A sustainable energy policy required to brazil


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A sustainable energy policy required to brazil

  1. 1. A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY POLICY REQUIRED TO BRAZIL Fernando AlcoforadoAbstract: This article aims to analyze the energy sector in Brazil and recent government policies forenergy development from the perspective of sustainable development. The results of this study point tothe need to adopt a new sustainable energy policy for Brazil heavily based on renewable energy in theelectrical, petroleum and natural gas sectors.Resumen: El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el sector de la energía en Brasil y lasrecientes políticas gubernamentales para el desarrollo de energía desde la perspectiva del desarrollosostenible. Los resultados de este estudio apuntan a la necesidad de la adopción de una nueva políticaenergética sostenible para Brasil en gran medida basado en las energías renovables en los sectoreseléctrico, petróleo y gas naturalKeywords: The electric sector in Brazil. The petroleum and natural gas sector in Brazil. Brazilian energymatrix. Sustainable policies required for the energy sector in Brazil.Palabras clave: El sector eléctrico en Brasil. El sector petróleo y gas natural en Brasil. Matriz energéticabrasileña. Políticas sostenibles requeridas para el sector energético en Brasil.1. INTRODUCTIONThis study aimed to analyze the energy sector in Brazil and recent government policiesfor energy from the perspective of sustainable development. In this sense, the sectorssurveyed were electric, petroleum and natural gas in Brazil to assess their performancein the recent period and its scenarios for 2030 and 2050. The research included theanalysis of various publications cited in the bibliography, highlighting among them theNational Energy Plan (PNE 2030) prepared by the Ministry of Mines and Energy and 3studies undertaken by Greenpeace [R]evolução energética- Perspectivas para umaenergia global sustentável ([R]evolution energy-outlook sustainable global energy), Alcoforado, Fernando, engineer and doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development from theUniversity of Barcelona, a university professor and consultant in strategic planning, business planning,regional planning and planning of energy systems, is the author of Globalização (Editora Nobel, SãoPaulo, 1997), De Collor a FHC- O Brasil e a Nova (Des)ordem Mundial (Editora Nobel, São Paulo,1998), Um Projeto para o Brasil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), Os condicionantes dodesenvolvimento do Estado da Bahia (Tese de doutorado. Universidade de Barcelona,http://www.tesisenred.net/handle/10803/1944, 2003), Globalização e Desenvolvimento (Editora Nobel,São Paulo, 2006), Bahia- Desenvolvimento do Século XVI ao Século XX e Objetivos Estratégicos na EraContemporânea (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and SocialDevelopment-The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG,Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária (P&A Gráfica e Editora,Salvador, 2010), Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil e combate ao aquecimento global(Viena- Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011) and Os Fatores Condicionantes doDesenvolvimento Econômico e Social (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012), among others. 1
  2. 2. [R]evolução energética- A caminho do desenvolvimento limpo ([R]evolution energy-The path of clean development) and Investimento em energias renováveis pode gerareconomia de US$ 180 bilhões por ano (Investment in renewable energy could generatesavings of $ 180 billion per year). The analytical framework used was the model ofsustainable development that applied to the energy industry would aim to meet energydemand without compromising the nature and without depleting its natural resources, tobequeath them to future generations.The energy sector in Brazil is facing at the moment with two giant problems. The firstrelates to the need to reduce consumption of petroleum products to reduce CO2emissions and contribute to the fight against global warming to avoid catastrophicconsequences. The second relates to the supply of electricity in the country which willinvolve the construction of several large hydroelectric dams in the Amazon region withits environmental impacts on the Amazon forest and the indigenous communities livingthere, in the deployment of four nuclear power plants with all the problems associatedwith security and final disposal of nuclear waste and the deployment of conventionalpower plants using coal, petroleum products and natural gas which will result moreCO2 into the atmosphere with harmful consequences from the point of view of globalclimate change. Solving these