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EVALUATION OF BRAZILIAN EDUCATION PLAN
Fernando Alcoforado *
The National Education Plan (NEP) should pursue two main ob...
2
NEP contemplates the execution of 20 targets described below:
1. Universalize, 2016, the educational attainment of the p...
3
specific training at tertiary level, obtained in degree course in the field of knowledge in
which they operate.
16. Form...
4
The net enrollment rate in secondary education should be 100% and not 85%. Although
about 80% of young people ages 15 to...
5
The Index of Basic Education Development (Ideb) is an indicator of the quality of
education developed by the Ministry of...
6
Goal 11 contained in the plan are as follows: Triple enrollment in career technical
high school education, ensuring the ...
7
The goal is entirely feasible if the government offer scholarships, which has a direct
cost increase. There has to be go...
8
Comment:
In force since 2008, the Law of the Floor to the magisterium is not served in seven
states in the country, acco...
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Evaluation of brazilian education plan

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Evaluation of brazilian education plan

  1. 1. 1 EVALUATION OF BRAZILIAN EDUCATION PLAN Fernando Alcoforado * The National Education Plan (NEP) should pursue two main objectives: 1) to prepare at all levels of education (kindergarten, elementary, secondary, vocational and higher) citizens to build a better world and become active agents in the advancement of mankind; and, 2) to prepare citizens with the highest possible qualification to meet the needs of the working world. These objectives should constitute the basis on which it should be structured NEP. In other words, the education system to be structured in Brazil, based on NEP should prepare Brazilian citizens committed to building a better world from childhood to adult life and qualified for the world of work. Towards these 2 great goals described above, it is necessary: 1) to develop specific training programs for teachers at all levels of education and region of Brazil; 2) developing programs for the development of appropriate methodologies for each level of education and region of Brazil; and, 3) develop specific programs to enhance existing educational infrastructure to adapt it to the needs at all levels of education taking into account regional specificities. Besides not define the major objectives to be pursued by the NEP and programs relating to the training of teachers, development of teaching methodologies and strengthening educational infrastructure, it can be seen that the National Education Plan was drawn up by the federal government without adopting a systematic rational. The absence of a systematic rational in the preparation of the NEP is mainly a result of the following: 1) The NEP was established without a larger framework that would be the existence of a national development plan that Brazil does not have; 2) The NEP did not present an assessment of the situation of education in Brazil; 3) The NEP was drafted without the participation of other governmental agencies (federal, state and municipal), the state and private productive sector and civil society organizations; 4) The NEP proposes to place 10% of GDP for education in the country without relying on resource requirements to implement the plan in the planning horizon; 5) The NEP set 20 goals and generic strategies without specifying them on an annual basis and not assign responsibility for its implementation; and 6) The federal government does not consider the social control in the management and evaluation of the NEP. The national education plan should be preceded by a thorough diagnosis of the education system in Brazil, identifying their strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. This assessment should include the participation of the various governmental areas (federal, state and municipal), the state and private productive sector and organized civil society. Taking into account the diagnosis made, should be drawn: 1) specific training programs for teachers at all levels of education and region of Brazil; 2) programs for the development of appropriate methodologies for each level of education and region of Brazil; and, 3) Specific programs for strengthening the existing educational infrastructure to adapt it to the needs at all levels of education taking into account regional specificities. These programs should include the specification of goals and strategies for its implementation, as well as financial resources with the corresponding sources of funding. The National Education Plan should be translated in terms of annual budget specifying the sources of funds needed for its financing.
