• In 1927 Simon Commission came to
British India to investigate the
working of the Montague-Chelmsford
Reforms, and to recommend further
• Conservative govt. did not include
any Indian in the Commission.
•Various parties decided to boycott the commission
including Congress and Muslim League(Jinnah
•Muhammad Ali Johar, Khilafat Conference and the
Jami’at-i-Ulema-i-Hind also boycotted the Simon
• Muslim League Shafi wanted to co-operate
with Commission but Jinnah League
decided to boycott.
• John Simon and his Commission was
greeted everywhere with Congress-
organized demonstration and black flags.
•Congress challenged the Lord Birkenhead,
Secretary of state of India to produce a
constitution acceptable to the various elements in
•All Parties Conference was called on and
negotiations began on Constitutional matters
• The Conference appointed a committee of
jurists with Moti Lal Nehru as chairman to
study the problem and draft the
• Sir Ali Imam and Mr.Shoaib Qureshi were
taken from Muslims as members of the
• Committee announced its report known
as “Nehru Report" in 1928.
• Muslim members of the committee
boycotted the proceeding as Muslims were
not accommodated in the report.
• The Nehru report called for a general
electorate , with no separate electorates
to ensure that minority groups could elect
their own representatives.
• Representation of Muslims in the central
assembly be reduced from one third to
• Rejected the federal form of Government
in favor of a Unitary one.
• Division of power between center and
Provinces but the Residuary powers will be
vested in Center.
• Nehru report was totally un-acceptable to
almost every Muslim group in the Sub-
• Jinnah proposed amendments in the
report but were rejected by the Hindus.
• Amendments could bridge the gulf
between Hindus and Muslims but were
rejected by Hindus so report was also
rejected by Muslims.
• Report was called a document of Slavery
• An All Parties Muslim Conference was held
in Delhi on 31 December, 1928 to 1st
Jan.,1929 to discuss the matter.
• All India Muslim Conference was set up
under the leadership of Agha Khan and
demanded for separate electorates for
• Muslim League reunited and in March
1929 it reiterated Muslim demands in
Jinnah’s famous Fourteen Points, which
1. A federal, rather than a unitary form of
2. Electoral safeguards for minorities in
3. Equal status for every Province.
4. Separate electorates for religious and
5. One third of the seats in the central
assembly to be reserved for Muslims.
6. No bill should be passed affecting a
particular religion agree to it.
7. The Muslim majorities in Punjab, Bengal
and NWFP should not be negated by
8. Sind should be a separate Province.
9. NWFP and Baluchistan should be included
in all reforms.
10.All religion should have freedom of
worship, faith, Education, assembly and
11.There should be a proper number of
Muslims in government services.
12.There should be constitutional
safeguards for Muslim culture, language,
religion, Education and welfare
13.At least one third of the ministers in the
provinces and at the Center should be
14.The agreement of all the federating
states would be necessary for amending
• Simon Commission, the Nehru report, the
Fourteen Points, Round Table Conferences
and the Communal Award were all part of
the preparations of the reformed
Constitutions, which was set out in the Act
• Elections held in first week of 1937.
• Two major parties Indian National
Congress and All India Muslim League
• Muslim League did not perform well as
• Muslim League scored 102 out of total of
482 Muslim seats.
• Congress could score 706 out of total of
1771, and 26 out of 482 Muslim seats.
• Non-Congress Hindus occupied 211 Hindu
• Muslim League and Congress had same
manifestoes except some minor issues.
• It was expected about coalition ministries
of Muslim League and Congress but
• The Provincial Governors had the
Constitutional power to intervene to
safeguard the interests of Muslim minority
but governor General assured the
Congress not to use these powers.
• Unionist Party got majority in Punjab and
Sir Sikandar Hayat formed his ministry
comprising of 3 Muslims, 2 Hindus and one
• Sindh United Party formed government in
Sindh under leadership of Sir Ghulam
• In Bengal Maulvi Fazal-ul-Haq formed a
coalition government .
• Congress formed her government in all
other eight Provinces.
Working of CongressWorking of Congress
• Three colored Flag “Tringa”.
• Undue interference in Administration.
• Bande Matram.
• Introduction of Hindi in place of Urdu.
• Nehru campaign in order to Crush the
• Wardha Scheme(domination of hindu
• Widdia Mander Scheme introduced by
• Prohibition of Cow Slaughter.
• Prohibition to perform religious rites.
• Intrigues against Muslim Governments.
• Hindu-Muslim Riots.
• Azan was prohibited and frequently
END OF CONGRESS RULEEND OF CONGRESS RULE
• Second World War broke out in 1939 and
Viceroy suspended the Federal part of
India Act 1935 and announced about a
new act to give liberty to India.
• Congress strongly reacted and decided to
quit the Government and resigned
between October 27,1939 and November
• Muslim League observed “Day of
Deliverance” on November 22,1939
as a mark of relief.
• League demanded independence as
Congress also demanded independence of
India, Transfer of Power and
establishment of Constituent Assembly.
• Sind Assembly had already passed a
resolution for establishment of a separate
• Annual session of Muslim League held in
Lahore in1940 and thousands of muslims
participated in the session.
• Maulvi Fazal-ul-Haq presented a resolution
about a Separate State for Muslim of
• Ch.Khaliq-uz-Zaman seconded the
• Resolution was passed unanimously by
participants and was named “Lahore
• Resolution was about establishment of
separate States for Muslims of India
comprising of Punjab, Sind,NWFP and
Baluchistan in North West and of Bengal
and Assam in Eastern India, where they
can live with peace and harmony
practicing their religious rites.
• A Hindu newspaper wrote it “Pakistan
Resolution” and the name was widely
accepted by Muslims.
• Muslims of Muslim minority Provinces
were more enthusiastic and happy than
that of other Provinces as they had an
experience of Congress Ministries.
• Gandhi declared it a sin and morally illness
of Muslim League.
• Raj Gopal Acharya said Mr. Jinnah
committed a sin by dividing two brothers.
• Abdul Kalam Azad declared it a falsified
idea of Jinnah to divide India.
Impacts on PoliticsImpacts on Politics
• Enhancement of prestige of Muslim League
• Unity among Muslims.
• Change of Government attitude .
• No change of Constitution without consent
• Equal representation of Muslims in
• Muslim Nationalism.
• Strengthen the concept of two different
• Gave impetus to freedom movement.