Geolo

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Geolo

  1. 1. NAME FAIZ MUHAMMAD NADEEM HASSANASSIGNMENT SOUTH AMERICASUBJECT GEOGRAPHY SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS QUAID E AZAM UNIVERSITY ISLAMBAD 0011
  2. 2. Contents Introduction Climate Energy issuesInternal and external threats Economy Minerals Industries Largest cities 0012
  3. 3. 0013
  4. 4. IntroductionSouth America occupies the southern portion of the American landmass. The continent isgenerally delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panamaborder. Some sources[citation needed] instead suggest the Panama Canal. Geopolitically andgeographically[4] all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus– is typically included in North America alone[5][6][7] and among the countries of CentralAmerica.[8][9] Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. SouthAmericas triangular shape gives it the shortest coastline, for its size, of any of the continents.Traditionally, South America also includes some nearby islands. Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao,Trinidad, Tobago, and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly SouthAmerican continental shelf and are often considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, theisland states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part orsubregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate, even thoughSan Andreas and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled byVenezuela.[7][10][11] Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos islandsthat belong to Ecuador and Easter Island (in Oceania but belongs to Chile), Robinson CrusoeIsland, Chiloé are also Chilean islands, while Tierra del Fuego is split between that country andArgentina. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha, Trindade and Martim Vaz, and theSaint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the UnitedKingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina. South Georgia and theSouth Sandwich Islands may be associated with either South America or Antarctica.[citation needed]South America is home to the worlds highest waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the largestriver (by volume), the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highestmountain is Aconcagua at 6,962 m [22,841 ft]); the driest place on earth, the AtacamaDesert;[12][13][14] the largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest; the highest capital city, La Paz,Bolivia; the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca; and, excludingresearch stations in Antarctica, the worlds southernmost permanently inhabited community,Puerto Toro, Chile.The Andes are the worlds longest continental mountain range. 0014
  5. 5. South Americas major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and petroleum.These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially intimes of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, theconcentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development ofdiversified economies. The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international marketshas led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, oftencausing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to driveaway from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home tomany interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar,vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a majorproportion of the Earths species.Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continents landarea and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions:The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. CLIMATESouth America Climate is predominantly wet and hot. However the large size of the continentmakes the climate of South America varied with each region having its own characteristicweather conditions. The other factors influencing the climate of South America are the geographical location,ocean currents and winds.South America Climate differs from one region to another. The Amazon river basin has thetypical hot wet climate suitable for the growth of rain forests. The temperature in the Amazonbasin 70 to 90 degrees F. The Andes Mountains, on the other hand, remain cold throughout theyear. The temperatures of the mountains is always very low.The desert region is of Chile is the driest part of South America. The westerly winds carryingmoisture shed their moisture on the western parts of the Andes, thus the eastern portions of themountains receive very little rainfall. The cold Peru Current is responsible for the dry coastalparts of Peru as well as northern Chile. The cold current is unable to hold much moisture. 0015
  6. 6. The highest temperatures of South America have been recorded in Gran Chaco in Argentina,with temperatures going up to 110 degrees F. The wettest place is Quibdo in Columbia. Itreceives an annual rainfall of 350 inches(890 centimeters).The four parts of South America which experience heavy rainfall are the Amazon River Basin,coastal parts of French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname, the southwestern parts of Chile andColumbia and Ecuador coasts.A unique feature of South America Climate is the El Nino. Every two to seven years the colddry Peru Current weakens and warm waters from the south rush along the coast in a southwarddirection. The El Nion affects the Climate of South America and causes heavy rainfall in the dryparts of South America.IISD Publications Centre ENERGY IN SOUTH AMERICA: The role of Brazil» Adilson de Oliveira, IISD, 2010. Paper, 21 pages, copyright: IISDSouth America has vast energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. A net energy exporter,the region will play an important role in achieving global energy security over the next decades. Despitethis, at present, the countries in the region are not able to guarantee adequate energy security for theirdomestic markets. 0016
  7. 7. This report explores Brazil’s role in the quest for energy security in South America. So far, the regionalenergy trade has been organized around bilateral agreements to export countries’ energy surpluses totheir neighbours when necessary. The infrastructure needed to support these trade agreements was putin place in the 1990s, but there have been few advances in regional regulation systems and the pricingmechanisms needed to support the energy trade. The risk of cuts in the energy flows imported fromneighbouring countries emerged in the new political and energy context of the 2000s. The perceptionthat energy security is a matter to be dealt with in the domestic context has gained favour amonggovernments in the region, despite the fact that the economic cost of this approach is high. Brazil, dueto its central geographical position, the size of its energy market and the availability of both renewableand non-renewable domestic energy resources, has a decisive role to play in the promotion of regionalenergy flows in order to provide regional energy security.Key points: The risk of opportunistic behaviour in the regional energy trade increases the transaction costs ofenergy projects. Lower-cost solutions for energy supplies are ignored because of the perceived dangerof supply cuts, and higher-cost solutions that eliminate such risks are adopted instead. Low-cost energyresources remain unexploited and infrastructure to facilitate the regional energy trade is lying idle. The liberalization of the South American energy markets opened an important window of opportunityfor economic efficiency gains largely associated with the convergence between energy and fuel marketsin the energy systems of the region. Energy integration is a necessary mechanism for exploring theseopportunities, as large natural gas reserves are located in the region’s economies with lower levels ofindustrialization and urbanization. The regional diversities in hydrology and consumer behaviour offer good opportunities to explore theeconomic benefits of the cooperative use of power plants. The cost of electricity is reduced, theenvironment suffers lower impacts and the risk of power shortages diminishes. Unfortunately, however,energy integration faces political forces that do not recognize these economic benefits. Due to its abundance of fossil fuels and its leadership in renewable energy, Brazil is well placed tosmooth the transition to a low-carbon economy. Its central geographical position and market size wouldallow it to extend these attributes to the rest of South America through regional energy integration. 0017