problems requires finding substitutes for coal, petroleumproducts, natural gas, hydroelectric large Amazon region, nuclear and conventionalpower plants.To avoid the aforementioned problems and promote sustainable development of theenergy sector in Brazil, the results of this study point to the need to adopt a new energypolicy strongly based on renewable energy. This proposed new energy policy issupported in studies of Greenpeace [R]evolução energética- Perspectivas para umaenergia global sustentável ([R]evolution energy-outlook sustainable global energy) forthe electric sector in Brazil and the authors own studies encompassing all sectors ofenergy (electric, petroleum and gas natural) of Brazil.2. THE ENERGY SECTOR IN BRAZILBrazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the largest in SouthAmerica. Government agencies responsible for energy issues in Brazil are: 1) NationalEnergy Policy Council (CNPE) who has the authority to propose to the President of theRepublic national policies and measures for the sector, 2) Ministry of Mines and Energy 2
  3. 3. (MME) that creates standards, monitors and evaluates federal programs and policies todeploy the energy sector; 3) Departments of Energy Planning and Development(Electricity, Petroleum, Natural Gas and Renewable Fuels), 4) Energy ResearchCompany (EPE) which aims to provide services in the area of studies and research tosupport the planning of the energy sector.The Brazilian government has the regulatory agencies ANEEL (Brazilian ElectricityRegulatory Agency) and ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas andBiofuels), besides having the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and theNational Department of Mineral Production (DNPM). The energy sector also hasPetrobras, mixed economy company, which is a publicly traded corporation, withoperations in 30 countries, leader of the petroleum sector in Brazil, occupying the thirdposition in the world market energy companies, and Eletrobras that is a mixed economycompany publicly traded, which operates in the electric markets and supports strategicprograms of the government, as the Incentive Program for Alternative Sources ofEnergy (Proinfa), the Program National Universal Access and Use of Electric Energy(Light for Everyone) and the National Program for Energy Conservation (Procel).2.1-The electric sector in BrazilFor many years, especially prior to the 1990s, the state had in Brazil what might becalled a monopoly in the electric sector. That is, the State exercised exclusively, theproduction, transmission and distribution of electricity. However, from the beginning ofthe 1990s, there was a substantial change to the policy of privatization of the electricsector. This privatization process had its beginnings during the government of FernandoCollor, but was extended by subsequent governments, Itamar Franco, FernandoHenrique Cardoso and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. This process occurred through theguidelines established by the National Privatization Program (PND) that it intended totransfer to private sector management of the activities that the public sector did notoperate effectively.After almost 20 years since the beginning of the privatization of electricity distribution,the balance of what was promised and what is actually happening in the country, allowsidentifying the existence of many faults in electric power supply in several regions ofBrazil. Since 1995, the distribution of electricity is operated by private enterprise. Thedistributors manage the concession areas with the obligation of maintenance, expansion 3
  4. 4. and provision of adequate infrastructure, and its revenue from charging fees to theircustomers. The promises that the private sector would improve the quality of servicesand the adoption of affordable rates for all citizens were misleading promises.The practice has not shown that the management of the electric sector by privatecompanies is always superior to public companies. Since 2006 there has been, in mostcompanies, a declining trend of the indicators of quality of services due to itsdeterioration, reflecting negatively to the consumer. Recent blackouts Brazilianelectrical system can be attributed to four factors: 1) lack of adequate coordination ofthe protection system that has not been able to isolate the problem in the affected areaby preventing the spread of blackouts in the three regions of Brasil, 2) lack of doubleprotection system in critical areas that can be triggered in the event of faults in theelectrical system, 3) lack of adequate maintenance service to minimize the occurrenceof faults in the electrical system, and 4) lack of systems for emergency power supply incritical areas that can be triggered when the blackout happens in Brazils interconnectedpower system.The electricity supply by source in 2009 is shown in Figure 1. The analysis of thisfigure reveals that 82% of the electricity supply was hydroelectric and biomass, whilethe non-renewable energy sources accounted for 18% of the total. Figure 1- Domestic supply of electricity by source in 2009 (%) Wind Import Biomass 0% 8% 5% Natural gas 3% Petroleum products 3% Nuclear 3% Hydraulics 77% Coal and derivatives 1%Source: PNE 2030The National Energy Plan 2030 (PNE 2030), the first study of integrated planning ofenergy resources held within the Brazilian government, prepared by the Ministry of 4
