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Explanation text


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Explanation text

  2. 2. Explanation Text Explaining the processes that occur in the formation or the activities associated with natural phenomena, the scientific world, socio-cultural, or other purpose explained.
  3. 3. • Purpose : To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.• Generic Structure: 1. General statement 2. Explanation 3. Closing
  4. 4. • Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using action verbs 3. Using passive voice 4. Using noun phrase 5. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using technical terms 7. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using conjunction of time and cause- effect.
  5. 5. The Difference Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function, both procedure andexplanation texts have the similarity in which both of themdescribe how to make or do something. They give the detaildescriptions on something, phenomena, goods, product,case or problem.To see the differences between explanation and procedure,we have to analyze the dominant language features andhow the texts are used.Procedure is commonly called as an instruction text. It usesa pattern of command in building the structure. It uses the“to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to” as well. It ismainly used to describe how to make something which isclose to our daily activity. How to make a cup of tea, how tomake a good kite, etc. are the best example of a proceduretext.
  6. 6. On the other hand; explanation commonlyuses the passive voice in building the text. It isused such as in a scientific written material. Itdescribes how certain phenomenon or eventhappens. How a tornado formed, how tsunamiworks are the best examples of explanation texts.In conclusion, what makes superficially differentis the way how they are structured. In one side,explanation text is formed in the mode ofdescription. It focuses on the thing which isexplained. In the other side, Procedure text isconstructed in the mode of instruction andcommand. That is why Procedure is sometimescalled instruction text. It focuses on the secondperson to explain how to form something.
  7. 7. Example Of Explanation Text TsunamiThe term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A tsunami is a series of waves generated whenwater in a lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms andvertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements ofthe earths crust can occur at plate boundaries.Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami,and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity toregain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused bythe huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of thesea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.
  8. 8. Venus Flytrap The Venus Flytrap is an extraordinary plant. It is a carnivorous(flesh eating) plant which can digest flies and other insects.When the ‘trap’ is open, it looks like a large seashell with sharp,spiky ‘teeth’. It has bright colours and a beautiful scent.Insects are attracted to the plant because of its vibrant colours andits sweet-scented nectar. The insects land on small ‘trigger’ hairs ofthe trap and this pressure causes the trap to close. If the insect istoo small, the chamber will not close, because there is not enoughpressure. Once the trap has swallowed an insect it takes ten days todiggest it.The Venus Flytrap prefers tropical weather and so it is found inplaces like South America. It is often used by people to catch theannoying insects that fly around their houses. In my opinion it’s veryuseful plant!
  10. 10. 1. A natural disaster is a terrible accident, e.g. a great flood, a big fire or an earthquake. It usually causes great suffering and loss of a large sum of money. The causalities are injured or died. Some people are homeless and need medical care. Floods occur when the water of rivers, lakes, or streams overflow their banks and pour out into the surrounding land. Floods are caused by many different thins. Often heave rainstorms that last for a brief time can cause a flood. But not all heave storms are followed by flooding. If the surrounding lands is flat and can absorb the water, no flooding will occur. If. however, the lands is hard and rocky heavy rain cannot be absorbed. Where the banks are low, a river may overflow and flood adjacent lowland.
  11. 11. in many parts of the world floods are caused bytropical storms called hurricanes of typhoons. Thebring destructive winds of high speed torrents of rain,and flooding. When a flood occurs, the destruction tothe surrounding land can be severe. Whole villages andtowns are sometimes-swept away bay water pouringswiftly over the land. Railroad tracks buckles and areuprooted from their beds. Highways are washed away.When a building caught fire, the firemen pitchedin to help battle the blaze. Before the pumps wereinvented, people formed bucket brigades to fight fires.Standing side by side, they formed a human chain fromthe fire to nearby well or river. They passed buckets ofwater from hand to hand to be poured on the flames.The damage of fire did depend a great deal onwere it happened. In at the country or a small village,only a single house might burn down. But in crowdedcities, fire often destroyed whole blocks andneighbourhoods before being controlled.
  12. 12. UNAS-SMA-00-14Why do hurricanes of typhoons usually cause greatdestruction? Because they ...A. bring destructive winds and torrential rainsB. are heave enough to cause floodC. are heave stormsD. are hard windsE. are tropical stormsUNAS-SMA-00-15Modern fire brigades use ... to fight fire.A. buckets of waterB. spraying sandC. human chainD. fire pumpE. fire arm
  13. 13. 2. Have you ever wondered how people getchocolate from? In this article well enter the amazingworld of chocolate so you can understand exactly whatyoure eating.Chocolate starts with a tree called the cacao tree.This tree grows in equatorial regions, especially inplaces such as South America, Africa, and Indonesia.The cacao tree produces a fruit about the size of a smallpine apple. Inside the fruit are the trees seeds, alsoknown as cocoa beans.The beans are fermented for about a week, driedin the sun and then shipped to the chocolate maker. Thechocolate maker starts by roasting the beans to bringout the flavour.