  8. 8. South America’s position in the global process of energy transition will be largely determined by itscapacity to secure the region’s energy supplies and to offer safe energy supplies to energy-importingcountries outside South America. Access to consumer markets in these countries will create a favourableeconomic environment for attracting investments to the region, thus adding value to its vast energyresources, whether renewable or non-renewable.Key recommendations: In Brazil, in an attempt to contain the escalation in energy costs brought about by the search forenergy security, the government has offered subsidies and is studying a proposal to renew hydropowerplant concessions at prices much lower than their opportunity costs. These approaches will causedistortions in energy prices without solving the structural problem of energy supply security, and shouldtherefore be abandoned. Energy integration offers the opportunity for all the countries in the region to improve their energysecurity and their access to the Brazilian market for energy resources that would otherwise remain idle,as well as the opportunity to participate in the articulation of a productive chain for the energy systemof the twenty-first century that is being established in Brazil. The diversity of the energy situations and regulation regimes in the countries of the region requiresintegration to take place in stages. Access to neighbouring countries’ reserves in situations of energysupply insecurity should be the initial stage of the process. A treaty that provides the legal basis forcontracts for the use of the Multilateral Energy Security Reserve (RMSE) can remove the risks associatedwith energy imports in these situations. The RMSE treaty should lay down the economic and technical conditions that will allow free access tothe required infrastructure and reserves needed to overcome energy supply insecurity in any country inthe region whenever necessary. Economic access to the energy resources of the RMSE (energy price)and the necessary transport logistics (tariffs for the use of networks) should be based on the long-termsupply costs of the various domestic markets. Brazil’s active participation in the formulation of the RMSEtreaty is essential for the achievement of South American energy security and successful energyintegration. Its central geographical position, its market size, its oil resources and its leadership in therenewable energy field make it the best candidate to manage the coordination of the competitive,secure integration of the South American energy market. Energy integration faces significant obstacles, the greatest of which is the lack of a legal basis forprivate investment in the energy industry. The European Energy Charter sought to solve this problem by 0018
  9. 9. providing conditions and protection for private investments. This charter has not been accepted inSouth America, mostly because the dispute settlement system would be based outside the region. Sinceit is essential to have an institutional mechanism to settle regional disputes, the RMSE treaty needs toaddress this question.securityExternal threatsColombia does not face any known foreign threats. The only neighbor that might pose a potentialmilitary challenge over as-yet unresolved territorial disputes relating to the maritime boundary, wherethere may be oilfields, would be Venezuela. The two countries have not allowed the occasional securityincidents involving Colombian guerrillas and paramilitaries along their long common border to escalateinto a serious issue since both nations concluded a bilateral free-trade agreement in 1991.The already strong cross-border trade links between Colombia and Venezuela were solidified in July2004 with an agreement to build a US$200 million natural gas pipeline between the two countries. As afriendly gesture on that occasion, President Álvaro Uribe cancelled the planned purchase of Frenchmade AMX-30 tanks from Spain and their deployment on the border with Venezuela. Internal threatsMain articles: Colombian Armed Conflict and Crime in ColombiaDespite endemic violence stemming from left-wing guerrilla activity, paramilitary groups, and drugtraffickers, constitutional order and institutional stability have prevailed. Nevertheless, the country’spolitical and social foundations have been undermined by the violence and corruption associated withthe enormous wealth created by the drug cartels. Most Colombian government institutions have aReputation for inefficient, corrupt, and bureaucratic management, with the notable exceptions of theCentral Bank, Ministry of Finance, and some other agencies responsible for economic policy formulation.Common crime is rampant and often carried out with impunity. Officially registered homicides inColombia reached a historic record of 28,837 in 2002, but declined by 20 percent in 2003 to 23,013. Thehigh homicide rate is also fueled by high unemployment, growing poverty, the ready availability of guns,and the growth of drug trafficking and organized crime. Criminal bands specializing in kidnapping,extortion, and robbery target businesses and civilians. Kidnapping exceeded a record 3,700 reportedcases in 2000, but subsequently declined to 2,986 cases in 2002 as a result of improved lawenforcement; the figure projected for 2003 was between 2,500 and 2,700. Guerrilla and paramilitarygroups are responsible for about 68 percent of kidnappings and organized crime, about 32 percent.Activities by foreign terrorist or drug-trafficking groups in Colombia have been minimal, consistingmostly of criminal activities involving Maicao-based Hezbollah members or international crime groups, 0019