  5. 5. Mines and Energy of Brazil (MME) provides for the expansion of the electricity sectorby 2030 with the use of energy sources described below: 1) Renewables-191.35 GW(92 GW existed in 2010), 2) Conventional thermoelectric-21.5 GW (16 GW existed in2010), and 3) Nuclear- 8 GW (2 GW existed in 2010). 1 GW = 1 Gigawatt = 1,000,000KW of power. Renewable energy is derived from those natural cycles of conversion ofsolar radiation, the primary source of almost all energy available on Earth and thereforeare practically inexhaustible sources such as hydropower, solar, wind and biomass,unlike sources non-renewable energy such as petroleum, coal, natural gas and nuclear.Figure 2 shows that in 2030, the PNE 2030 considers the use of new energy sources(wind, sugarcane biomass cogeneration and waste), besides the increase of coal andnuclear sources in relation to the situation in 2009. The share of hydropower remainsthe same for 2009. Figure 2- Domestic supply of electricity by source in 2030 (%) Wind Waste Other 1% 1% 1% Cogeneration sugarcane biomass 3% coal 3% Hydraulics Nuclear 77% 5% Natural gas 9%Source: PNE 2030For these reasons, large hydropower will continue to be the main source of energy in theelectric sector expansion accounting for 77% of total capacity to be installed by 2030.The priority given to large hydro in Brazil follows the tradition adopted from theimplementation of the interconnected electric system in the 1960s to favor the use oflarge hydroelectric power plants for generation of lower cost due to economy of scaleobtained in addition to serve the interests of contractors of major projects in Brasil, bigbeneficiary of such works. 5
  6. 6. With respect to hydropower, its untapped potential in Brazil corresponds to 185.5 GWof which 101.5 GW are located in northern Brazil, particularly in the Amazon region. Itwas planned for the next twenty years, the installation in the Amazon region 60 largehydroelectric plants with a generation potential of between 60 and 70 GW being themain plants Belo Monte, Jirau, Santo Antonio, Estreito among others which represent agreat threat to many Amazonian indigenous peoples and the preservation of the Amazonrainforest that plays a key role in combating global warming by acting as a carbon sink.Although Brazil have a hydropower potential of 83 GW out of the North Region thatcould be used without affecting the Amazon rainforest, the Brazilian government isplanning and implementing large hydroelectric projects in the Amazon region indefiance of restrictions in terms of social and environmental. Another flagrantirrationality in planning the electricity sector in Brazil lies in the fact that the Countryhas a potential of 143.5 GW in wind power and plans to use only 3.3 GW in 2030despite having a generation cost competitive with the hydroelectric plants. It should benoted that wind farms can operate in complementation with the hydroelectric enablingaccumulate water in their reservoirs.Great irrationality lies also in the fact that the PNE 2030 does not provide for the use oflarge solar energy potential that exists in Brazil with the use of photovoltaic panels,which should be widely disseminated in isolated communities in rural areas where thecost of electricity supply Networking is higher and also thermo panels that should beused for water heating in homes, hospitals, hotels, etc.. in cities. Also, was not properlyconsidered by the PNE 2030 the great potential of biomass that exists in Brazil, whereproduction of electricity from biomass is estimated to be around 10 TWh / year (10,000GWh / year), to provide for the use of only 4,75 GW in 2030 corresponding to 2.1% ofpower to be installed by 2030.The PNE 2030 established the use of a power of 1.3 GW in power plants usingmunicipal waste which corresponds to 0.6% of the total capacity planned for 2030,which is very little because Brazil produces 195,000 tonnes of waste urban solid(garbage) per day that would be totally recovered enough to supply 30% of electricitydemand in Brazil today. Unfortunately, the PNE 2030 provides a capacity of 8 GW innuclear power in 2030, going against the global trend of banning the use of nuclearpower especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan. Besides, it will also be installed 6