  2. 2. 2 NEP contemplates the execution of 20 targets described below: 1. Universalize, 2016, the educational attainment of the population aged 4 and 5 years, and extend, 2020, the provision of early childhood education in order to meet the 50% population of up to 3 years. 2. Universalize elementary education from nine years to the entire population 6-14 years. 3. Universalize, 2016, educational attainment for the population aged 15 to 17 years and raise, 2020, the net enrollment rate in secondary education to 85% in this age group. 4. Universalize for the population 4-17 years, school assistance to students with disabilities, pervasive developmental disorders and high ability or giftedness preferably in mainstream education, ensuring educational services specializing in multi-functional features. 5. Alphabetize all children up to a maximum of eight years old. 6. Provide full-time education at 50% of public schools to meet at least 25% of (the) student (s) of basic education. 7. Promoting the quality of basic education in all stages and types, with improved student flow and learning. 8. Raising average schooling of the population 18 to 24 years so as to achieve a minimum of 12 years of schooling for rural populations, the region of lower education in the country and the poorest 25% and to equalize the average educational level among blacks and non-blacks, with a view to reducing educational inequality. 9. Raise the literacy rate of the population aged 15 years or more to 93.5% by 2015 and eradicate until the end of the term of the NEP, the absolute illiteracy and reduce by 50% the rate of functional illiteracy. 10. Provide at least 25% of the enrollment of young and adults education integrated in vocational education forms at the final years of primary school and high school. 11. Triple enrollment in career technical high school education, ensuring the quality of supply and at least 50% of the expansion in the public sector. 12. Increase the gross enrollment ratio in higher education to 50% and the net rate to 33% of people aged 18 to 24, ensuring the quality of provision and expansion to at least 40% of the new registrations in the public sector . 13. Raise the quality of higher education by expanding the role of masters and doctors in institutions of higher education to 75% at least of the faculty in effective exercise being the total, 35% doctors. 14. Gradually Increase enrollment in stricto sensu graduate programs (master and doctorate) in order to meet the annual titration 60,000 masters and 25,000 doctors. 15. Ensure, in collaboration arrangements between the Union, the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities, the term of this NEP, the national policy on training and development of professional education, ensuring that all basic education teachers have
  3. 3. 3 specific training at tertiary level, obtained in degree course in the field of knowledge in which they operate. 16. Forming level postgraduate 50% of teachers of basic education, until the last year of this NEP, and ensuring that all continuing education in their field of activity, considering the needs, demands and contextualization of learning systems. 17. Enhancing the teaching of public networks of basic education, in order to approximate the average income of other professionals with equivalent schooling until the sixth year of this NEP. 18. Ensure, within two years, the existence of career paths for (the) professional public basic education for all education systems, and to the career plan of professional public basic education with reference to the floor professional national wage, set by federal law, pursuant to art. 206, VIII, of the Constitution. 19. Ensure conditions within two years for effective democratic management of education, associated technical criteria of merit and performance and public consultation and the school community, in the public schools. 20. Larger government investment in public education to achieve at least the level of 7% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the fifth year of this NEP and at least the equivalent of 10% of GDP at the end of the decade. Detailed analysis of each goal of the NAP is presented below: Goal 1 contained in the plan are as follows: Universalize, 2016, the educational attainment of the population aged 4 and 5 years, and extend, 2020, the provision of early childhood education in order to meet the 50% population of up to 3 years. Comment: It is a bit ambitious goal for early childhood education considering that aims to meet only 50% of the population up to 3 years by 2020. Goal should be 100% and not 50%. The strategy to achieve the goal needs to be designed municipality to municipality, because the diversity from one location to another can restrict its application. Goal 2 contained in the plan are as follows: Universalize elementary education from nine years to the entire population 6-14 years. Comment: The elementary school in 2011 had a net enrollment rate of 92.4% of children aged 6 to 14 years, causing many experts consider that the mode is already universal. This goal is supported by the data because the PNAD 2011, 539,700 children still do not attend classes. Goal 3 contained in the plan are as follows: Universalize, 2016, educational attainment for the population aged 15 to 17 years and raise, 2020, the net enrollment rate in secondary education to 85% in this age group. Comment:
  4. 4. 4 The net enrollment rate in secondary education should be 100% and not 85%. Although about 80% of young people ages 15 to 17 are enrolled in school, only 52.25% are in middle school - and 1.6 million youths aged 15 to 16 years are out of school. According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), 2011, young people who are not in high school, 15.1% do not study and 25.5% are still in elementary school. The high school curriculums are flawed not opening job prospects or prepare the student for the exam. The high school curriculum has to be more flexible, so that the student can choose your itinerary according to what he wants to do in the future. Besides the curriculum change, teacher education needs to adapt to that style. Goal 4 contained in the plan are as follows: Universalize for the population 4-17 years, school assistance to students with disabilities, pervasive developmental disorders and high ability or giftedness preferably in mainstream education, ensuring educational services specializing in multi-functional features. Comment: The Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education states that the education being offered to students with special educational needs must occur "preferably in the regular school system". Also determines there when needed, specialized support services for these students in regular schools, and that the service will be conducted in classes, schools or specialized services when it´s not possible integration in regular classes. The goal of the NEP is confusing because it brings together different special needs into one. Everyone