  10. 10. such as the Russian Mafia, which was last reported to have supplied the Revolutionary Armed Forces ofColombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—FARC) with sophisticated weapons in 2000.In 1998 an Islamic terrorist was deported for engaging in illegal transactions with the FARC.GuerrillasTwo major guerrilla organizations, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas ArmadasRevolucionarias de Colombia—FARC) and the National Liberation Army (Ejército de LiberaciónNacional—ELN), plus a smaller Popular Liberation Army (Ejército Popular de Liberación or EPL) groupcontinue to be active. In 1996–98 the FARC and ELN extended their presence in the national territoryand scored some strategic gains against the poorly led armed forces by besieging and easily overrunningisolated military garrisons. The Pastrana government responded in November 1998 by granting the FARCa 51,000-square-kilometer demilitarized zone (DMZ) in southeast Colombia as a concession in exchangefor beginning peace talks. However, the FARC used the DMZ as a haven to increase illicit drug crops,transport military equipment and provisions, and negotiate kidnappings and extortions. After peacenegotiations collapsed in early 2002, security forces retook the DMZ on February 20.Until 2002, the armed conflict was fought primarily in the countryside. Since then, the FARC, havinghoned its remote-control bombing techniques with the aid of Europe-based terrorist groups, hasexpanded its operations to include occasional indiscriminate terrorist bombings and other attacks inBogotá. Numerous bombings have been attributed to the FARC. One such bombing was the El Nogalclub bombing in 2003. FARC itself denied that any of its members were involved in this attack.[1][2]With the support of the United States, the administration of President Uribe has sought toprofessionalize the armed forces and to engage them more fully in the counterinsurgency war; as aresult, the armed groups have suffered a series of setbacks. The president’s plan includes the formationof platoons of “peasant soldiers,” or locally recruited men, to provide guard duty around previouslyunguarded municipalities in support of the police and regular troops. By August 2004, more than 8,000peasant soldiers had been recruited and trained, and plans called for increasing that number to 15,000across the country by 2006.In 2003 the FARC had an estimated force of as many as 18,000 active members plus a 5,000-memberurban militia; the ELN had an estimated 3,500 members plus an urban militia; and the EPL had anestimated 500 members. In August 2003, under increasing pressure by the armed forces, the FARC andthe ELN announced an alliance. This partnership had already been a reality in certain parts of thecountry where ELN and FARC units fought side by side, and has been broadened to include the wholecountry.The alliance has not made any significant difference yet, but in the long term the two groups pose amuch greater threat jointly than they do separately, as the military power of the FARC and the politicalstrength of the ELN complement each other. At January 2009, estimates point that the policy of theUribe Administration of demovilization promises and intense pressure from the Army has left half of the 00110
  11. 11. recruits the FARC had at the start of the decade. Calculations point 7,000 members, and each day moreguerrilla fighters demovilize and leave FARC.The Uribe government has rejected the guerrilla demands for prisoner exchanges and demilitarizedzones as a precondition for peace talks. By 2004 stepped-up government actions against the guerrillaswith the help of significant U.S. military aid had kept the guerrillas mostly withdrawn into thecountryside, while government efforts to improve the economy and reduce cocaine production wereshowing results. Although it is generally believed that the left-wing guerrillas have little chance of takingpower in Colombia, they continue to engage in terrorist activities.Analysts believe that it would take years for the armed forces to make any significant progress inreducing the territory held by the armed groups, since the Uribe administration progress in this topic hasprogressed far beyond expectations, where at this point, FARC forces are in retreat plan to the junglesand are constantly attacked by the Colombian army.Right-Wing Illegal Paramilitary ForcesMain article: Paramilitarism in ColombiaThe largest paramilitary organization, the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (Autodefensas Unidasde Colombia—AUC), had an estimated 10,600 members. It operated as a loose confederation ofdisparate paramilitary groups, the largest of which was the Peasant Self-Defense Forces of Córdoba andUrabá (Autodefensas Campesinas de Córdoba y Urabá—ACCU). Other important paramilitaryorganizations that existed vefore the 2004 peace talks included the Cacique Nutibara Bloc (BloqueCacique Nutibara—BCN), the Central Bolivar Bloc (Bloque Central Bolívar—BCB), and the MiddleMagdalena Bloc (Bloque del Magdalena Medio—BMM). These groups are were involved in battling theguerrillas and terrorizing their supporters or sympathizers among the civilian population. ECONOMY During the last two decades, South American countries have experienced significant economicgrowth, which can be seen in many of these countries with the construction of new skyscrapers like theGran Costanera tower in Chile, and also transportations systems like the Bogota Metro. However,because of histories of high inflation in nearly all South American countries, interest rates remain highand investment remains low. Interest rates are usually twice that of the United States. For example,interest-rates are about 22% in Venezuela and 23% in Suriname. The exception is Chile, which has beenimplementing free market economic policies since establishing military dictatorship in 1973 and hasbeen increasing its social spending since the return of democratic rule in the early 1990s. This has led toeconomic stability and interest rates in the low single digits. 00111
  12. 12. South America relies heavily on the exporting of goods and natural resources. On an exchange rate basisBrazil (the seventh largest economy in the world and the largest in South America) leads the way in totalamount of exports at $201.9 billion dollars followed by Argentina at 68.01 billion and Chile with 64.28billion.[42]The economic gap between the rich and poor in most South American nations is considered to be larger than in most other continents.[citation needed] In Venezuela, Paraguay, Bolivia and many other South American countries, the richest 20% may own over 60% of the nations wealth, while the poorest 20% may own less than 5%.[citation needed] This wide gap can be seen in many large South Americancities where makeshift shacks and slums lie adjacent to skyscrapers and upper-class luxury apartments.Agricultural products vary from items like a variety of fruits and vegetables, diary items, meat, livestock,fish and more. Raising beef for export is an important export commodity for Argentina, Uruguay,Paraguay and Colombia.Amongst the tropical crops grown for domestic use and for export, coffee is the most important. It isproduced mainly in the highlands of Brazil and in central and western Colombia. Cacao is also importantand produced in the eastern Brazil and western Colombia regions.Brazil is the worlds second biggest producer of soybeans. Output has doubled over the past decade, asdemand, particularly from China, has soared. Brazil produced 75.5 million tonnes of soybeans in 2010-11, 28.6% of the world total. Argentina is another important producer of soybeans, producing 49 miliontonnes during the same period, 18.6% of the world total.Both Brazil and Argentina also produce corn, but severe drought during 2011 has significantly affectedproduction of both corn and soybeans.Sugar is produced for export in Peru, Guyana and Suriname. The sugarcane produced in most otherparts, however, is mainly for domestic use only.Peru produces cotton for export, as does eastern Brazil. Uruguay has been exporting wool and hides formany years and is reliant on these products.In Argentina wool and hides are also produced for export and domestic use along with corn, linseed andweatForest situationAn estimated 1.115 million hectares were planted as of 2005. There are 33.2 million hectares (82 millionacres) of additional land (native forest) for forestry. Out of this total, 20 million hectares (50 millionacres) are high quality land for future development in Argentina. However, this vast amount of land isnot easy to put into production due to its land tenure situation (the proliferation of owners holdingareas of 5 to 10 hectares), legislation which protects native forests, and lack of infrastructure. Ifinvestors wish to expand their land for cultivation, the opportunity costs are substantial.[1] 00112