  7. 7. irrationally 2 units on the banks of the São Francisco River attempting against the logicthat would indicate its best location close to the markets to be supplied.2.2- Petroleum and natural gas sector in BrazilIn 1997, the petroleum investment law was approved with the liberalization of itsproduction and establishing a legal framework to regulate the petroleum industry. Themain objectives of the law was the creation of CNPE and ANP, increased use of naturalgas, increased competition in the energy market, and investments in power generation.The state monopoly of petroleum and gas is over and energy subsidies were reduced.However, the government maintained control of the complex monopoly power, inaddition to managing the price of certain energy products. Brazil is the 15th largestpetroleum producer in the world. Until 1997, Petrobras exercised a monopoly onexploration, refining and transportation of petroleum in Brazil. With the end of themonopoly, many private petroleum companies are involved in oil exploration.Petrobras is a major world petroleum producer with production of over 2 million barrelsof oil equivalent per day. It is also a major distributor of petroleum products that has oilrefineries and oil tankers. In 2006, Brazil had 11.2 billion barrels and the second largestproven petroleum reserves in South America after Venezuela. The vast majority ofproven reserves are located in the Campos and Santos basins, offshore southeasternBrazil. In November 2007, Petrobras announced the discovery of petroleum in pre-saltlayer that believes it has between 5 and 8 billion barrels of recoverable light oil andneighboring fields can contain up further, which could result in Brazil, becoming one ofthe largest petroleum producers in the world. In late 2005, proved reserves of naturalgas in Brazil were 306 billion m3 and reserves as possible, should be 15 times larger.Until recently, natural gas was produced as a by-product of the petroleum industry. Themain use reserves are located in the Campos and Santos basins. Petrobras controls morethan 90 percent of natural gas reserves in Brazil. Inside Brazils pipeline systems areoperated by Transpetro, a subsidiary of Petrobras.The National Energy Plan (PNE 2030) prepared by the federal government shows inFigure 3 the consumption of petroleum by sector in 2009 in which one realizes that 7
  8. 8. most petroleum was directed to the industrial and transport sectors, totaling 64% of thetotal. Figure 3- Consumption of petroleum by sector in 2009-% Consumption Energy sectorResidential in 5% 6% Commercial transformation 4% Public 0% 1% Final consumption Agricultural not energy 6% 14% Industrial Transport 13% 51%Source: PNE 2030Table 1 shows the demand for liquid fuels by sector in Brazil. Table 1- Structure of demand for liquid fuels by sector LIQUID FUELS DIRECTION OF LIQUID FUEL % Kerosene Transport (aircraft) 98 Alcohol Transport (cars) 95 Gasoline Transport (cars / trucks) 100 Diesel oil Transport (cars / trucks) 78 Agricultural Sector 14 Generation of electricity 6 Fuel oil Transport (vessels) 11 Industry 61 Generation of electricity 10 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Households 80 Services 11 Naphtha Industry (Non-energy use) 100Fonte: PNE 2030 8
  9. 9. Any solution that contributes to reducing the consumption of oil should lead to the useof substitutes for gasoline and diesel in the transport sector and for the fuel oil inindustry. Among the substitutes for gasoline and diesel in the transport sector may becited as ethanol and biodiesel in the short term and hydrogen in the medium term. Thefuel oil substitute most appropriate in the industry and LPG in homes and serviceswould be natural gas because it is the cleanest fossil source of fossil fuels.It is very large the potential for production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. Manyanalysts question the production of ethanol and biodiesel arguing that can compromisefood production. In Brazil, there would be no conflict between energy production andfood production provided there is an agricultural and energy policy interconnected.Effort should also be made towards using hydrogen which presents itself as the energysource of the future.Figure 4 and Figure 5 show, respectively, the structure of consumption of oil andnatural gas in Brazil in 2005 and 2030.Figure 4 - Structure of consumption of oil products in 2005 and 2030Source: PNE 2030 9
  10. 10. Figure 5 - Structure of natural gas consumption in 2005 and 2030Source: PNE 2030The PNE 2030 provides almost double the production of oil compared to 2010, as isindicated in Table 2. Table 2- Production of oil products in 2010 and 2030 (Millions of liters)OIL PRODUCTS 2010 2030Diesel oil 51.243 97.876Gasoline 19.580 42.190LPG 13.866 24.888Fuel oil 8.079 9.112Kerosene 3.868 9.902Total 96.636 183.968Fonte: PNE 2030The natural gas production in Brazil was 45 million m3 in 2005, 69 million m3 in 2010and should reach 201 million m3 in 2030 (4.5 times that of 2005 and 2.9 times that of2010), according to the projection PNE 2030. The significant increase in production of 10
