Alienation of human beings big obstacles to progress of mankind


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Alienation of human beings big obstacles to progress of mankind

  1. 1. ALIENATION OF HUMAN BEINGS: BIG OBSTACLES TO PROGRESS OF MANKIND Fernando Alcoforado * Since his birth in the family environment, past the school, the church, the university and society in general all human beings suffer real "brainwashing" conditional to the dominant ideology. In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, a Russian physiologist named Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), studying the physiology of the gastrointestinal system, made one of the greatest scientific discoveries of our time: the conditioned reflex. It was one of the first truly objective and scientific approach to the study of learning, mainly because it provided a model that could be found and exploited in countless ways, using the methodology of physiology. Pavlov thus inaugurated the scientific psychology, coupling it neurophysiology. For his work he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 1904. Pavlov was the one who discovered the so-called conditioned reflex which proves to be a bodily response according to the stimulus received. With humans the conditioning process is even more critical due to language and culture. According to Pavlov, animals exist only what he called the first system of signs of reality. These are the systems of the brain that receive and analyze stimuli that come from outside and within the body (eg , sounds, lights, CO2 level in the blood, bowel movements etc.). In humans, besides this first addition signal system, there is a second system, language, which increases the possibilities of conditioning. For humans, the word may be as real stimulus, as effective as able to mobilize as any specific stimulus, and sometimes even more. Moreover, the fact that the word is symbolic, being an abstraction, allows the conditioned stimulus is generalizable. The mechanisms of the conditioned reflex quickly switched to the field of politics and also advertising. When we have a slogan, that is repeated constantly have Pavlov 's theory put into practice. Generally, in political propaganda, there is a keyword, an idea force, which is repeated again and again in order to penetrate the subconscious of the listeners. The same applies to commercial advertising: when they want to sell a product, they are releasing stimuli of various hues: color, sound, etc. famous artist. Religion is lavish in this mister. There is fasting, the punishment by flogging of meat or physical discomfort, regulation of breathing, the revelation of terrible mysteries, the drumming, the dances, the songs, panic, incense and drugs. Amid these postures, there are several slogans in order to reach more emotion than reason. Note the religious conversion that did change suddenly, via brainwashing of salvation by the works, for salvation by faith alone. In practical terms, is to move from Catholic to Protestant. According Marilena Chaui there is three forms of alienation: 1) social alienation ; 2) economic alienation, and , 3) intellectual alienation. With social alienation, humans do not recognize themselves as producers of sociopolitical institutions and oscillate between two attitudes: either passively accept everything that exists, to be seen as natural, divine or rational, or rebel individually, thinking that on its own will and intelligence, may more than the reality that affects them. In both cases, society is another (alienus), something external to us, separated from us, other than us and with full power or no power over us. With the economic alienation, producers do not recognize themselves as producers or recognize the objects produced by their work. In our modern societies, economic alienation is twofold: Firstly , the workers, such as social class, sell their labor power to the owners of capital (landowners, industries, 1
  2. 2. commerce, banks, schools, hospitals, fleets of cars, buses or airplanes, etc.). However, workers do not realize they have been reduced to the status of things making things; do not realize they have been dehumanized and objectified. The intellectual alienation results from the social separation between work stuff (which produces goods) and intellectual work (producing ideas). The social division between the two types of work suggests that the material work is a task that requires knowledge, but only manual skills, while the intellectual work is solely responsible for the knowledge. Living in a disposable society, intellectuals also alienated because they forget or ignore that their ideas are connected to the opinions and viewpoints of the class to which they belong, ie the ruling class, and imagine instead that ideas are universal, valid for all, in all times and places. Marilena Chaui asks why humans do not recognize themselves as social, political, historical, as agents and creators of reality in which they live? The existence of the Ideological State Apparatus explains the social, economic and intellectual alienation that dominates humanity and impedes your progress. According to Althusser's Ideological State Apparatus designate realities that present themselves in the form of distinct and specialized institutions such as religious (the system of the different Churches), the school (the system of the different public and private schools), the family, the legal, political (political system , the different Parties); cultural union (. Humanities, Fine Arts , sports, etc.) and information (press, radio, television, etc.). The Ideological State Apparatus act alongside the apparatus (repressive) State with the objective of maintaining the interests of the ruling classes. Although different, constantly combine their forces. Despite its scattered appearance, the Ideological State Apparatuses all work predominantly through ideology, which is unified under the ideology of the ruling class. So, in addition to holding state power and, consequently, have the apparatus (repressive ) state, the ruling class is also active in the Ideological State Apparatuses. No class can lastingly hold state power without exercising its hegemony over and Ideological State Apparatuses simultaneously. All Ideological State Apparatus competes - the way each of its own - for the same purpose, which is the reproduction of the relations of production, ie , the relations of capitalist exploitation . In the past, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses was greater, with the dominant Church since the Roman Empire under Constantine to the Renaissance, gathering, school, religious functions of information and culture. The French Revolution resulted not only in the transfer of state power to the commercial capitalist bourgeoisie, also resulting in the attack on the Ideological State Apparatus number one - the Church replaced its dominant role in the school Ideological State Apparatus. The school takes care of children from all social classes from an early age, instilling in them the knowledge contained within the dominant ideology (the mother tongue, literature, mathematics, science, history) or simply the dominant ideology in pure stage (moral, civic education, philosophy). And no other Ideological State Apparatus has a mandatory hearing for so long ( 6h/5dias per week) and for so many years - precisely the period in which the individual is most vulnerable, being squeezed between the Ideological State Apparatus family Apparatus and Ideological State school. According to Althusser, there are very few teachers who are against the ideology, against the system and against practices that imprison. Most do not even suspect that the system of work requires them to do. They ask so little that by devoting itself contribute to maintaining and nurturing this ideological representation of the school, which today is the school something as 2
  3. 3. natural and essential as was the Church in the past. For Althusser, the role of education and its operations are determined elsewhere in the economic base of society. The reality is that from birth to adulthood we adopted beliefs, opinions, ideas without knowing where they came, without thinking about its causes and motives, without evaluating whether they are consistent and true. Speak, act, think, have behaviors and practices that seem perfectly natural and rational society because the repeats, accepting, instills in us by the family, the school, the books, the media, for labor relations, by political practices. The social, economic and intellectual disposition must be overcome for humanity to follow the path of progress. * Alcoforado, Fernando, engineer and doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development from the University of Barcelona, a university professor and consultant in strategic planning, business planning, regional planning and planning of energy systems, is the author of Globalização (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1997), De Collor a FHC- O Brasil e a Nova (Des)ordem Mundial (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1998), Um Projeto para o Brasil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), Os condicionantes do desenvolvimento do Estado da Bahia (Tese de doutorado. Universidade de Barcelona,, 2003), Globalização e Desenvolvimento (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2006), Bahia- Desenvolvimento do Século XVI ao Século XX e Objetivos Estratégicos na Era Contemporânea (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and Social Development-The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária (P&A Gráfica e Editora, Salvador, 2010), Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil e combate ao aquecimento global (Viena- Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011) and Os Fatores Condicionantes do Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012), among others. 3