  13. 13. The growth of planted forests has increased dramatically since 1997 due to new investments (especiallyfrom Chile). The implementation of Law 25,008 in January 1999 has also been an important factor forgrowth in this sector. This law promotes and assists the forestry sector for a period of 10 years. Between1990 and 2000, foreign and domestic investments surpassed US$ 1.5 billion. The forestry industrydepends on both cultivated forests (85 percent) and native forests (15 percent). The major speciescultivated in Argentina are pines and eucalyptus. In addition, species such as salix and populus are alsocultivated in a smaller scale. Currently, there are no other species that have been introduced forcultivation in Argentina.[1]The current plantation rate is estimated to be 50,000 hectares per year. It is also estimated that theconsumption of wood products from cultivated forests is 5.3 million cubic meters, and sustainable woodsupply to the year 2015 will be more than 20 million cubic meters. Argentina, however, is not a majorconsumer of wood products. For instance, wood is not commonly used in building construction. About60 to 70 percent of wood product production is used for internal consumption (wood boards, plywood,cellulose pulp, etc) and the rest for exports.[1]Forestry by regionA path in a jungle in Misiones with its characteristic red soilAmong the most important regions in Argentina for the industry are the provinces of Misiones,Corrientes, Entre Ríos, and Buenos Aires. These four provinces form the countrys eastern border withUruguay and Brazil, and comprise of 80% of the total cultivated area. [1]Forests are composed of the following species:[1] 50% – Pine (Misiones, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Patagonia, Central and Northwest areas of the country) 30% – Eucalyptus (Misiones, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Central and Northwest area of the country) 16% – Willow and aspen (Buenos Aires, Río Negro, Mendoza, Neuquén) 00113
  14. 14. 4% – Other broad-leaved treesThe Argentine forestry sector has strengthened considerably in the last 15 years. The reasons behindthis growth include:[1] Great extensions of undeveloped land for the forestry industry at low prices that do not compete with other industries such as agriculture The Law 25,080 which provides economic incentives and favorable investment environment for the industry (including fiscal stability) No restrictions for foreign investmentDuring the 1990s, Argentina was a net importer of forestry products with high value-added (i.e. paper,cardboard, furniture, etc.) and a net exporter of primary and low value added goods (i.e. wood, cellulosepulp). This situation has changed especially after the currency devaluation in 2002 and foreigninvestment during the 1990s. Now, the country has begun producing a number of high value addedproducts such as fiberboards and finished products such as furniture. Argentina is now in a position tobecome an important producer of forest products in the future. The industry is focusing on theproduction of more high value added products, and increasing rates of plantation.[1]Pulp mill disputeMain article: Pulp mill dispute between Argentina and UruguayThere are also other issues that can make some aspects of the industry uncertain. Currently there is adispute between Uruguay and Argentina over two cellulose plants that are being built on the Uruguayanside of the Río de la Plata, which forms the border between the two countries. This dispute began afterArgentine environmentalists alleged that the plants would pollute the river that divides the twocountries, and asserted that Uruguay had not provided the necessary information on the environmentalimpact of the plants. In protest, Argentine environmentalists blocked traffic on the Libertador GeneralSan Martín Bridge and General Artigas Bridge, the two main international bridges connecting the twocountries. As of now, the Argentine and Uruguay government have not been able to resolve the issue.This impasse could possibly slow down the development and introduction of new technologies for theforestry sector. Such technologies are crucial to increase cultivated land and production. Argentina hasthe potential to become a major cluster for the worldwide industry, but more investment is necessary.[1].[1] Tax benefits:[1] o Tax stability for 30 to 50 years for companies with forestry investment projects o Accelerated amortization of income taxes o Accelerated return of value-added tax (21 percent) 00114
  15. 15. o Tax breaks on assets, real estate, sales, and gross income from state and municipal governments o Accelerated depreciation of capital goods Economic Support[1] o The Argentine government will finance up to 100 percent for projects with 700 hectares, 50 percent for forests between 701 and 1,000 hectares, 30 percent for extensions between 1,001 and 2,000 hectare, and 15 percent for more than 2,001 hectares Support for projects focused in plantation of traditional species and enrichment of native forestsProduction and tradeArgentina’s exports of forestry products began in the 1990s. However, as a producer of primary goodswith low value added, the country experienced an overall trade deficit that ran from US$ 500 million toUS$ 1 billion from 1992 to 2002. With the sharp devaluation of the peso in 2002, the exports ofArgentine forest product were given a shot in the arm. Argentine goods became more attractive andexports began to increase, especially for high-value-added products. Between 2002 and 2004, exportsincreased from US$ 300 million to about US$ 700 million.[1]Wood and FurnitureIt is estimated that for one hectare of cultivated forest, the industry produces 400 tons of wood.Moreover, the average value of a cubic meter of wood boards from cultivated forests is US$ 70 to US$80. In some cases, there are boards that run between US$ 200 to US$ 250 and there is a small niche ofspecific types of boards with prices up to US$ 400. The area between Misiones, Corrientes, and EntreRíos is the major producer of wood products, and represents 65 percent of the total production inArgentina.[1]Cellulose PulpArgentina is the third biggest producer of cellulose pulp in Latin America. As of 2005, Argentinaproduced 1.5 million tons.Paper ProductionArgentina is the fourth largest producer of paper, paperboard and corrugated fiberboard in LatinAmerica. As of the 2004, the sector produced about 1.4 million tons. The production experienced anincrease of 11 percent compared to 2003. However, this production only satisfied 67 percent ofdomestic demand. The paper production in Argentina is primarily for packing (48 percent), printing (25percent), and newspapers (13 percent).[1]Atlantic dry forests 00115