  11. 11. petroleum and natural gas in Brazil by 2030 will contribute to the greenhouse effect inthe atmosphere with its catastrophic consequences for the environment of the planet.To help to prevent catastrophic climate change on our planet, urge the adoption ofpolicies aimed at implementing programs that contribute to the reduction of productionand consumption of oil and natural gas, as well as its substitution by other energyresources. In this sense, we need to make: 1) substitution of petroleum products byrenewable energy (ethanol, biodiesel and biomass); 2) energy savings in the use ofpetroleum and natural gas; 3) production of petroleum and natural gas mainly for non-energy purposes as industrial raw material; and, 4) abandonment of investment inpetroleum and natural gas production in pre-salt layer.2.3- The energy matrix of BrazilFigure 6 shows the share of energy sources in the Brazilian energy matrix in 2009. Figure 6 - Domestic energy supply in Brazil in 2009 -% Other renewable 4% Sugarcane products 18% Petroleum Firewood and and oil products charcoal 38% 10% Hydraulics and electricity 15% Natural gas 9% Uranium Mineral coal 1% 5%Source: PNE 2030Table 4 shows the share of energy sources in the Brazilian energy matrix in 2009 and2030 presented at the PNE 2030. Compared with the year 2009, there will be in 2030 adrop in the share of petroleum and oil products, hydraulics and electricity sources andfirewood and charcoal and increase of natural gas, mineral coal and uranium. 11
  12. 12. Table 4 - Domestic energy supply in Brazil in 2009 and 2030 -%FONTE DE ENERGIA 2009 2030Petroleum and oil products 38% 28%Natural gas 9% 15%Mineral coal 5% 7%Uranium 1% 3%Hydraulics and electricity 15% 13%Firewood and charcoal 10% 6%Sugarcane products 18% 19%Other renewable 4% 9%Total 100% 100%Source: PNE 2030Table 5 shows the share of renewable energy in the Brazilian energy matrix. In theBrazilian energy matrix, renewable energy participated in 2010 with 43% of totalconsumption, while in 2030 will be 46.6%. This means that there will not be greatprogress in Brazil in the use of renewable energy with the PNE 2030 despite itsimmense potential.Table 5 - Renewable and non-renewable energy in the Brazilian energy matrix-% YEAR Renewable sources Non-renewable sources 2005 44,5 55,5 2010 43 57 2020 45,8 54,2 2030 46,6 53,4Figure 7 shows that CO2 emissions remain high despite the slight drop from 2012 to2030 setting the PNE 2030 does little to mitigate the causes of climate change on theplanet. 12
  13. 13. Figure 7 - Evolution of CO2 emissionsSource: PNE 2030The slight decrease in the emission of CO2 in the atmosphere is insufficient to Brazilcontribute to combat global warming. A great irrationality of Brazilian government isrelated to the decision to invest U.S.$ 174.4 billion in petroleum exploration in the pre-salt layer in the next five years going against the fight global warming. To help to preventcatastrophic climate change on our planet, urge the adoption of policies aimed at implementingprograms that contribute to the reduction of production and consumption of oil and natural gas,as well as its substitution by other energy resources.3. ENERGY POLICY REQUIRED TO BRAZIL3.1- Policy required for the electric sectorGreenpeace has developed three scenarios for the electric sector in Brazil for the year2050. The first is the Reference Scenario 2050, based on the study "Electricity Market2006-2015" prepared by the Energy Research Company (EPE), linked to the Ministry ofMines and Energy (MME). The second is the Intermediate Scenario 2050, prepared byGEPEA (Group of Energy of the Department of Engineering of Energy and ElectricalAutomation from USP-Universidade de São Paulo) in partnership with Greenpeace.And the third is the Energy Revolution Scenario 2050, prepared by Greenpeace. In theproduction of all scenarios, the GEPEA / USP was responsible for implementing themodeling and the technical supervision of the work. 13
