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Sustainable energy system required for the world


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Sustainable energy system required for the world

  1. 1. 1 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEM REQUIRED FOR THE WORLD Fernando Alcoforado * Energy is an essential input for the living beings and the economic and social development. It can be stated that the most basic need of living beings is to search for energy to keep their bodies functioning. This aspect, meeting the physiological need, predominated in human history until to discover that he could control forms of energy which would be useful as fire, which represented a significant milestone in the field of human beings towards the use of thermal energy can cook their food and warmth. The domestication of animals led humanity to the mechanical energy to transport, agriculture, etc. A few millennia, rivers hydropower and wind began to be used. However, only with the advent of the Industrial Revolution, some three centuries ago, is that the use and production of energy assumed fundamental connotation in replacement of men and animals by machines. Since the domain of fire 750,000 years ago until the advent of the Industrial Revolution there was no major change in the way humanity to utilize energy. But with the Industrial Revolution occurred in England in 1786 and the subsequent industrialization, the need for power increased and new primary sources, with higher energy density, were introduced. The use of coal as an energy source marked the end of the era of renewable energy represented by wood and hydraulic and meager wind farms to start on non-renewable energy era, the era of fossil fuels. The use of electricity and the invention of electric machines in the nineteenth century, along with the introduction of motor vehicles, laid the groundwork for the introduction of modern consumer society, characterized by an energy intensity never before seen in human history. With the advancement of industrialization, new fuels of greater energy power were needed, and the petroleum fuel that met these properties. Thus began a new phase in the use of liquid fuels that endures to this day. More recently, after the Second World War, nuclear power seemed a promising alternative for the generation of electricity, but suffered a major setback due to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Ukraine in 1986 and Fukushima in Japan recently. There is no doubt that human activity on Earth cause changes in the environment in which we live. Many of these environmental impacts are from the generation, handling and use of energy. The main reason for the existence of environmental impacts from the generation, handling and use of energy lies in the fact that global consumption of primary energy from non-renewable sources (oil, coal, natural gas and nuclear) corresponds to approximately 88% of full, leaving only 12% renewables. This enormous dependence on non-renewable sources of energy has caused, plus ongoing concern about the depletion of these sources, the emission of large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, which in 2013 was approximately 36.3 billion tons, about 3.9 times the amount issued in 1960 (9.3 billion tons). As a result of excessive use of fossil fuels, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has steadily increased, leading many experts to believe that the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's biosphere, which has been observed for several decades, is due to an " greenhouse" caused by this increase in CO2 and other gases in the atmosphere, now generically called "greenhouse gases". To avoid the catastrophic future that portends for humanity resulting from global warming, it becomes an imperative, among other measures, to reduce global carbon emissions by promoting
  2. 2. 2 changes in the current global energy production based mainly on fossil fuels (coal and petroleum), by another structured based on renewable energy resources, hydropower, biomass and sources of solar and wind power to avoid or minimize global warming and hence the occurrence of catastrophic changes in Earth's climate. The International Energy Agency (IEA) warned that "the world will go to a unsustainable energy future" unless governments adopt "urgent measures" to optimize available resources [See Article AIE: mundo se encaminha para futuro energético insustentável (IEA: the world is heading for unsustainable energy future) published in website < para-futuro-energetico-insustentavel.html>]. To the IEA, by 2035 the world would need an investment of U.S. $ 38 trillion in energy infrastructure - two-thirds in countries outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) - to meet the growing demand, 90% to supply the emerging countries like China and India. To optimize the energy resources available on the planet, we need to implement a sustainable energy system on a planetary scale. With sustainable energy system, it is very possible that natural gas pass to be, among the fossil fuels, the predominant energy resource in the future. Nuclear energy is not an important source of energy in a truly sustainable energy system. This is due largely to accidents at Three Mile Island in the United States, Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union and in Japan Fukushima. A sustainable energy system will only be possible if energy efficiency is also greatly improved. Quadruple the global production of renewable energy is also essential to obtain a sustainable energy system in the future. This will require the use of biomass and hydropower, especially in countries with great potential, as is the case of Brazil. Require also that solar, wind and geothermal energy will be part of the "mix" of the energy world. The technologies are already available to begin this historic transition of energies that will only occur through fundamental changes in energy policy in most countries. The first step is to redirect a large number of government policies so that they are intended to achieve the core objectives of energy efficiency and reducing the use of fossil fuels. For example: rewarding the acquisition of efficient vehicles, encourage alternative mass transport high capacity to replace the automobile industries, restructure and raise energy taxes on fossil fuels. In a sustainable energy system, the world oil production should be halved and coal 90%, while renewable sources of energy should grow nearly 4 times. In 2030, renewable energy should be of the order of 70% of the total energy of the planet. These are the requirements of a sustainable energy system worldwide. Regardless of the various solutions that may be adopted to eliminate or mitigate the causes of the greenhouse effect, the most important is undoubtedly the adoption of measures to help eliminate or reduce the consumption of fossil fuels in energy production as well as for your more efficient use in transport, industry, agriculture and cities (residential and commercial), given the use and production of energy is responsible for 57% of greenhouse gases emitted by human activity. In this sense, it is essential to implement a sustainable energy system. The use of renewable energy will lead to changes of great magnitude across the globe highlighting, among them the creation of entirely new industries, the development of new transport systems and modification of agriculture and cities. The big challenge for today is to continue the development of new technologies that efficiently and
  3. 3. 3 economically leverage the energy using renewable resources. This is the energy scenario that can avoid compromising the global environment. * Fernando Alcoforado , 74, member of the Bahia Academy of Education, engineer and doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development from the University of Barcelona, a university professor and consultant in strategic planning, business planning, regional planning and planning of energy systems, is the author of Globalização (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1997), De Collor a FHC- O Brasil e a Nova (Des)ordem Mundial (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1998), Um Projeto para o Brasil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), Os condicionantes do desenvolvimento do Estado da Bahia (Tese de doutorado. Universidade de Barcelona,, 2003), Globalização e Desenvolvimento (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2006), Bahia- Desenvolvimento do Século XVI ao Século XX e Objetivos Estratégicos na Era Contemporânea (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and Social Development-The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária (P&A Gráfica e Editora, Salvador, 2010), Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil e combate ao aquecimento global (Viena- Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011) and Os Fatores Condicionantes do Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012), among others.