  16. 16. The Atlantic dry forests cover an area of 115,100 square kilometers (44,400 sq mi), lying between theCerrado savannas of central Brazil and the Caatinga dry shrublands of northeastern Brazil. The Atlanticdry forests stretch from northern Minas Gerais state across western Bahia state into central Piauí. TheAtlantic dry forests generally lie along the upper São Francisco River of Minas Gerais and Bahia, and inthe basin of the Gurguéia River in Piauí. A large enclave of Atlantic dry forest lies on the ChapadaDiamantina of east-central Bahia. The Atlantic dry forestsThe Atlantic Forest (Portuguese: Mata Atlântica) is a region of tropical and subtropical moist forest,tropical dry forest, tropical savanna, semi-deciduous forest and mangrove forests which extends alongthe Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio Grande do Sul state in thesouth, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. The Atlantic Forest ischaracterized by a high species diversity and endemism.[1] It was the first environment that thePortuguese conquerors encountered over 500 years ago when it was thought to have had an area of 1to 1.5 million km2 and stretching an unknown distance inland.[2] Currently, the Atlantic Forest spansover 4000km2 along the coast of Brazil and in a small part of Paraguay and Argentina.[3][4] In Argentina, itis known as Selva Atlántica.The Atlantic Forest region includes forests of several variations: Restinga is a forest type that grows on stabilized coastal dunes. Restinga Forests are generally closed canopy short forests with tree density. Open Restinga is an open, savanna-like formation with scattered clumps of small trees and shrubs and an extensive layer of herbs, grasses, and sedges.[3] Tropical moist forests are forests that receive more than 2000mm of rain a year. This includes Lowland Tropical Moist Forests, Submontane Tropical Moist Forest, and Montane Tropical Moist Forest.[3] Tabuleiro forests are found over very moist clay soils and Tabuleiro Savannas occur over faster- draining sand soils.[3] These are humid areas that rely on water vapor from the ocean.[4] Major Landforms Of SOUTH AMERICA AMAZON BASIN In short, the Amazon Basin (Amazonia) is covered by the largest tropical rain forest in the world, and running through its heart is the Amazon River, and its more than 1,000 tributaries, seven of them more than 1,000 miles in length. Measurable rain falls on an average of 200 days a year, and total rainfall often approaches 100 inches per year. The overall basin drains over 2,700,000 sq. miles, and covers about one-third of the South American landmass. Rising high in the Andes, the rivers network irrigates almost half of the continent, and in terms of volume of water discharged into an ocean... its the largest in the world. 00116
  17. 17. ANDESThis toothy-edged, massive mountain system extends from the tip of South America all the wayto Panama. Its the source of most major rivers on the continent and is 4,500 miles (7,240 km) inlength. Its home to some of the planets largest volcanoes, and in the far south along the coastof Chile, large ice sheets are commonplace.The Andes and its many ranges include dozens of peaks that reach over 20,000 ft., with thehighest point being Aconcagua in Argentina, at 22,384 ft. (6,960m).ATACAMA DESERTSparsely populated and running high into the Andes of Chile, this somewhat small desert (orplateau) is a cold place and rainfall is very rare.Its approximately 100 miles wide and 625 miles long. The landscape is totally barren andcovered with small borax lakes, lava flow remnants and saline deposits.BRAZILIAN HIGHLANDSThis highland region - about 800 miles in length - runs through the Brazilian states of MinasGerais, Goias, Bahia and Sao Paulo in southeastern Brazil. The magnificent landscape includesvaried mountain ranges, namely the Serra de Mantiquiera, Serra do Paranapiataba, Serra Geral,and Serra do Mar.South America Mountains, the term conjures up the image of the snow capped peaks of theAndes standing tall among the topographical features of South America. The Andes Mountains isthe most massive mountain ranges of South America with a large number of very high peaks.South American continent consists of 12 countries. Located at the southernmost corner of theworld, Punta Arenas is a city in South America.Amazon, the largest river in the world is also situated in the South American continent. YourSouth America vacation can include a visit to the rainforests of this continent. South Americancontinent is connected to the continent of North America by the narrow cape of Panama andincludes few island groups.Falklands or the Malvinas Islands are few of the prominent islands that are considered part ofthe continent of South America.The Andes is the most prominent mountain range of South America. The extension of the Andesis also greater than any other mountain system of the world. The narrow belt of the three 00117
  18. 18. connected ranges of the Andes stretch from the Caribbean Sea to the Tierra del Fuego island, more than 8000km in length. The Andes Mountains of South America were formed during the Cretaceous Period due to the movements of the tectonic plates. The sedimentary layers of the earths crust make up the folds of the mountains. The living South America Mountains still experience earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The three parts of the Andes are the northern arc made up of three parallel ranges, Cordillera Occidental, Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental; the central part with two ranges enclosing within them Altiplano, a vast plateau; and the southern part, the lower regions. The highest peak of South America is Aconcagua in Argentina with a height of 6,960m. The rivers on the east of the Andes are fed by the moisture bearing westerly winds and feed the Amazon, the Orinoco and other rivers. Among the lakes in the Andes is Lake Titicaca, in the plateau of the Andes. The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is another mountain range of South America. Forest AMAZON JUNGLE is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon Basin of South America. This basin encompasses seven million square kilometers (1.7 billion acres), of which five and a half million square kilometers (1.4 billion acres) are covered by the rainforest. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, Colombia with 10%, and with minor amounts in, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. States or departments in four nations contain "Amazonas" in their names. The Amazon represents over half of the planets remaining rainforests, and it comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world MINERALS #48655, #42558, #48658, Elbaite #46860, Diamond Elbaite #52912, Hematite, Novo Tourmaline, Santa (0.71 carat yellow-Tourmaline, Rhodochrosite, Horizonte, Brazil Rosa Mine, Brazil ( gray complex Santa Rosa Capillitas Mine, crystal), GranMine, Brazil ( Argentina (c) Sabana region, Venezuela 00118
  19. 19. #52603, Diamond #50930, #48653, Elbaite #51742, (0.37 carat green Cassiterite #49523, Pyrite, Tourmaline, Santa Barite and octahedral (twinned Quiruvilca District, Rosa Mine, Brazil Orpiment, crystal), crystals), Santa Peru (m)Palomo Mine, Guaniamo, Barbara Vein, Peru (m) Venezuela Brazil #54139, Quartz #53837, #53836, Hematite, #53890, Beryl var. #44716, with Rutile Hematite, Itabira Itabira District, Aquamarine, Barite, inclusions District, Brazil Brazil (m) $55 Brazil (t) $16 Quiruvilca (Rutilated (m) $60District, Peru Quartz), Novo (m) $18 Horizonte, Brazil (m) $28 #53904, Quartz #54376, #54064, Sphalerite, #53931, var. Rose Quartz Orpiment, #53957, Beryl var. Andradite, Quartz, Sphalerite Crystals, Lavra da Palomo Mine, Etched El Mochito Mine,and Quartz, Ilha, Taquaral, Peru (m) $125 Aquamarine, Honduras (c) $125 Julcani Brazil (t) $32 Divino dasDistrict, Peru Laranjeiras, Brazil (c) $45 (m) $225 00119