  14. 14. In Intermediate Scenario 2050 and the Energy Revolution Scenario 2050, the generationof electricity from different technologies for electricity production is complemented byefforts in the conservation and rational use of energy (energy efficiency). The five keyprinciples that guided the Energy Revolution Scenario proposed by Greenpeace are: 1)Implement renewable solutions, especially through decentralized energy systems, 2)Respect the natural limits of the environment, 3) Gradually eliminate the unsustainableenergy sources; 4) Promoting equity in resource use and, 5) Unlink economic growth inthe consumption of fossil fuels.According to Greenpeace, greatly enhance energy efficiency is a crucial prerequisite tomeet the demand from a renewable energy matrix essentially. In the Energy RevolutionScenario 2050, final electricity consumption reached 1009 TWh / year in 2050, or about38% less than the consumption of Reference Scenario 2050. Energy efficiency measureshave the potential to reduce consumption at 413 TWh / year, deferring the need toincrease the generation of electricity during the period of analysis. This progressivereduction in consumption should be achieved through the use of efficient electricalequipment in all sectors. Other measures, such as awareness of society to conserveelectricity and management of electricity demand to shift peak usage intense, areessential to achieve this reduction.The Electric Sector Scenario 2005According to the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME), Brazil produced 367 TWh /year of electricity in 2005. Renewable energy participated with 88% of total electricitygeneration In 2005. The national electricity matrix in 2005 was composed as follows:Total generation: 367 TWh / yearEnergy source %Hydropower 84Natural gas 4Biomass and waste 4Wind 0Nuclear 3Diesel and fuel oil 4Coal 1Photovoltaic panels 0Total 100The Electric Sector Reference Scenario 2050 14
  15. 15. In the Reference Scenario 2050, final consumption of electricity, which was 367 TWh /year in 2005, reached 1639 TWh / year in 2050, an increase of 4.5 times in 45 years. Inthe Reference Scenario 2050, there would be no progress in the share of renewableenergy in total electricity generation that would reduce from 88% in 2005 to 57% in2050 and the contribution of energy efficiency would be negligible. In 2050, thenational electricity matrix will be composed as follows:Total generation: 1639 TWh / year; Energy Efficiency: 0 TWh / yearEnergy source %Hydropower 38Natural gas 34Biomass and waste 15Wind 4Nuclear 6Diesel and fuel oil 3Coal 0Photovoltaic panels 0Total 100The Electric Sector Intermediate Scenario 2050In the Intermediate Scenario 2050, GEPEA / USP considered energy savings throughenergy efficiency measures, of 413 TWh / year, with a total generation of electricitymuch smaller (1160 TWh / year) compared to 1639 TWh / year specified in theReference Scenario 2050. On the way proposed by GEPEA / USP, was reducedelectricity generation using fuel oil and diesel and considered a gradual reduction innuclear generation from 2030. The share of renewable energy in the Brazilian energymatrix would reach 72% which is lower than that recorded in 2005 (88%).Total generation: 1160 TWh / year; Energy efficiency: 413 TWh / yearEnergy source %Hydropower 40Natural gas 25Biomass and waste 24Wind 8Nuclear 2Diesel and fuel oil 1Coal 0Photovoltaic panels 0Total 100 15
  16. 16. The Electric Sector Energy Revolution Scenario 2050In the Energy Revolution Scenario 2050, 88% of the electricity produced in Brazilwould be from renewable sources of energy, equivalent to its share in 2005 (88%). Thegeneration of 1077 TWh / year would be expected and there would be an energy savingsof 413 TWh / year through energy efficiency measures. The Energy Revolution packageexcludes the generation of electricity from fuel oil, diesel, coal and nuclear.Total generation: 1077 TWh / year; Energy efficiency: 413 TWh / year Energy source % Hydropower 38 Natural gas 12 Biomass and waste 26 Wind 20 Nuclear 0 Diesel and fuel oil 0 Coal 0 Photovoltaic panels 4 Total 100The Energy Revolution Scenario 2050 for the electric sector in Brazil proves to bepossible to pursue the dream of clean energy growth, supported by renewable energysources. The national electrical grid can become 88% renewable by 2050. Furthermore,this array would help consolidate Brazils commitment to cut by 2020 from 36% to 39%the emissions of greenhouse gases, with the added benefit of promoting the economybillions of dollars.The challenge of reducing emission levels of greenhouse gases, allowing economicgrowth and serve about 1 million people without power in the Country requires the useof clean and sustainable sources of energy such as wind, biomass, solar photovoltaic,solar thermal and hydropower, among others. The future of Brazil and the planetdepends on the redirection of subsidies today intended for conventional sources andpolluting fossil fuels - which will be depleted in the future - to renewable sources. Thefuture requires an energy revolution as proposed by Greenpeace for the electric sector inBrazil.At the center of this revolution is a change in the way electricity is generated,distributed and consumed. The application of solutions towards a cleaner future goesthrough decentralized systems, gradual elimination of unsustainable energy sources and 16
