Issues and Trends in HBI Ch04 pp

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Issues and Trends in HBI Ch04 pp

  1. 1. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals Fifth Edition CHAPTER 4 The Internet and the World Wide Web: An Overview Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes1. Define electronic communication and compare and contrast e-mail, instant messaging, and text messaging.2. Differentiate between the Internet and the World Wide Web.3. Identify the process required to access both the Internet and the World Wide Web. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes4. Discuss services available on the Internet and the World Wide Web.5. Relate the advantages and disadvantages that the Internet and the World Wide Web have over traditional means of communicating information.6. Compare and contrast a Web page, a Web portal, a blog, and a wiki. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  4. 4. Learning Outcomes7. Discuss the terms search index, search engine, and search unifier.8. Evaluate the quality of information for a Website. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  5. 5. Learning Outcomes9. Compare and contrast the purpose and use of intranets and extranets to the purpose and use of the Internet.10.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the Internet as a platform for healthcare applications. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  6. 6. Internet (Net)• Worldwide network that connects millions of computers• Started as a government project for researchers to communicate, ARPANET• No one organization or government “controls” the Internet, although some governments censor what their citizens can access Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  7. 7. Key Internet Organizations• The Internet society – Provides information about the Internet – Hosts groups that develop infrastructure standards  Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)  Internet Architecture Board (IAB) Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  8. 8. Key Internet Organizations• Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) – Allocates domain names, settles domain disputes – Assigns Internet protocol numbers needed by each computer to be “seen” by the network Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  9. 9. Internet Service Providers (ISPs)• Companies that provide access for a fee• Levels of service – Dial-up – High-speed  Digital subscriber line (DSL) over telephone wires  Cable or fiber optic  Satellite  Wireless Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  10. 10. Internet Service Providers (ISPs)• E.G.: AOL, MSN, EarthLink, Comcast Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  11. 11. Internet Services and Resources• E-mail• Instant messaging (IM)• File transfer• Database searches• Remote log-on• Discussion and news groups Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  12. 12. E-mail (Electronic Mail)• Use of computers to transmit text messages to one or more persons with almost instant delivery• May transport other file types to the email (attachment files)• Can be sent anywhere in the world as long as the person has an e-mail address Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  13. 13. E-mail Address• Based on user name and “domain name” (organization or company that provides the individual with an account)• jdoe23@chatham.edu – Suggests at least 23 individuals with the same first initial and last name (J. Doe) at this facility – “edu” is a domain name indicating an educational facility Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  14. 14. Instant Messaging (IM)• Interactive, real-time, text discussion that may occur via computers, cell phones, or other mobile devices• Relies on many abbreviations for expeditious communication• Popular among adolescents and young adults• Sometimes used in work settings Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  15. 15. File Transfer• A means to move files from one location to another over a network that is separate from e-mail• File transfer protocol controls transfer of data• Useful for files that exceed allowable size limits imposed by e-mail providers Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  16. 16. Database Searches• These allow users access to databases, such as literature databases, through libraries or other organizations or via private subscription.• Searches can be done in a fraction of the time required to manually search through paper resources. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  17. 17. Remote Log-on• Allows users to access computer facilities from a separate location• May be used to view files at work or access remote databases at libraries• Require users to establish an account that permits access Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  18. 18. Discussion and News Groups• Similar in content and diversity• Differ in method of access• Discussion (Listserv or Mailing) groups – Individuals subscribe. – Mass e-mails are sent to all subscribers.• News (Usenet) groups – Users “read” and contribute to discussion selectively; no mass e-mails. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  19. 19. E-mail Concerns• HIPAA compliance• Improper use—no etiquette (netiquette) – Forwards, inappropriate or lengthy messages• Potential to carry viruses, worms, spyware Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  20. 20. E-mail Concerns• Commercial uses, overwhelming volume – Spam—unsolicited sales messages – Phishing—dubious requests for private information Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  21. 21. World Wide Web (Web)• Information service that accesses data by content instead of file names• Supports multimedia—text, images, sound, and links to other documents• Easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI)• Allows users to search for content using a browser• Supports a nonlinear approach Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  22. 22. Links (Hyperlinks)• Words, phrases, or images distinguished from the remainder of the document through the use of highlighting or a different screen color• Links allow users to skip from point to point within or among documents using the URL (address) for each page, Web page, or document Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  23. 23. Web Page• Content seen at a particular “address”• Home page—first page seen at a Web location, contains general information and an index or “links” for more specific topics that users may choose Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  24. 24. Web 2.0 Tools• Improve ability to share information• May be open source and available to download free of charge• Blog—a journal-like type of webpage• Wiki—a Web page that invites collaborative contributions• Bliki─combines both a blog and wiki Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  25. 25. Uniform Resource Locator (URL)• String of characters similar to a postal address• Identifies the document’s Web location and type of server on which it resides Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  26. 26. RSS Feeds• Really Simple Syndication is a delivery of updated web content to users.• Many Websites and blogs have links to RSS feeds that you can subscribe to and read. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  27. 27. Browser• A “retrieval” program that retrieves hypertext and hypermedia documents on the Web by using the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) or FTP• Examples – Internet Explorer – Firefox – Safari Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  28. 28. Search Tools• Search engines─Google, Yahoo, Bing• Help retrieve information on the web using search terms entered in a search box• + requires• − excludes• Boolean logic• Truncation Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  29. 29. Social Media and Social Networking• Social media are web-based programs that allow people to connect with one another online.• Social networking describes a Website that allows people to create a profile and interact with one another.• Content is user generated through posts, pictures, and videos. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  30. 30. Social Networking Websites• Wikipedia• Twitter• Facebook• LinkedIn Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  31. 31. Significance of Electronic Communication• Increase access to information• Resources for healthcare consumers and professionals• More rapid dissemination—consumers may hear of new findings before professionals• Anyone can post material—not all material is of equal quality Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  32. 32. Utility in Healthcare• Education• Marketing• Access to “benchmarking” information• New means to provide healthcare services (e-health) Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  33. 33. Internet-Related Concerns• Quality of information• Too much traffic leading to “collapse”• Security—others may access sensitive information, physical restrictions, and policies can help maintain security• Malware—malicious computer programs that wreak havoc or steal information (viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware) Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  34. 34. Evolution of Online Information• Credentials of the • Ease of navigation? source? • Current links?• Able to validate • Intended purpose? information? • Intended audience?• Accurate? • Disclaimer• Comprehensive? statement?• Current (date of • Site accreditation? issue/revision)? • Privacy policies• Bias or stated? sponsorship? Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  35. 35. Security for Websites and Information• Firewalls• Limiting access• Isolating web servers• Head security advisories• Keep antivirus systems up to date• Download and install security patches• Use security features with software Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  36. 36. The Future• The Internet and World Wide Web have changed the way the world communicates and does business.• The electronic world will continue to evolve and new services will be available, becoming more accessible and easier to use for all persons. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar

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