  20. 20. #53969, #53919, #49913, Kyanite Stibnite, Cassiterite, Itinga, #54915, in Quartz, Barra #51510, Elbaite Tuco Mine, Brazil (t) $38 Andradite do Salinas, Brazil Tourmaline, XiaPeru (m) $30 Garnet with (c) $55 Mine, Sao Jose do Quartz and Safira, Brazil Calcite, El (c) $175 Mochito Mine, Honduras (c) $95 #54865, #54872, Beryl #54863, Beryl var. #55011, Anatase#54578, Beryl Spodumene var. var. Aquamarine, with Gorceixite, var. Hiddenite, Brazil Aquamarine, Brazil (t) $35 Datas, Brazil (t) $65 Morganite, (t) $26 Brazil (t) $16 CoronelMurta, Brazil (m) $175 #54958, Topaz #54890, (flawless gem- #54963, Rhodochrosite, grade crystal), Brazilianite with Morococha Tres Barras Mine, Muscovite, Lavra District, Peru Teofilo Otoni, do Corrego Frio, (c) $125 Brazil (m) $165 Brazil (Type Locality for Brazilianite) (t) $225 00120
  21. 21. #43722, Spodumene, Brazil#43860, Beryl var. Emerald #48153, Quartz (Japan-law (c) $1250 in Calcite, La Pita Mine, twins), Mundo Nuevo Mine, Colombia (m) $750 Peru (lc) $450 #42932, Diamond (1.91 #35675, Diamond (0.90 carat carat cuttable gem-grade #50460, Tetrahedrite, yellow dodecahedral crystal), yellow complex crystal), Sphalerite, Quartz, Galena, Diamantino, Brazil (t) $495 Brazil (t) $4495 Casapalca District, Peru (lc) $225 #54944, Beryl var. #42941, Diamond (1.99 #28079, Diamond (2.48 carat Emerald, Muzo Mine, carat cuttable gem-grade yellow octahedral crystal), Colombia (t) $550 yellow complex crystal), Diamantino, Brazil (t) $9525 Brazil (t) $4680 #42933, Diamond (1.76 #50423, Diamond (4.75 carat carat cuttable gem-grade #51725, Gold (crystallized), dark-gray spherical Ballas 00121
  22. 22. yellow octahedral crystal), Alta Floresta, Brazil crystal), Paraguassu River Brazil (t) $4150 (t) $4900 District, Brazil (t) $710 #53812, Spodumene var. #49616, Quartz var. Hiddenite, Brazil (c) $450 #51491, Bournonite, Amethyst with Calcite, Sphalerite, Quartz, Pyrite, Alto Uruguai, Brazil Pachapaqui District, Peru (lc) (lc) $225#53100, Beryl var. Emerald with Pyrite, Chivor Mine, #43860, Beryl var. Emerald Colombia (t) in Calcite, La Pita Mine, Colombia (m) Industries Braz NATURAL RESOURCES, AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIES 00122
  23. 23. Natural Resources: Iron Ore, Manganese, Bauxite, Nickel, Uranium, Gems, Petroleum, Phosphates, Tin, Gold, Platinum, Timber, Hydroelectric Power, Granite, Limestone, Clay, Sand.. Agriculture: Sugarcane, Corn, Cassava, Soybeans, Oranges, Wheat, Dry Beans, Coffee, Cotton, Tomatoes, Potatoes, Cocoa, Peanuts, Rice, Beef, Cattle, Pork. Major Industries: Iron & Steel, Chemicals, Petrochemicals, Machinery, Vehicles, Consumer Goods, Cement, Wood Products, Shipbuilding, Metal Products, Fertilizer, Foodstuffs, Textiles, Clothing, Paper Products, Plastics, Pharmaceuticals. IMPORTS & EXPORTS Major Imports: Minerals, Petroleum, Chemicals, Fertilizers, Machinery, Vegetables, AnimalProducts, Cereals, Electrical Products, Electronics, Vehicles, Metals, Photographic Apparatus, Surgical Instruments, Scientific Equipment. Major Exports: Processed Foods, Cocoa Beans, Seeds, Juices, Fruit Products, Meat, AnimalProducts, Vegetables, Metals, Vehicles, Machinery, Animal Feed, Textiles, Footwear, Petroleum Products. Balance of Trade: $16,112,000,000 (1989) ilArgentinaArgentina is the second largest country in South America, to the east of Andes Mountain range. It occupies an areaof 3,761 million square kilometers. The highest point is in Mendoza province at Cerro Aconcagua 7,010 metersabove sea level.Food industries, motor vehicles, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals and steel are the major industries inArgentina.Argentine exports valued USD 70,589 billion in 2009, while imports reached USD 57,413 billion in 2008. Foodexports include cereals, oils, flour, beef and fruits.BoliviaBolivia has many industry sectors, with oil and natural gas playing a major part in the economyof the country. Other industry sectors found in the Bolivian economy are mining, smelting, foodand beverages, agriculture, tobacco, handicrafts and clothing. The agriculture sector consists ofmany products which include soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes andtimber.Peru 00123
  24. 24. Peru industriesinclude textile industry, mineral industry, food industry, etc. Peru has various kinds of industries. Some of the Peru industries are- Mineral Industry Iron and Steel Industry Petroleum Industry Fishing Industry Textile Industry Food IndustryThe development of modern industries of Perumainly took place after World War II. Beforethat time Peru industries were absorbed in mineral products, agricultural products,manufacturing textile and leather products. Between the year 1950 and 1980 the contribution ofPeru Industries towards domestic production raised from 13.6 % to 24.5 %. Over the last 40years industrial development comprehended a large number of industries in Peru.The manufacturing products of Peru Industries include electronic products, engineeringproducts, tobacco products, rubber products, plastic products, etc. Around 70 % of the Peruvianindustry is focused on in the metropolitan region of Lima. The main trading collaborators ofPeru are the United States, Japan, Germany and Argentina.Most of the factories of Peru are situated within the greater Lima region. The mining industry ofPeru is very large. Minerals like coal, silver, iron ore, gold, etc. are drawn out from Perusmining industry.Fish meal, cotton, coffee, minerals and sugar are the chief export items of Peru and motorvehicles, machinery, food, chemicals and metals are the chief import items of Peru.ChileForestryThe Chilean forestry industry grew to comprise 13% of the country’s total exports in 2005,making it one of the largest export sectors for Chile.[22] Radiata Pine and Eucalyptus comprisethe vast majority of Chiles forestry exports.[22] Within the forestry sector, the largest contributorto total production is pulp, followed by wood-based panels and lumber.[22] Due to popular andincreasing demands for Chile’s forestry products, the government is currently focusing onincreasing the already vast acreage of Chile’s Pine and Eucalyptus plantations as well as openingnew industrial plants.[22]Mining 00124
  25. 25. See also: Mining in ChileChile produces more than a third of the worlds copper.The mining sector in Chile is one of the pillars of Chilean economy. The Chilean governmentstrongly supports foreign investment in the sector and has modified its mining industry laws andregulations to create a favorable investing environment for foreigners. Thanks to a large amountof copper resources, progressive legislation and a healthy investment environment, Chile hasbecome the copper mining capital of the world, producing over 1/3 of the global copperoutput.[22]Major Landformsof SOUTH AMERICAAMAZON BASINIn short, the Amazon Basin (Amazonia) is covered by the largest tropical rain forest in the world, andrunning through its heart is the Amazon River, and its more than 1,000 tributaries, seven of them morethan 1,000 miles in length. Measurable rain falls on an average of 200 days a year, and total rainfalloften approaches 100 inches per year. The overall basin drains over 2,700,000 sq. miles, and covers about one-third of the South Americanlandmass. Rising high in the Andes, the rivers network irrigates almost half of the continent, and interms of volume of water discharged into an ocean... its the largest in the world. 00125