  17. 17. promoting equity in the use of natural and energy resources, unlinking economic growthfrom increased consumption of fossil fuels.The Brazilian electric system that presents nowadays many weaknesses in theirplanning to set or choose projects to be implemented, many of them detrimental to theenvironment, would be radically changed with the energy policies implemented on theEnergy Revolution Scenario 2050. In this scenario, would be abandoned current energypolicies that provide for the deployment of large hydroelectric dams in the AmazonRegion that will produce serious environmental impacts on the Amazon forest andindigenous peoples, the deployment of nuclear power plants subject to risks of accidentsand problems of end disposal of nuclear waste and the deployment of conventionalpower plants based on fossil fuels (coal and natural gas) generators of CO2 emissionsinto the atmosphere.The policy of supplying electric power required for Brazil should consider thefollowing: Deploy SHP (small hydro power) or medium-sized hydropower and wind turbines in several regions of Brazil rather than large hydropower for electricity supply in Brazil, as has been the practice of the federal governments for many years. Deploy wind farms and hybrid systems in locations most appropriate. Implement systems for solar photovoltaic or thermo where they justify. Produce energy using biogas from landfills. Produce energy in small and medium-scale and distributed in markets near the sources of production instead of concentrated production of electricity by large hydroelectric dams located far from markets energy consumers. Produce energy with conventional power plants using natural gas that is the cleanest fossil source. Produce electricity with conventional power plants using natural gas (the cleanest fossil source), wind turbines and solar photovoltaic or thermo systems where justify their deployment to complement the hydroelectric generation. Produce energy in the medium and long term with the use of hydrogen. Abandoning nuclear power as an alternative energy to be costly and present safety problems. 17
  18. 18.  Save energy in all sectors of activity of Brasil. Deploy cogeneration system in the industry to produce steam and electricity using waste industrial production and natural gas. Increase reliability in the operation of the electric system to minimize the effects of blackouts using duplicate protection systems at critical supplies, duplication of major trunk lines of transmission and use of wind turbines close to the power grid.3.2- Policy required for the petroleum and natural gas sectorAny solution that contributes to reducing the consumption of oil requires the use ofsubstitutes for gasoline and diesel in the transport sector and for the fuel oil in theindustry. Among the substitutes for gasoline and diesel in the transport sector may becited as ethanol and biodiesel in the short term and hydrogen in medium term. Thereplacement of fuel oil would be more appropriate by natural gas in the industry becauseis the cleanest source of fossil fuels.To help to prevent catastrophic climate change on our planet, it is urgent to reducepetroleum products consumption by adopting policies aimed at implementing programsthat contribute to their replacement by other energy resources. In this sense, we need tomake: 1) replacement of gasoline by ethanol and diesel with biodiesel in the short termin the transport sector, 2) replacement of gasoline and diesel by hydrogen in the mediumand long term in the transport sector; 3) substitution of fuel oil by natural gas andbiomass in the industry, 4) replacement of coal by natural gas in the industry; 5)substituting diesel by biomass and natural gas in the energy sector, and, 6) replacementof LPG by natural gas in households and services sector.Additionally, it is essential to adopt energy policies in Brazil aimed at implementingprograms that contribute to the reduction of petroleum consumption through energysaving actions. These policies are as follows: 1) to produce steam and electricity inindustry with the use of cogeneration systems, 2) to encourage automakers and trucks inorder to raise the efficiency of motor vehicles to save energy, 3) to expand the railwaysystems and waterways for freight transport instead of trucks, 4) to increase the publictransportation system, especially the mass transport of high capacity as the subway orLRT (light rail vehicles) to reduce the use of cars in cities; 5) to restrict the use of carsin town centers and other areas of the cities; 6) to encourage the manufacture to increase 18
