Chapter II  Episode III
Proteins: a closer look  Structural Levels of Proteins Primary Structure-  The Amino Acid sequence of the peptide chain, h...
Proteins: Denaturing  What is  Denaturing ?  Simply put it is when a Protein Complex comes apart due to  acid, alkali or h...
Proteins: Enzymes  Another word for Enzyme is  CATALYST <ul><li>Properties of Catalysts/Enzymes:  </li></ul><ul><li>They  ...
Proteins: Enzymes  Many Enzymes/Catalysts must be “ACTIVATED” before they can be useful Ex.  Phosphorylation ( Meaning sim...
Nucleic Acids  Moving on … I’m Excited…Aren’t you? ~oh yes~
Nucleic Acid  <ul><li>Made up of:   </li></ul><ul><li>A Phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>A Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>And a ...
Nucleic Acids: RNA vs. DNA What's the difference? RNA DNA Contains the Sugar  RIBOSE Single  Stranded  Uses the Nitrogen-c...
Nucleic Acid: RNA vs. DNA What they have in  COMMON ? A Phosphate Group The Nitrogen-containing bases: Adenine, Guanine, C...
Nucleic Acid: RNA vs. DNA So what matches with what? RNA DNA A =  U U  = A G = C C = G A =  T T  = A G = C C = G
Complete the DNA A--- T-- G-- C-- G-- G-- T-- T-- T-- --T --A --C --C --A --A --A --C --G What Do they mean? A T C G Adeni...
Complete the RNA A--- U-- G-- C-- G-- G-- U-- U-- U-- --U --A --C --C --A --A --A --C --G What Do they mean? A U C G Adeni...
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Moving on…
ATP: Structure Kind of looks like something familiar doesn’t it? RNA? Interesting…
ATP: What’s so special? The High Energy bond of the  PHOSPHATE Group  at the tail end of the molecule  It powers most ever...
So what do you learn?  <ul><li>How many different structural levels are there for a Protein?  </li></ul><ul><li>What makes...
So what did you learn? <ul><li>What is Denaturing? </li></ul><ul><li>What  3  things could Denature an Enzyme? </li></ul><...
So what did you learn? <ul><li>What does the “-ASE” suffix mean?  </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to the  SHAPE  of the Enz...
So what did you learn? <ul><li>What is an “Active Site”? </li></ul><ul><li>Name 3 things that make up a Nucleic Acid? </li...
So what did you learn?  <ul><li>What is the Structure of DNA? </li></ul>Double stranded = Double helix <ul><li>What is use...
So what did you learn?  Where in the cell is RNA  found?  Where in the cell is DNA  found?  In RNA what matches with A (Ad...
So what did you learn? What is does  ATP  stand for? Adenosine Triphosphate What is it about ATP that makes it the Power s...
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Chapter ii (proteins nucleic acids and atp)

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Ok so this is my 6th PPT of the series dedicated to the Human Anatomy. The humor is mine. So just change it to fit your needs. Hope this helps.

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Chapter ii (proteins nucleic acids and atp)

