Presentation on chillie breeding

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Chillies breeding

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Presentation on chillie breeding

  1. 1. PRESENTATION ON CHILLIES BREEDING PRESENTED BY: F.Z ROLL NO: 08 PLANT BREEDING &GENETICS
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION  Kingdom: Plantae  Division:  Class:  Order:  Family:  Genus:  Specie: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Solanales Solanaceae (night shade family) Capsicum annum, frutescence, baccatum, pubescence, chinense
  3. 3. Capsicum annum Ccapsicum baccatum Capsicum frutescens Capsicum chinense Capsicum pubescens
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  Chillie is both a vegetable crop & a spice crop.  It is rich source of Vitamin A & C.  There are more than 400 varieties of chillies found all over the world.  It is also called as hot pepper, sweet pepper, bell pepper etc.  Its fruit is called as peprika.  Both Chillie & Capsicum belong to the same genus,i.e; Capsicum.  Pungency in chillies is due to alkaloid capsaicin.  Red color of chillies is due to the pigment capsanthin.  Capsicum/Shimla mirch/bell pepper, is less pungent.
  5. 5. DIFFERENCE b/w Chilli & Capsicum Capsicum chilli  C. frutescence known as hot pepper.  Perennial in nature.  White colored flower.  C. annum known as sweet    Frits born in clusters and thin peel.   Growth determinate.       More pungent.  Vit. - c content high.  Self pollinated.  Used as spices. or bell pepper. Annual in nature. White, purple & radish colored flower. Fruits born singly and thick peel. Growth indeterminate. Less pungent. Vit.- c content low. Cross pollinated. Used as vegetable.
  6. 6. HISTORY  Its species are native to America ,where they have been cultivated for thousands of years.  The three species C. annuum, C. frutescens and C. chinense evolved from a common ancestor located in the North of the Amazon basin.
  7. 7. CLIMATE  Growing chillies require warm growin     environment. It is raised from sea level to 2000 meter above sea level. Optimum temperature for fruit set is 24 C. Night temperature below 10 C fruit set restricted. Fruit weight, length, girth and pericarp thickness were high at 25 C day and 18 C night temperature.
  8. 8. SOIL & FIELD PREPARATION  Chilli can be grown all types of soils from light sandy to heavy clay.  Optimum soil pH for chilli is 5.8 to 6.5.  Very sensitive to water logging.  Thoroughly plough the land 3-4 times followed by planking to level the field
  9. 9. IRRIGATION  Chilli plant cannot withstand water stagnation & excess moisture.  Hence light irrigation &proper drainage is recommended.  Generally crop is irrigated at an interval of 5-6days in summer and 9-10 days in winter.  Sandy soil require frequent irrigation than clay soil.
  10. 10.  INTRUSTING BHUT JOLOKIA IS THE WORLDS HOTTEST PEPPER.
  11. 11.  Chilli is self-pollinating crop.  In which pollen grains transfer to stigma of same flower or different flower in same plant.  Such crops are highly homozygous.
  12. 12. Breeding methods for self pollinating crops; COMMONLY USED METHODS/ GENERAL BREEDING METHODS RARELY USED METHODS Plant introduction Mutation breeding Selection(pureline, mass selection, ) polyploidy Hybridization(pedigree, bulk, single seed descent, backcross) Transgenic breeding
  13. 13. PLANT INTRODUCTION: It is introducing a plant into new regions from its growing locality.  Proper management is very important.  Material which is to be introduced should not carry any pest and disease.
  14. 14. MASS SELECTION: It is oldest method.  M.S refers to the selection of superior plants on the basis of phenotype from a mixed population. Their seeds are bulked &used to raise the next generation.  MERIT: Good for improvement of old cultivars& landraces.  For purification of improved cultivars.  Mass selected varieties provide good protection against diseases.
  15. 15.  Mass selected varieties are more stable in performance than pure line varieties.  DEMERITS: Progeny test is not carried out.  The product is less uniform than pure line. 
  16. 16. PURE-LINE SELECTION:  Merits:- Isolate best genotypes.  Demerits: Do not develop new genotype.  Have poor adaptability due to narrow genetic base.
  17. 17. HYBRIDIZATION: Crossing of two dissimilar plants is known as Hybridization.  A cross is made b/w male parent of one genotype & female parent of other genotype.  We get F1 hybrid.  BULK METHOD: F2 &subsequent generations are harvested in bulk, &at the end individual plant selection &evaluation is made in F8.  Superior progenies are released as new cultivar.
  18. 18. SINGLE SEED DESCENT METHOD: A breeding procedure used with segreggating populations of self pollinated species in which plants are advanced by single seed from one generation to the next is referred to as SSD method.  In this method, a single seed from each of 10002000 plants are bulked to raise nnext generation.  In F3 & subsequent generations one random seed is selected from every plant in population & harvested in bulk to raise the next generation
  19. 19. VARIETIES OF CAPSICUM ANNUM
  20. 20. VARIETIES OF CAPSICUM CHINENSE
  21. 21. VARIETIES OF CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS

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