has the right to learn, but today most children who are out of school have special educational needs, and therefore are not enrolled. There should be specific programs to meet the demand. Goal 5 contained in the plan are as follows: Alphabetize all children up to a maximum of eight years old. Comment: According to the results of Proof ABC 2011, 53.3% of children up to 8 years have reached the expected knowledge in writing, 56.1% in reading and 42.8% in math. A thorough assessment should be made to determine the causes of low performance and point out relevant solutions to prevent that from happening in the future. Goal 6 contained in the plan are as follows: To provide full-time education at 50% of public schools to meet at least 25% of (the) student (s) of basic education. Comment: The NEP should provide full time education for 100% of public schools and meet 100% of basic education. By MEC data, enrollment in Full-Time Education represents 5.8% of total students in elementary school. The target set in the NEP does not define the concept of integral education - which is more than time in school, but an educational project to be structured for this school mode. Goal 7 contained in the plan are as follows: Promoting the quality of basic education in all stages and types, with improved student flow and learning. Comment:
  5. 5. 5 The Index of Basic Education Development (Ideb) is an indicator of the quality of education developed by the Ministry of Education (MEC). In Brazil, between 2005 and 2011, the Ideb of the early years of primary education increased from 3.8 to 5.0. In case of final year, the growth was 3.5 to 4.1. Have high school presents a slight improvement from 3.4 to 3.7. MEC statistics show an average failure rate of almost 10% in primary and 13% in high school. Measuring the quality of Brazilian education in all its aspects is a challenge still open. Ideb used today is just an indicator that is restricted to the Portuguese language and mathematics. Does not measure the equity and quality of education. It is important the role of pedagogical coordinator of the school as an evaluator and mentor of teachers to make a diagnosis of student learning. Goal 8 contained in the plan are as follows: Raising average schooling of the population 18 to 24 years so as to achieve a minimum of 12 years of schooling for rural populations, the region of lower education in the country and the poorest 25% and to equalize the average educational level among blacks and non-blacks, with a view to reducing educational inequality. Comment: The average schooling of the population 25 years and older in Brazil, according to IBGE data, is 7.3 years in total - 8.3 years among whites and 6.4 years among blacks. The Northeast region is the less educated in the country - with an average of six years of study. This goal should be detailed considering the attendance of whites and blacks and region of Brazil. Goal 9 contained in the plan are as follows: Raise the literacy rate of the population aged 15 years or more to 93.5% by 2015 and eradicate until the end of the term of the NEP, the absolute illiteracy and reduce by 50% the rate of functional illiteracy. Comment: The goal should be 100% literacy by 2015. In 2011, the illiteracy rate of the population aged 15 and over was 8.6% and between 1995 and 2011 dropped to 7%. In Brazil, IBGE considers as functional illiterates who have less than four years to complete studies. According to this criterion, 20.4% of the population aged 15 or more years old is functionally illiterate. However, the measure of IBGE is ineffective, since it is possible to spend four years in school without learning. The official statistic is flawed. We need a more precise national measure of functional illiteracy. Goal 10 contained in the plan are as follow: Provide at least 25% of the enrollment of young and adults education integrated in vocational education forms at the final years of primary school and high school. Comment: The goal should be 100% and not 25%. Data from the Ministry of Education (MEC) relating to Youth and Adults Education in Brazil show continuing decline in enrollment and classes in this teaching modality. In 2007, the country had 166,254 Youth and Adults Education classes. In 2011, were 147,361, which represent a decrease of 18.9%. The option to Youth and Adults integrated vocational education still recorded little impressive numbers.
  6. 6. 6 Goal 11 contained in the plan are as follows: Triple enrollment in career technical high school education, ensuring the quality of supply and at least 50% of the expansion in the public sector. Comment: The numbers of the School Census Inep confirm the trend of growing participation of technical courses in total enrollment of high school. Between 2005 and 2011, the share of enrollments in technical courses on the total recorded in regular secondary education rose from 8.2% to 14.9%, reaching 1.2 million students. The goal is ambitious, because triple enrollment of vocational education presupposes a great articulation of the federal government and the state governments, which are responsible for most of higher education enrollments. A questionable point of the target is not specified on who will be responsible for the provision of enrollment. Goal 12 contained in the plan are as follows: Increase the gross enrollment ratio in higher education to 50% and the net rate to 33% of people aged 18 to 24, ensuring the quality of provision and expansion to at least 40% of the new registrations in the public sector. Comment: The number of young people who make it to higher education in Brazil has been growing year by year, which is reflected in improved net rate, which, in nearly 20 years, went from 5.9% in 1995 to 14.9% in 2011 , according to data from Inep. But to achieve the government's target, it is necessary to improve the performance of high school students. The Brazilian secondary education is only given half the population 15-17 years. The rest enough in high school over 17 years. Moreover, the failure rate is high, which makes the young choose to work and end up pursuing higher education later, usually in private universities. Unlike the enrollment of technical vocational education, the federal government is able to interfere in places of higher education. But interestingly, this goal no mention of public offering or gratuity. Goal 13 contained in the plan are as follows: Raise the quality of higher education by expanding the role of masters and doctors in institutions of higher education to 75% at least of the faculty in effective exercise being the total, 35% doctors. Comment: The goal 13 associates two goals that should not be together. One is to increase the proportion of masters and doctors of effective faculty, another quite different is to raise the quality of higher education. The presence of doctors and teachers has the greatest impact on research perspective, strengthening the capacity of the university. However, the quality of higher education has more to do with the facilities and conditions to support students than training teachers and doctors. The goal is feasible if there is investment in facilities to improve the quality of higher education and educational aggressive government policies to increase the proportion of masters and doctors. Goal 14 contained in the plan are as follows: Gradually Increase enrollment in stricto sensu graduate programs (master and doctorate) in order to meet the annual titration 60,000 masters and 25,000 doctors. Comment:
