CUT SECTIONS• A DETAILED ENGINEERING SOILS ANALYSIS OF A PROPOSED HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT IS A CRUCIAL PART OF THE HIGHWAY DESIGN PROCESS. THE RESULTS OF THE SOILS ANALYSIS ARE USED TO DEVELOP THE DESIGN DETAILS OF CUT SECTIONS SUCH AS DEPTH AND SLOPE OF THE CUT. THE ENGINEER HAS TO KEEP IN MIND THAT THE VOLUME OF EXCAVATION INCREASES SIGNIFICANTLY AS THE DEPTH OF THE CUT INCREASES, AND THEREFORE USUALLY TRIES TO AVOID EXCESSIVE CUT DEPTHS. CUT SLOPES ARE RARELY STEEPER THAN 2:1 (2 UNITS HORIZONTAL TO 1 UNIT VERTICAL OR ABOUT 27 DEGREES FROM HORIZONTAL) EXCEPT IN VERY COMPETENT MATERIALS SUCH AS SOLID ROCK.
FILL SECTIONS• THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF ROADWAY CONSTRUCTION IN RURAL AREAS OCCURS ON FILL. IN FLAT TERRAIN, THE HIGHWAY PAVEMENT SHOULD BE ELEVATED SEVERAL FEET ABOVE THE ORIGINAL GROUND SURFACE TO AID DRAINAGE. SLOPES FOR FILL SHOULD BE DETERMINED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE GUIDELINES DISCUSSED UNDER CROSS SECTION ELEMENTS. IT IS DESIRABLE TO KEEP THE HEIGHT OF THE FILL SECTION TO 30 FEET OR LESS, WITH 20 FEET BEING A PREFERRED MAXIMUM. WITH FILL HEIGHTS GREATER THAN 20 FEET, IT MAY BE MORE ECONOMICAL TO BUILD A BRIDGE, DEPENDING ON THE TOPOGRAPHY.
CUTTING OR EXCAVATION• MEANS AN ACT BY WHICH SOIL , SAND , GRAVEL OR ROCK IS CUT INTO DUG , QUARRIED , UNCOVERED REMOVE OR RELOCATED AND SHALL INCLUDE THE CONDITIONS RESULTING THERE FROM • By = augers, excavators, loaders, and Bulldozers
DUMPING OF WASTE MATERIAL IS NON-HAZARDOUS USELESS OR DISCHARGE MATERIAL.Waste material= large and small pieces of the materials indicated which are excess to the contract requirements and generally include materials which are to be salvaged from existing construction and items of trimmings, cuttings and damaged goods resulting from new installations, which can not be effectively used in the Work
• WASTE MANAGEMENT: – General: Implement waste management procedures in accordance with approved construction waste management plan Source Separation: Separate, store, protect, and handle at the project site all identified recyclable and salvageable waste products – Arrange for the regular collection, transport from the site, and delivery to respective approved recycling centers of indicated recyclable waste materials. Delivery Receipts: Arrange for timely pickups from the site or deliveries to approved recycling facilities of designated waste materials
BORROW• IS EARTH MATERIAL ACQUIRED FROM ON OR OF SIDE LOCATIONS FOR USE IN GRADING ON A SIDE • LOCAL BORROW • IMPORT BORROW
IMPORT BORROW• WHEN IMPORTED BORROW (LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATE) IS USED AS EMBANKMENT MATERIAL FOR GEOSYNTHETICALLY REINFORCED EMBANKMENTS• IMPORTED BORROW (LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE) SHALL BE SPREAD OR PLACED IN SUCH MANNER THAT WILL PREVENT BULKING OF THE MATERIAL AND MINIMIZE PARTICLE BREAKDOWN
ROCK EXCAVATION• ROCK EXCAVATION IS PRIMARILY USED IN MAKING FOUNDATIONS FOR STRUCTURES THAT HAVE TO BE VERY STRONG. GOOD EXAMPLES OF THIS ARE FOUNDATIONS FOR SKYSCRAPERS, DAMS, AND EVEN SOME HOUSES. HOWEVER, ROCK EXCAVATION CAN ALSO INVOLVE SIMPLY REMOVING UNWANTED ROCK FROM AN AREA. IT ALSO ENCOMPASSES REMOVING OF ANY MINERAL DEPOSITS PRESENT ON AN EXCAVATION SITE. • THE POINT OF SUCH THINGS ISNT TO GIVE YOU A HISTORY LESSON, BUT TO SHOW YOU THAT ROCK EXCAVATION (INDEED, ALL EXCAVATION) - DIGGING A REALLY BIG HOLE - IS AS MUCH A PART OF HUMAN INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT AS THE BUILDING OF SKYSCRAPERS OR HIGHWAY NETWORKS. ACTUALLY, ROCK EXCAVATION HAS ITS PLACE IN HISTORY, TOO. THE GREAT PYRAMIDS AND THE EXTINCTION OF THE DINOSAURS ARE DIRECT RESULTS OF ROCK EXCAVATION