  26. 26. ANDESThis toothy-edged, massive mountain system extends from the tip of South America all the way toPanama. Its the source of most major rivers on the continent and is 4,500 miles (7,240 km) in length. Itshome to some of the planets largest volcanoes, and in the far south along the coast of Chile, large icesheets are commonplace.The Andes and its many ranges include dozens of peaks that reach over 20,000 ft., with the highestpoint being Aconcagua in Argentina, at 22,384 ft. (6,960m).ATACAMA DESERTSparsely populated and running high into the Andes of Chile, this somewhat small desert (or plateau) is acold place and rainfall is very rare.Its approximately 100 miles wide and 625 miles long. The landscape is totally barren and covered withsmall borax lakes, lava flow remnants and saline deposits.BRAZILIAN HIGHLANDSThis highland region - about 800 miles in length - runs through the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais,Goias, Bahia and Sao Paulo in southeastern Brazil. The magnificent landscape includes varied mountainranges, namely the Serra de Mantiquiera, Serra doParanapiataba, Serra Geral, and Serra do Mar.The estimated highest point is 7,368 ft (2,245m).Mountains 00126
  27. 27. South America Mountains, the term conjures up the image of the snow capped peaks of the Andesstanding tall among the topographical features of South America. The Andes Mountains is the mostmassive mountain ranges of South America with a large number of very high peaks.South American continent consists of 12 countries. Located at the southernmost corner of the world,Punta Arenas is a city in South America.Amazon, the largest river in the world is also situated in the South American continent. Your SouthAmerica vacation can include a visit to the rainforests of this continent. South American continent isconnected to the continent of North America by the narrow cape of Panama and includes few islandgroups.Falklands or the Malvinas Islands are few of the prominent islands that are considered part of thecontinent of South America.The Andes is the most prominent mountain range of South America. The extension of the Andes is alsogreater than any other mountain system of the world. The narrow belt of the three connected ranges ofthe Andes stretch from the Caribbean Sea to the Tierra del Fuego island, more than 8000km in length.The Andes Mountains of South America were formed during the Cretaceous Period due to themovements of the tectonic plates. The sedimentary layers of the earths crust make up the folds of themountains. The living South America Mountains still experience earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Thethree parts of the Andes are the northern arc made up of three parallel ranges, Cordillera Occidental,Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental; the central part with two ranges enclosing within themAltiplano, a vast plateau; and the southern part, the lower regions. The highest peak of South America isAconcagua in Argentina with a height of 6,960m. 00127
  28. 28. The rivers on the east of the Andes are fed by the moisture bearing westerly winds and feed theAmazon, the Orinoco and other rivers. Among the lakes in the Andes is Lake Titicaca, in the plateau ofthe Andes.The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is another mountain range of South America.Riverhe Amazon River is the principal river of South America.Amazon River, (Portuguese and Spanish: Amazonas), one of the great rivers of the world and thechief river of South America. With a length of about 4,000 miles (6,400 km), it is the secondlongest river in the world, exceeded only by the Nile. The Amazons flow is by far the worldslargest.Tributaries and BasinThousands of rivers flow, directly or indirectly, into the Amazon, draining parts of Bolivia,Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela. The longest tributary is the 2,100-mile(3,380-km) Madeira River; other major tributaries include the Negro, Tapajós and Xingu. Manytributaries have falls and rapids that impede navigation. The Amazon river system is joined to theOrinoco system by the Casiquiare River in Venezuela.Essequibo,the largest river in Guyana. Its source is in the Guiana Highlands on the Brazilian border. The river flows600 miles (965 km) north past Bartica and Parika. Its island-dotted estuary, 20 miles (32 km) wide, runsinto the Atlantic northwest of Georgetown. The river has numerous rapids and falls but is navigable forocean ships for about 50 miles (80 km), up to Bartica. The Essequibo is an important route from theinterior.Casiquiare River, also Cassiquiare River and Canal Casiquiare, a river linking the Orinoco and Amazon river systemsof South America. The Casiquiare branches from the Orinoco in southern Venezuela and flows southwestward about 220 miles (350 km) through flat marshy land to the Rio Negro, a principal tributary ofthe Amazon.Apurá 00128
  29. 29. River, a river in South America. It is called the Caquetá in Colombia. The length is estimated at 1,700miles (2,740 km). From its source in the Colombian Andes, the river flows southeastward into Brazil,where it is navigable. It joins the Amazon River through channels that flood seasonally to form lakes.JapuráRiver, a river in South America. It is called the Caquetá in Colombia. The length is estimated at 1,700miles (2,740 km). From its source in the Colombian Andes, the river flows southeastward into Brazil,where it is navigable. It joins the Amazon River through channels that flood seasonally to form lakes. Madeira River, a main tributary of the Amazon River. It begins at the junction of the Mamoreand Beni rivers and flows generally northeastward through Brazil, reaching the Amazon 90 miles(145 km) east of Manaus.The Magdalena RiverMagdalena River, the main river of Colombia, South America. From southwestern Colombia itflows about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) northward to the Caribbean Sea—past Neiva, Girardot, andthe port of Barranquilla.The Maipo RiverMaipo River, a river in central Chile. It flows 155 miles (249 km) westward from the AndesMountains to the Pacific Ocean.The Napo RiverNapo River, a tributary of the Amazon. It begins in the Andes Mountains of central Ecuador,flows southeastward into Peru, and enters the Amazon 50 miles (80 km) north of Iquitos.The Orinoco RiverOrinoco River, one of the great rivers of South America. It flows through the northern part of thecontinent, draining parts of Venezuela and Colombia. 00129
  30. 30. The Paraguay RiverParaguay River, a river in central South America. From its source on the Mato Grosso Plateau insouthwestern Brazil it flows generally southward through Paraguay to join the Paraná River justnorth of Corrientes, Argentina. The Parana RiverParaná River (Spanish, a river in southeastern South America. It is formed by the union of theGrande and Paranaíba rivers in southern Brazil.Paranaíba River, a river in eastern South America. Its source is in east-central Brazil, and it flowswest and southwest for about 500 miles (800 km), uniting with the Grande in southern Brazil toform the Paraná River.The Pilcomayo RiverPilcomayo River, a river in central South America. It begins in the Andes Mountains of westernBolivia, and flows southeastward 700 miles (1,100 km) to join the Paraguay River at Asunción,Paraguary.The Purus RiverPurus River, a tributary of the Amazon River in central South America. It begins as the Alto(upper) Purús in the Peruvian Andes and flows northeastward for about 1,800 miles (2,900 km).The Putumayo RiverPutumayo River, (in Brazil: Iĉa, a tributary of the Amazon River in east-central South America.The Rio de La PlataLa Plata, Río de, a body of water forming the major indentation on the Atlantic coast of SouthAmerica. 00130
