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The world in 2016 and the international conflicts

In human history, there were three attempts to establish international governance that would contribute to peace building. The first attempt occurred in 1648 with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in Europe that marked the end of the first great European conflict, the War of the Thirty Years. The second attempt was the establishment of the League of Nations or the Society of Nations established in 1919 with the Treaty of Versailles which put an end to the First World War. The third and last attempt was the establishment of the United Nations Organization (UNO) or simply United Nations which was established in October 24, 1945, after the end of World War II with the intent to prevent another conflict like that. At its foundation, the UN had 51 member states and is now 193. The world where we live become an ungovernable chaos in which the great powers think only of power and wealth. While prevail this situation in the world, the war tends to proliferate in every corner of the Earth. All that has just been reported points in the direction that mankind must constitute a world government as a prerequisite for putting an end to wars and enforce world peace. With a world government, it will be possible to mediate conflicts, to fight against the war and end the bloodshed that has characterized the history of mankind throughout history.

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The world in 2016 and the international conflicts

  1. 1. 1 THE WORLD IN 2016 AND THE INTERNATIONAL CONFLICTS Fernando Alcoforado * In human history, there were three attempts to establish international governance that would contribute to peace building. The first attempt occurred in 1648 with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in Europe that marked the end of the first great European conflict, the War of the Thirty Years. The second attempt was the establishment of the League of Nations or the Society of Nations established in 1919 with the Treaty of Versailles which put an end to the First World War. The third and last attempt was the establishment of the United Nations Organization (UNO) or simply United Nations which was established in October 24, 1945, after the end of World War II with the intent to prevent another conflict like that. At its foundation, the UN had 51 member states and is now 193. According to an article published by The Washington Post, since the end of World War II the world has known 160 wars, which killed about 7 million soldiers and 30 million civilians. Former Secretary of US State, Zbigniew Brzezinski made an estimate covering all "mega deaths" that have occurred since 1914 and reached a total of 187 million dead. In 2016, it continues the escalation of international conflicts. In the current international context, it is possible to identify nine major global conflicts which are described in the following paragraphs. The conflict between the United States and Western allies against Russia results from the attempt by Western powers to prevent the strengthening of Russia as a major world power and the Russian geopolitical recovery thanks to the affirmation of a nationalist project of recovery of the Russian state by Wladimir Putin. The conflict between the United States and China results from the need of the United States to prevent the rise of China's hegemonic power condition on the planet. To this end, a new global military strategy of the United States was adopted which now focus on the Asia-Pacific region to counter the threat from China. In turn, China promotes rapid modernization of the armed forces whose military spending will exceed the combined budgets of the twelve other major powers in the Asia-Pacific region. The conflict between Israel and Palestine confronts the Palestinian people and the Jewish occupation of the same territory in dispute. In addition to assuming the local dimension, the Israel-Palestine conflict is included as a regional conflict in the context of the Arab-Israeli conflict that is a long-running conflict in the Middle East, which takes place from the late nineteenth century. The conflict between Israel and Iran results from Israel really want to prevent Iran from becoming a nuclear power that could threaten its survival as a nation. The conflict between Sunnis and Shiites result of the rivalry between Saudi Arabia, mainly Sunni, and Iran, the great Shiite power in the Middle East. The conflict in Syria is a civil war that began in 2011 and became a regional war involving many countries (United States, its Western allies and Saudi Arabia that support the rebels in the overthrow of Bashar al-Assad regime and Russia and Iran supporting Bashar al-Assad). The clash of civilizations was predicted by Samuel Huntington in his book Clash of Civilizations [HUNTINGTON, Samuel. O Choque de Civilizações (The Clash of Civilizations). Objetiva, 1997] which showed a profound divergence between the Western and Islamic civilizations. It is in this context that the Islamic State which aims to expand its caliphate throughout the Middle East and establish connections in Europe
  2. 2. 2 and other regions of the world, in order to carry out attacks that may confer upon them authority through terror. The conflict between North Korea and South Korea is the continuity of the Korean War (1950-1953) that ended with the signing of the Pan munjom Treaty. Despite this, South Korea and North Korea are still officially at war today. For these reasons, it is dramatic the current world situation. The world where we live become an ungovernable chaos in which the great powers think only of power and wealth. While prevail this situation in the world, the war tends to proliferate in every corner of the Earth. How to build a new scenario of peace and cooperation among nations and peoples of the world? This is an old challenge and thought by many philosophers such as Immanuel Kant to address this theme in his work Perpetual Peace proposing the foundations and principles necessary for a free federation of states legally established which would not adopt the form of a world government, as this would result in an unlimited absolutism. There should be a federation of free states in which all possessed republican constitutions. The ultimate goal of this federation would be the promotion of the highest good, which is the true peace among states, ending the disastrous war, to which all states always turned their efforts, as the main purpose. The proposal to Kant was put into practice with the creation of the League of Nations in 1919 and the UN in 1946 which were not capable of bringing world peace. All that has just been reported points in the direction that mankind must constitute a world government as a prerequisite for putting an end to wars and enforce world peace. With a world government, it will be possible to mediate conflicts, to fight against the war and end the bloodshed that has characterized the history of mankind throughout history. The world government should be representative of all the peoples of the world. The survival of humanity depends on the ability to enter into a Planetarium Social Contract representative of the will of the majority of the world population. * Fernando Alcoforado, 76, Bahia Academy member for Education, engineer and doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development from the University of Barcelona, university professor and consultant in strategic planning, business planning, regional planning and planning energy systems, is the author Globalization of books (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1997), From the Collor FHC- Brazil and Nova (Des) World order (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1998), A Project for Brazil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), The determinants of the development of the State of Bahia (PhD Thesis. University of Barcelona, http://www.tesisenred.net/handle/10803/1944, 2003), Globalization and Development (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2006 ), Bahia- Development of the sixteenth century to the twentieth century and Strategic Objectives in the Era Contemporary (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and Social Development- The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Global Warming and Disaster Planetary (P & A Gráfica e Editora, Salvador, 2010), Sustainable Amazon to Brazil's progress and combating global warming (Vienna-Publishing and Printing, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011), The Determinants Factors of Economic and Social Development (Publisher CRV, Curitiba, 2012) and Energy in the World and Brazil- Energy and Climate Change Catastrophic in the XXI Century (Editor CRV, Curitiba, 2015).

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