Chillie is both a vegetable crop & a spice crop.
It is rich source of Vitamin A & C.
There are more than 400 varieties of chillies found all
over the world.
It is also called as hot pepper, sweet pepper, bell
Its fruit is called as peprika.
Both Chillie & Capsicum belong to the same
Pungency in chillies is due to alkaloid capsaicin.
Red color of chillies is due to the pigment capsanthin.
Capsicum/Shimla mirch/bell pepper, is less pungent.
DIFFERENCE b/w Chilli &
C. frutescence known as
Perennial in nature.
White colored flower.
C. annum known as sweet
Frits born in clusters and
Vit. - c content high.
Used as spices.
or bell pepper.
Annual in nature.
White, purple & radish
Fruits born singly and
Vit.- c content low.
Used as vegetable.
Its species are native to
America ,where they
have been cultivated for
thousands of years.
The three species C.
annuum, C. frutescens
and C. chinense evolved
from a common ancestor
located in the North of
the Amazon basin.
Growing chillies require warm growin
It is raised from sea level to 2000 meter
above sea level.
Optimum temperature for fruit set is 24 C.
Night temperature below 10 C fruit set
Fruit weight, length, girth and pericarp
thickness were high at 25 C day and 18 C
SOIL & FIELD PREPARATION
Chilli can be grown all
types of soils from light
sandy to heavy clay.
Optimum soil pH for
chilli is 5.8 to 6.5.
Very sensitive to water
Thoroughly plough the
land 3-4 times followed
by planking to level the
Chilli plant cannot withstand water
stagnation & excess moisture.
Hence light irrigation &proper drainage is
Generally crop is irrigated at an interval of
5-6days in summer and 9-10 days in winter.
Sandy soil require frequent irrigation than
BHUT JOLOKIA IS
Chilli is self-pollinating crop.
In which pollen grains transfer to stigma of
same flower or different flower in same plant.
Such crops are highly homozygous.
Breeding methods for self
bulk, single seed descent,
PLANT INTRODUCTION: It is introducing a plant into new regions
from its growing locality.
Proper management is very important.
Material which is to be introduced should
not carry any pest and disease.
MASS SELECTION: It is oldest method.
M.S refers to the selection of superior plants
on the basis of phenotype from a mixed
population. Their seeds are bulked &used to
raise the next generation.
MERIT: Good for improvement of old cultivars&
For purification of improved cultivars.
Mass selected varieties provide good
protection against diseases.
Mass selected varieties are more stable in
performance than pure line varieties.
DEMERITS: Progeny test is not carried out.
The product is less uniform than pure line.
Demerits: Do not
due to narrow
HYBRIDIZATION: Crossing of two dissimilar plants is known as
A cross is made b/w male parent of one
genotype & female parent of other genotype.
We get F1 hybrid.
BULK METHOD: F2 &subsequent generations are harvested in
bulk, &at the end individual plant selection
&evaluation is made in F8.
Superior progenies are released as new
SINGLE SEED DESCENT METHOD: A breeding procedure used with segreggating
populations of self pollinated species in which
plants are advanced by single seed from one
generation to the next is referred to as SSD
In this method, a single seed from each of 10002000 plants are bulked to raise nnext generation.
In F3 & subsequent generations one random
seed is selected from every plant in population &
harvested in bulk to raise the next generation