  31. 31. The Rio NegroRio Negro, a river and important tributary of the Amazon River in South America. It begins atthe junction of the Guainía and Casiquiare rivers on the Colombia-Venezuela boundary andforms the boundary between those two countries as it flows southward into Brazil.The Sao Francisco RiverSão Francisco River, a major river in eastern Brazil, the longest entirely within the country.The Tapajos RiverTapajos River, a principal tributary of the Amazon River. The Tapajos is formed by the junctionof the Juruena and Teles Pires (Sao Manuel) rivers in nort-central Brazil and flows some 500miles (800 km) northeastward to the Amazon at Santarem.The Ucayali RiverUcayali River, a river in eastern and northern Peru, and one of the main headstreams of theAmazon River.DesertsThe Atacama Desert (Spanish: Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America, covering a 600-mile(1,000 km) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains. It is, according to NASA,National Geographic and many other publications, the driest desert in the world.[1][2][3][4] The Atacamaoccupies 40,600 square miles (105,000 km2)[5] in northern Chile, composed mostly of salt basins(salares), sand, and felsic lava flows towards the Andes.The Atacama Desert ecoregion, as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), extendsfrom a few kilometers south of the Peru-Chile border to about 30° south latitude.[6] To the northlies the Peruvian Sechura Desert ecoregion, whilst to the south is the Chilean Matorral ecoregion.The National Geographic Society, by contrast, considers the coastal area of southern Peru to bepart of the Atacama Desert.[7][8] It includes in this definition the deserts south of the Ica Region inPeru. 00131
  32. 32. To the east lies the less arid Central Andean dry puna ecoregion. The drier portion of thisecoregion is located south of the Loa River between the parallel Sierra Vicuña Mackenna andCordillera Domeyko. To the north of the mentioned river lies the Pampa del Tamarugal.The Patagonian Desert, also known as the Patagonia Desert or the Patagonian Steppe, is thelargest desert in Argentina and is the 7th largest desert in the world by area, occupying 673,000square kilometers (260,000 mi²). It is located primarily in Argentina with small parts in Chileand is bounded by the Andes, to its west, and the Atlantic Ocean to its east, in the region ofPatagonia, southern Argentina. To the north the desert grades into the semi-arid Cuyo Regionand the Dry and Humid Pampas. The central parts of the steppe are dominated by shrubby andherbaceous plant species albeit to the west, where precipitation is higher, bushes are replaced bygrasses.[1] Topographically the deserts consist of alternating tablelands and massifs dissected byriver valleys and canyons. The more western parts of the steppe host lakes of glacial origin andgrades into barren mountains or cold temperate forests along valleys.Inhabited by hunter-gatherers since Pre-Hispanic times the desert faced in the 19th centurymigration of Mapuches, Chileans, Argentines, Welshs and other European peoples transformingit from a conflictive borderland zone to an integral part of Argentina with cattle, sheep and horsehusbandry being the primary land use.La Guajira Desert is located in the northernmost part of Colombia, 610 km (380 mi) north ofBogota, in the La Guajira Department, covering most of La Guajira Peninsula includingVenezuelan territory. The area holds immense coal reserves, exploited in a zone known as ElCerrejon. The area is also home to the indigenous Wayuu people and a variety of desert flora andfauna.The National Natural Park of Macuira is located in the La Guajira Desert and is a tropical oasis.It has been a national park since 1977. The park covers 25,000 hectares (62,000 acres) in LaGuiajira’s only mountain chain, and ranges in altitude from 0 to 450 metres (1,480 ft). It has awarm climate of about 27 °C (81 °F).Largest citiesThis list features the most populated cities in South America, considering the city proper only.See the article on each city for sources.Ranking Name Country Population 00132
  33. 33. 1 São Paulo Brazil 10,886,5182 Bogotá Colombia 6,840,1163 Lima Peru 6,321,1734 Rio de Janeiro Brazil 6,093,4725 Caracas Venezuela 5,576,0006 Santiago Chile 5,428,5907 Maracaibo Venezuela 4,163,6708 Buenos Aires Argentina 3,776,1389 Salvador da Bahia Brazil 2,892,62510 Valencia Venezuela 2,585,20211 Brasília Brazil 2,455,90312 Fortaleza Brazil 2,431,41513 Belo Horizonte Brazil 2,412,93714 Medellín Colombia 2,214,49415 Cali Colombia 2,119,90816 Guayaquil Ecuador 1,985,37917 Curitiba Brazil 1,797,40818 Córdoba Argentina 1,613,21119 Manaus Brazil 1,612,47520 Barquisimeto Venezuela 1,600,00021 Recife Brazil 1,533,58022 Porto Alegre Brazil 1,420,667 00133
  34. 34. 23 Belém Brazil 1,408,84724 Quito Ecuador 1,399,37825 Rosario Argentina 1,325,09026 Montevideo Uruguay 1,303,18227 Maracay Venezuela 1,302,00028 Goiânia Brazil 1,244,64529 Guarulhos Brazil 1,236,19230 Barranquilla Colombia 1,146,35931 Santa Cruz de la Sierra Bolivia 1,113,58232 Mendoza Argentina 1,109,10433 Campinas Brazil 1,039,29734 São Gonçalo Brazil 960,63135 São Luís Brazil 957,89936 La Plata Argentina 957,80037 Ciudad Guayana Venezuela 946,60638 San Miguel de Tucumán Argentina 903,10039 Cartagena Colombia 892,54540 Maceió Brazil 874,014 00134
  35. 35. GDP (PPP) per capita 2009 GDP per capitaRank Country US dollars (World Bank)1 Argentina 14,5592 Chile 14,3313 Uruguay 13,2084 Venezuela 12,3415 Brazil 10,4276 Colombia 8,8707 Suriname 8,8008 Peru 8,6009 Ecuador 7,30011 Bolivia 4,60010 Paraguay 4,10012 Guyana 3,900Countries with its population and area 00135
  36. 36. Population Country or Area Population density [35] (July 2009 Capital territory with flag (km²) (per sq mi) [35] per km² est.) 2 2,766,890 km (1,068,300 14.3/km² Argentina 40,482,000 Buenos Aires sq mi) (37/sq mi) 2 1,098,580 km (424,160 8.4/km² La Paz and Sucre Bolivia 9,863,000 [36] sq mi) (21.8/sq mi) 2 8,514,877 km (3,287,612 22.0/km² Brazil 191,241,714 Brasília sq mi) (57/sq mi) 2 [37] 756,950 km (292,260 Chile 16,928,873 22/km² (57/sq mi) Santiago sq mi) 2 1,138,910 km (439,740 40/km² Colombia 45,928,970 Bogotá sq mi) (103.6/sq mi) 2 283,560 km (109,480 53.8/km² Ecuador 14,573,101 Quito sq mi) (139.3/sq mi) 2 Falkland Islands (United 12,173 km [39] 0.26/km² [38] 3,140 Port StanleyKingdom) (4,700 sq mi) (0.7/sq mi) 2 91,000 km (35,000 [40] French Guiana (France) 221,500 2.7/km² (5.4/sq mi) Cayenne sq mi) 2 214,999 km (83,012 Guyana 772,298 3.5/km² (9.1/sq mi) Georgetown sq mi) 2 406,750 km (157,050 15.6/km² Paraguay 6,831,306 Asunción sq mi) (40.4/sq mi) 2 1,285,220 km (496,230 Peru 29,132,013 22/km² (57/sq mi) Lima sq mi) South Georgia and 2 3,093 kmSouth Sandwich Islands (United 20 0/km² (0/sq mi) Grytviken [41] (1,194 sq mi)Kingdom) 00136
  37. 37. Population Country or Area Population density [35] (July 2009 Capital territory with flag (km²) (per sq mi) [35] per km² est.) 2 163,270 km (63,040Suriname 472,000 3/km² (7.8/sq mi) Paramaribo sq mi) 2 176,220 km (68,040 19.4/km²Uruguay 3,477,780 Montevideo sq mi) (50.2/sq mi) 2 912,050 km (352,140 30.2/km²Venezuela 26,814,843 Caracas sq mi) (72/sq mi) Total 17,824,513 385,742,554 21.5/km² 00137

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