  14. 14. . Different beans from different placeshave different qualities and flavor, so they are oftensorted and blanded to produce a distinctive mix. Next,the roasted beans are winnowed. Winnowing removesthe meat nib of the cacao bean from its shell. Then, thenibs are blended. The blended nibs are ground to makeit a liquid. The liquid is called chocolate liquor. Ittastes bitter. All seeds contain some amount of fat, andcacao beans are not different. However, cacao beansare half fat, which is why the ground nibs form liquid.Its pure bitter chocolate
  15. 15. UN-SMA-07-36The text is about ...A. the cacao treeB. the cacao beansC. the raw chocolateD. the making of chocolateE. the flavour of chocolateUN-SMA-07-37The third paragraph focuses on ...A. the process of producing chocolateB. how to produce the cocoa flavourC. where chocolate comes fromD. the chocolate liquorE. the cacao fruit
  16. 16. UN-SMA-07-38" ..., so they are often sorted and blended to produce ..."(Paragraph 3)The underlined word is close in meaning to ...A. arrangedB. combinedC. separatedD. distributedE. organizedUN-SMA-07-39How does the chocolate maker start to make chocolate?A. By fermenting the beans.B. By roasting the beans,C. By blending the beans.D. By sorting the beans.E. By drying the beans
  17. 17. 3. Satellite Space-eye does not look like thesatellites of the 1980s. It has large wings that gathersolar power. The power is for the motor. It keeps thesatellite in the same place above the earth. All the bigfarmers in the area have paid for the cost of SatelliteSpace-eye.Constanza is one of those farmers. His homecomputer makes the connection with Satellite Space-eye. He asks to see a picture of the field in the south-west corner of his farm. The picture appears on a TVscreen. It is a picture of a green wheat field. Everythinglooks fine, he then asks the computer to show the samearea, but in colours. .The colours show the differenttemperatures in the field. He knows healthy wheatplants will all be green. The TV screen blinks and abeautiful picture appears. It has many shades of blue,red, and green.
  18. 18. Constanza looks closely at the large red spot nearthe middle of the wheat field. He knows that somethingis wrong in the wheat field. The red colour means thespot is warmer than its surroundings. It may be due tolack of moisture or not enough nutrients in the soil.Insects eating the wheat can also show a red spot.Constanza tells the computer to tell him moreabout the warm spot. The computer points out that theproblem is a shortage of nitrogen in the soil. He asksthe computer to predict the harvest if he adds thefertilizer. He then tells the computer the current marketprice for wheat. He also tells the price of the fertilizer.He asks for a costing. He wants to know if it will givehim a profit to add the fertilizer. The computer giveshim the answer. Is it a science fiction? No, it ishappening now.
  19. 19. UN-SMA-04-23The text tells about ...A. Constanza and his wheat fieldB. the use of Satellite Space - eye in farmingC. the blue, red, and green colours on the TV screenD. the meaning of the colours appeared on the TV screenE. the ability of the computer to predictUN-SMA-04-24The main idea of paragraph two is …A. Constanza is one of the farmers who makes use of the Satellite Space-eye.B. Constanzas home computer is connected to Satellite Space-eye.C. The picture appears on the TV screen comes from Satellite Space-eye.D. Various information can be served by Satellite Space-eye.E. The Satellite Space-eye sent Constanza what he wanted.
  20. 20. UN-SMA-04-25The red colour showed on the TV screen means tA. the plants are healthyB. the soil does not have enough nutrientsC. the temperature is lowD. the plants are not disturbed by any insectsE. the wheat field is in good conditionUN-SMA-04-26"It may be due to lack of moisture." (Paragraph 3We can replace the underlined word with ...A. makeB. haveC. getD. owing toE. let
  21. 21. A planet is a body in space that revolves around astar. There are nine planets in our solar system, andthese nine planets travel around the sun. The names ofthe planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter,Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.Planets travel in orbit, around the stars. All of theplanets of the solar system revolve ill elliptical orbits.In other Words, their orbits are like large, flat circles.The time that it takes a planet to make one revolutionaround the sun is called a year.The Greeks were the first people to recognize andgive names to some of the planets. The word planetcomes from a Greek word meaning wanderer. If aperson wanders, tills means that he goes from oneplace to another and does not have a home. The Greeksthought that planets "wandered" in the sky. However,modern scientists can predict the movement of theplanets very accurately.
  22. 22. UN-SMA-03-01What is the suitable title for this text?A. The Stars.B. The Planets.C. The Orbits.D. The WanderersE. The Greeks.UN-SMA-03-02The planets in our solar system travel ...A. around the starsB. around the circlesC. in one movementD. from one position to anotherE. in elliptical orbits