND LOW TASK
HIGH TASK AND HIGH
LOW TASK AND LOW
HIGH TASK AND LOW
III) STYLES BASED ON ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT
It is based on McGregor’s famous theory X and Y
assumptions about people.
Theory X leaders are autocratic. They distrust
people and believe in close supervision and tightcontrol over subordinates.
Theory Y leaders are participative, they trust
subordinates and allow them to participate in
IV) LIKERT’S FOUR STYLES
communication, decisions are generally made at the
top of the organization.
Benevolent authoritarian: The leader uses rewards
to encourage performance, upward communication
is permitted to the extent the boss wants.
Consultative: Communication is two-way, upward,
but cautious and limited, subordinates are involved
in decision making.
Participative : Subordinates and superiors are
psychologically close, and group decision-making is
V) ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP
An entrepreneur is a person who finds and operates an
Relationship orientation combined with a very directapproach of giving instructions to employees.
A charismatic personality that inspires others to follow
A strong dislike for bureaucratic rules and regulations
Anxiety to consolidate business gains as quickly as
LEADERSHIP GRID STYLES
The best classic method and way to
achieve effective leadership is to
integrate the task and relationship
orientations. The Leadership Grid is a
framework for specifying the extent of a
leader’s concern for production and
CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION: Rated on the horizontal
axis, includes such matters as results, performance,
profits and mission.
CONCERN FOR PEOPLE: Rated on vertical axis, is
reflected in such matters as showing support for team
members, getting results based on trust and respect,
and worrying about employees’ job security.
Each concern is rated on a 1-9 scale.
Authority Compliance (9,1)
authority –compliance style is characterized
by a maximum concern for production
combined with a minimum concern for
people. He concentrates on maximizing
production by exercising power and authority.
Country Club Management (1,9)
– It shows a minimum concern for
production and a maximum concern
for people. Primary attention is
placed on good feelings among team
members and coworkers, even at the
expense of achieving results.
Impoverished Management (1,1) –
This style shows a minimum concern
for both production and people. Such a
leader does only the minimum required
to remain a member of the firm.
(5,5) –Leaders under this style do their
job but avoid making waves and conform
to the status quo.
Team Management (9,9) – It
integrates concern for production
and people. It is goal-directed team
approach that seeks to gain optimum
involvement, and commitment.
Effective leadership requires the right
behaviors, skill and attitudes. Participative
leaders share decision making with group
members. Autocratic leaders retain most of
the authority for themselves. The
Leadership Grid classifies leaders according
to their concern for both production and
To be effective, a leader must be able to
adapt his or her own style according to the