  19. 19. machinery and equipment efficiency to save energy, and, 7) to use petroleum to non-energy purposes, mainly as industrial raw material.4. CONCLUSIONSTaking into account the above, it can be said that sustainable energy policies requiredfor Brazil should consider the following:1) Put into practice actions that contribute to the viability of the Energy Revolution Scenario 2050 proposed by Greenpeace for the electric sector.2) Adopt energy planning in Brazil on a rational and systemic basis.3) Ensure the participation of states and municipalities in Brazils energy planning so that the needs of regional and local development of the energy sector are considered.4) Overcoming barriers to the penetration of renewable political, legal, financial, tax, technology, information, education and training.5) Create an appropriate legal framework to support the development of renewable sources of energy in Brazil.6) Provide funding to investors in renewable energy to eliminate their risk aversion represented by the high cost of production, the market is not yet well established, the technology was not widespread and the scale of production is reduced.7) Promote the full or partial tax exemption for renewable energy.8) Ensure access to transmission and distribution of electricity to small independent producers.9) Recognize the social and environmental costs when comparing conventional technologies and renewable technologies.10) Impose taxes on carbon emissions and other pollutants in the operation of energy enterprises.11) Overcome obstacles in research, development and demonstration centers in Brazil reinforcing the existing R & D and creating new ones.12) Prepare the industrial apparatus to support the goals set for renewable sources.13) Educate the rulers and the population of non-energy benefits, such as increased income or employment generation offered by local renewable energy.14) Increase federal support for renewable energy programs.15) Develop a solid legal, regulatory and institutional architecture in order to reduce risks for investors and financiers of renewable energy. 19
  20. 20. 16) Articulate retail banks, regional development banks and development agencies to promote renewable energy.17) Strengthen the role of ANEEL and ANP so that they act with effectiveness in the development of the energy sector in Brazil.Renewable energy could be more involved in the Brazilian energy and energy savingswould be greater if it were eliminated one of the main obstacles posed by Eletrobras andelectric utilities, as well as by Petrobras that impede the realization of an nationalenergy planning on a rational and systemic basis in which Brazils interests are abovethe goals of corporations as occurs today which favor the use of large hydroelectricplants and petroleum products and not making efforts to use renewable energy and saveenergy because, in the latter case , would reduce the revenue of companies in the energysector.BIBLIOGRAPHYALCOFORADO, Fernando. Energias renováveis, a experiência do Brasil: estratégiasde gestões energéticas sustentáveis. Seminário os dilemas da energia e dodesenvolvimento: transições regionais da energia. IPS/ Integro, Salvador, 14/11/2013.______________________. Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil ecombate ao aquecimento global, Viena- Editora e Gráfica. Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo,São Paulo: 2011.______________________. O sistema mundial de energia sustentável. RevistaPolitécnica 10E, Ano 4. Salvador: 2011._______________________. O futuro do suprimento de energia no Brasil. RevistaPolitécnica 12E, Ano 4. Salvador: 2011.______________________. Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária, P&A Gráficae Editora, Salvador: 2010.COELHO, Suani; SILVA, Orlando Cristiano; CONSÍGLIO, Marcelo; PISETTA,Marcelo; MONTEIRO, Maria Beatriz. Panorama do Potencial de Biomassa no Brasil.Aneel- Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica, 2002, disponível no website<http://www.aneel.gov.br/biblioteca/downloads/livros/panorama_biomassa.pdf>.GREENPEACE. [R]evolução energética- Perspectivas para uma energia globalsustentável, disponível no website 20
  21. 21. <http://www.greenpeace.org/brasil/pt/Documentos/greenpeacebr_070202_energia_revolucao_energetica_brasil_port_v1/>.GREENPEACE. [R]evolução energética- A caminho do desenvolvimento limpo, ,disponível no website<http://www.greenpeace.org/brasil/Global/brasil/report/2010/11/revolucaoenergeticadeslimpo.PDF>.GREENPEACE. Investimento em energias renováveis pode gerar economia de US$180 bilhões por ano, disponível no website <http://www.greenpeace.org/brasil/pt/Noticias/investimento-em-energias-renov/>.MAGALHÃES, Murilo Vill. Estudo de utilização da energia eólica como fontegeradora de energia no Brasil. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis,2009, disponível no website <http://tcc.bu.ufsc.br/Economia291554>.MINISTÉRIO DE MINAS E ENERGIA. Plano Nacional de Energia 2030. Brasília,2007. 21