  1. 1. Chapter II Episode III
  2. 2. Proteins: a closer look Structural Levels of Proteins Primary Structure- The Amino Acid sequence of the peptide chain, held together by covalent bonds Secondary Structure- Alpha Helix’s and Beta sheets, held together by hydrogen bonds Tertiary Structure – 3D structure of a SINGLE protein molecule, completely compacted and folded polypeptide chain, held together by Disulfide bonds and Ionic bonds Quaternary Structure- A Complex built of several protein molecules or polypeptide chains (sub-units), bound together by Covalent bonds and Disulfide bridges
  3. 3. Proteins: Denaturing What is Denaturing ? Simply put it is when a Protein Complex comes apart due to acid, alkali or heat Ex. Cooking an EGG What happens to a Protein that is Denatured? Biologically: its original properties are diminished or rendered completely useless Physically: It loses it’s “useful” shape. i.e. It ~unravels~
  4. 4. Proteins: Enzymes Another word for Enzyme is CATALYST <ul><li>Properties of Catalysts/Enzymes: </li></ul><ul><li>They lower the Activation energy of a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>They do NOT change shape during the Rxn </li></ul><ul><li>Shape and charge of the SUBSTRATE (what's being broken down) is relevant to the ENZYME </li></ul>Denoted with the suffix “-ASE” Ex: Lipase (enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of fats into glycerol and fatty acids.
  5. 5. Proteins: Enzymes Many Enzymes/Catalysts must be “ACTIVATED” before they can be useful Ex. Phosphorylation ( Meaning simply: The addition of phosphate to an organic compound .) The “Active Site” is part on the enzyme that the substrate binds to. There’s WAY more to enzymes than this but… We’ll Keep it Simple ACTIVE ENZYME~POOF~
  6. 6. Nucleic Acids Moving on … I’m Excited…Aren’t you? ~oh yes~
  7. 7. Nucleic Acid <ul><li>Made up of: </li></ul><ul><li>A Phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>A Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>And a Nitrogen-containing Base </li></ul>Make up what we know as DNA The “Blueprint” of an organism. Also make up RNA
  8. 8. Nucleic Acids: RNA vs. DNA What's the difference? RNA DNA Contains the Sugar RIBOSE Single Stranded Uses the Nitrogen-containing Base URACIL Located outside the NUCLEUS Contains the Sugar DEOXYRIBOSE Double Stranded = Double Helix ** Remember Watson and Crick? Uses the Nitrogen-containing Base THYMINE Located inside the NUCLEUS
  9. 9. Nucleic Acid: RNA vs. DNA What they have in COMMON ? A Phosphate Group The Nitrogen-containing bases: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine
  10. 10. Nucleic Acid: RNA vs. DNA So what matches with what? RNA DNA A = U U = A G = C C = G A = T T = A G = C C = G
  11. 11. Complete the DNA A--- T-- G-- C-- G-- G-- T-- T-- T-- --T --A --C --C --A --A --A --C --G What Do they mean? A T C G Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine
  12. 12. Complete the RNA A--- U-- G-- C-- G-- G-- U-- U-- U-- --U --A --C --C --A --A --A --C --G What Do they mean? A U C G Adenine Uracil Cytosine Guanine
  13. 13. ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Moving on…
  14. 14. ATP: Structure Kind of looks like something familiar doesn’t it? RNA? Interesting…
  15. 15. ATP: What’s so special? The High Energy bond of the PHOSPHATE Group at the tail end of the molecule It powers most everything in the body
  16. 16. So what do you learn? <ul><li>How many different structural levels are there for a Protein? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes up the basic building block for protein? </li></ul><ul><li>What is another word for an Enzyme? </li></ul><ul><li>What does an Enzyme do to the Activation energy of a Rxn? </li></ul>4 Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Amino Acids Catalyst Lowers it
  17. 17. So what did you learn? <ul><li>What is Denaturing? </li></ul><ul><li>What 3 things could Denature an Enzyme? </li></ul><ul><li>Biologically what happens to a Denatured Enzyme? </li></ul><ul><li>Physically what happens to a Denatured Enzyme? </li></ul>When a Proteins structure comes apart Heat, Acid or Alkali It becomes less effective or even useless It unravels or loses it useful shape
  18. 18. So what did you learn? <ul><li>What does the “-ASE” suffix mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to the SHAPE of the Enzyme during and after the Rxn? </li></ul><ul><li>What are 2 things that determine the affinity of the Substrate to the Enzyme? </li></ul><ul><li>Name what needs to happens to some Enzymes before they become “Active”? </li></ul>An Enzyme Nothing…it remains the same Shape and charge of the Substrate Phosphorylation
  19. 19. So what did you learn? <ul><li>What is an “Active Site”? </li></ul><ul><li>Name 3 things that make up a Nucleic Acid? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the name of the Sugar used in DNA? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the name of the Sugar used in RNA? </li></ul><ul><li>How many strands are in an RNA chain? </li></ul>The Area on a Enzyme that the Substrate binds to. Phosphate Group, A Sugar, Nitrogenous Base Deoxyribose Ribose A Single Strand
  20. 20. So what did you learn? <ul><li>What is the Structure of DNA? </li></ul>Double stranded = Double helix <ul><li>What is used in RNA instead of Thymine ? </li></ul>Uracil <ul><li>What are the 4 Nitrogenous Bases for DNA? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the 4 Nitrogenous Bases for RNA? </li></ul>A, T, G, C = Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine A, U, G, C = Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine
  21. 21. So what did you learn? Where in the cell is RNA found? Where in the cell is DNA found? In RNA what matches with A (Adenine)? In DNA what matches with A (Adenine)? Outside the Nucleus Inside the Nucleus Uracil Thymine
  22. 22. So what did you learn? What is does ATP stand for? Adenosine Triphosphate What is it about ATP that makes it the Power source for the body? The High Energy Bonds found in the Phosphate Chain If you were able to answer all of these from memory you’re a WARRIOR . If NOT ? Then study your notes again Thursday We REVIEW

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