  7. 7. 7 The goal is entirely feasible if the government offer scholarships, which has a direct cost increase. There has to be government policy of scholarships to ensure the payment of the courses. Goal 15 contained in the plan are as follows: Ensure, in collaboration arrangements between the Union, the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities, the term of this NEP, the national policy on training and development of professional education, ensuring that all basic education teachers have specific training at tertiary level, obtained in degree course in the field of knowledge in which they operate. Comment: The goal of all educators have basic education training at the college level is not yet reality in Brazil, but is considered a key step to improve education. According Inep, about 25% of Brazilian teachers in these stages of schooling still have at most a high school education or teaching. It is necessary, first of all, ensure that no one is hired without a college level. Ends up having people without proper training teaching. But how to create the conditions in which the goal is realized? Another fact that can be a problem is the operation: Who provides basic education, fundamentally, are the municipalities, which are many and underfunded. Accurate mapping of this framework is needed, so you can identify where more is being demanded. Goal 16 contained in the plan are as follows: Forming level postgraduate 50% of teachers of basic education, until the last year of this NEP, and ensuring that all continuing education in their field of activity, considering the needs, demands and contextualization of learning systems. Comment: In basic education, about 75% of teachers have at least a college degree. About 55% of basic education teachers are municipal networks. The NEP does not specify how the goal should be operated and controlled. Goal 17 contained in the plan are as follows: Enhancing the teaching of public networks of basic education, in order to approximate the average income of other professionals with equivalent schooling until the sixth year of this NEP. Comment: Of the more than 2 million teachers in basic education in Brazil, about 18% give tuition in two school units, and 78% teach in only one category. The goal 17 of the National Education Plan aims to equate the average income of teachers to other professionals with equivalent education. There should be a policy of wage progression. The valuation of these professionals is critical and reflects directly on the quality of the Brazilian basic education. We need to improve the teacher's salary to improve education. There has to be attractive career that binds strongly to earnings. Goal 18 contained in the plan are as follows: Ensure that, within two years, the existence of career paths for (the) professional public basic education for all education systems, and to the career path of professional public basic education with reference to the professional national minimum wage, set by federal law, pursuant to art. 206, VIII, of the Constitution.
  8. 8. 8 Comment: In force since 2008, the Law of the Floor to the magisterium is not served in seven states in the country, according to the National Confederation of Education Workers (CNTE). Another 14 units of the federation does not fully comply with the standard, which in 2012 established a salary of R $ 1,451 as national level. Goal 19 contained in the plan are as follows: Ensure conditions within two years for effective democratic management of education, associated technical criteria of merit and performance and public consultation and the school community, in the public schools. Comment: About 48% of Brazil's municipalities do not have an exclusive registry for Education. It is curious that the democratic management of and access to the management functions of schools and the aim of decentralizing decisions of a school are only good for the public network. Should also cover private schools. Access to management functions must combine merit and performance. Goal 20 contained in the plan are as follows: Larger government investment in public education to achieve at least the level of 7% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the fifth year of this NEP and at least the equivalent of 10% of GDP at the end of the decade. Comment: In 2011, only 5.3% of GDP was allocated to the sector. The bill, which allocates 75% of oil royalties to Education and 25% to Health, to be voted in the Senate. At various times, the MEC said that without the approval of the text, the target of 10% of GDP for the area cannot be met. It is very likely to be needed more than 10% of GDP in public investment in education due to their current needs. Marry this demand with GDP can be a trap. And if GDP fall? The best way would be to implement the so-called Student Initial Quality Cost (CAQi) - which sets the minimum actual spend to keep a student enrolled in public education from the essential inputs to the teaching-learning process. To move forward, we will have to see how much a quality education in real, not in percentage. * Fernando Alcoforado , member of the Bahia Academy of Education, engineer and doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development from the University of Barcelona, a university professor and consultant in strategic planning, business planning, regional planning and planning of energy systems, is the author of Globalização (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1997), De Collor a FHC- O Brasil e a Nova (Des)ordem Mundial (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1998), Um Projeto para o Brasil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), Os condicionantes do desenvolvimento do Estado da Bahia (Tese de doutorado. Universidade de Barcelona, http://www.tesisenred.net/handle/10803/1944, 2003), Globalização e Desenvolvimento (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2006), Bahia- Desenvolvimento do Século XVI ao Século XX e Objetivos Estratégicos na Era Contemporânea (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and Social Development-The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária (P&A Gráfica e Editora, Salvador, 2010), Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil e combate ao aquecimento global (Viena- Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011) and Os Fatores Condicionantes do Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012), among others.

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