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Total Quality Management - Six Sigma - Rosette Printers

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Total Quality Management - Six Sigma - Rosette Printers

  1. 1. Total Quality Management Six Sigma for Rosette Printers 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. PROJECT TITLE Unacceptable job rejection rate for books SUBMITTED BY Zahra Baray (0935220) Shaikh Faizan Ahmed (0935117) Hira Hayat (0935190) Syed Anser Ahmed (0935121) Awais Ahmed Memon (0935103) Syed Muhammad Imran (0935122) Raza Soomro (0935127) Sohail Akhter (0935226) SUBMITTED TO Ma‟am Memoona Masood 3
  4. 4. “Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skillful execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives. ” -William A. Foster 4
  5. 5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5
  6. 6. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY – Rosette Printers Rosette Printers, established in 1980, is a printing set up in Karachi catering to a wide customer base including corporates. Their clientele include One Potato Two Potato, OUP, Mohatta Palace, IUCN, GunSmoke etc Rosette Printers has been having some operational problems related to quality issues which are significantly impacting the bottom line. 6
  7. 7. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - Introduction Printing is a very detail-oriented, demanding process and quality printing is only possible if the entire process is fool proof. In case of non compliance of quality checks at the correct stages and due to negligence by the employees, the job is spoilt and the company needs to make a run for re-printing that adds to costs, efforts and difficulty in meeting deadlines. On the other hand, these defects lead to reprinting of the entire job that burdens the financials of the company. 7
  8. 8. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY – Six Sigma The CEO of Rosette Printers wanted help regarding the clear identification of these problems and the resolution steps in order to arrest the runaway costs associated with these operational issues. The entire project has been diagnosed using Six Sigma concepts. Preliminary information based on data confirms that approximately 30% of the books are being rejected due to quality issues. 8
  9. 9. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY – Key Issues The key problem areas were identified as; Out of registration printing Ink related issues Picture resolution issues Human errors Unnecessary increase in overall costs and wastage Plate making issues 9
  10. 10. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY – Expected Results The solutions proposed would improve the overall business process (especially printing) Reduce cost incurrence Increase the overall efficiency of the entire printing process 10
  11. 11. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY – Expected Benefits Greater operational excellence Customer satisfaction Quality what it should be 11
  12. 12. DEFINE PHASE 12
  13. 13. DEFINE – Context Defects leading to reprinting - Current issues: Quality printing is essential for the success of any printed material and this could only be done if the entire process is fool proof. These defects lead to reprinting of the entire job that burdens the financials of the company. In resolution to the above stated conditions we aim to use DMAIC to improve the overall printing process to gain customer satisfaction and confidence in our procedures, making quality what it should be. 13
  14. 14. DEFINE – Context Tools used in Define Phase are:  CTQ Specifications  Project Charter  Process Map  Stakeholder Analysis 14
  15. 15. DEFINE – Project Charter Project Title: Unacceptable job rejection rate for books Business: Printing Industry Business Case Problem Statement 30%*of the books are rejected due to quality issues The key problems faced are: ·Significant impact on the financials of the business. · Out of registration printing ·Significant wastage of resources and unnecessary · Ink related issues cost incurrence. · Picture resolution issues ·In order for optimum business performance the · Human errors rejection rate needs to come down to zero. This would result in reduced wastage, on time delivery · Increase in overall costs and wastage and repeat orders. · Plate making issues Project Scope Goal Statement (Measurable) In scope Out of Scope Internal Customer (CEO): Book printing Printing of Cards, · CTQ: Reduce the 30% rejection rate to 1% of the Calendars, Magazines, books printed Envelopes Business: · Eliminate human error by 100% · To avoid costs and effort due to double printing by streamlining the printing process *The actual rejection rate for books was 28% but we have kept it 30%. 15
  16. 16. DEFINE – Project Charter Project Title: Unacceptable job rejection rate for books Business: Printing Industry Project Plan/ Milestones / Deliverables Roles of Team Members Name Role % of time spent Memoona Masood Project Coordinator Define 2nd Mar – 7th Mar 2010 Zahra Baray Project Manager 50% Measure 9th Mar – 12th Mar 2010 Shaikh Faizan Ahmed Team Member 30% Hira Hayat Team Member 30% Analyze 13th Mar – 14th Mar 2010 Syed Anser Ahmed Team Member 30% Improve 16th Mar – 21st Mar 2010 Awais Ahmed Memon Team Member 30% Control 22nd Mar – 25th Mar 2010 Syed Imran Team Member 30% Raza Soomro Team Member 30% Sohail Akhter Team Member 30% Projected Benefits Barriers/ Support required Internal Customer (CEO): Reduction of cost Barriers: incurrence · Process House Business: Increase efficiency of the printing process · Production Manager so that defects are reduced to 1% · Purchase Manager · Assistant to Machine Operators · Machine Operators · Plate Maker Support: · Support needed through buy in from everyone. 16
  17. 17. DEFINE – VOC to CTQ CTQ (specific Voice of the Customer requirements) CTQ Measure/Metric (VOC) Translating VOC # How are you measuring Current State Target What is the customer into specific your CTQ identified telling us? requirements that we can work with CEO measures the Complains regarding out of Out of registration printing authentication of the final 98% Authentic Accurate printing on registration are approximately 50% 1 (Unclear Text & Picture) print by comparing it with Print Job every book. of all rejected books. dummy print (approved by client at first hand) CEO measures the quality Picture resolution issues Blurred pictures are reported of the Printed pictures 100% Clear (Shaded Pictures, Pictures Proper & clear picture causing huge set back to quality of 2 comparing it with dummy Pictures looks double,etc) resolution job accounting approximately 15% print that was approved by of complains client. Production manager sets the Approximately 25% of complains Concreteness of ink Proper volume of ink specification of ink to be reported are due to improper use 99% Consistent 3 (Density & unnecessary and same quality of used for specific job keeping of ink & lack of consistent quality quality of print lines) print for entire job in view the dummy print. of print Ensure that Plates use Purchase manager ensures Approximately 10% of complains 100% Quality Plate for Printing are as per the quality Plate has been 4 Inadequate Plates results due to use of inadequate usage the required quality. used with join collaboration plates with CEO. 17
  18. 18. DEFINE – Process Mapping 18
  19. 19. DEFINE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) The complaints are CEO completely internal and are very agrees with the critical in nature and this suggestions being has lead to the increasing Shaheedullah provided by the rejection rate of the job; Baray (CEO of x Project Team. As he is Low the business is facing huge the Company) the one, who has overhead costs and facing identified the key losses. Hence a detailed problems at the Six Sigma Project is being company implemented upon the company After the complete analysis of the rejection He is very supportive rate of the jobs, Ahsan and helpful as he wants the urgent AHSAN wants the company to resolution of the problem (Production x Med earn more profits and and this can be eliminated Manager) provide better quality by strict Quality control to the customers and Quality Assurance activities on each step of printing 19
  20. 20. DEFINE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) Since his job is to purchase the raw material such as ink and paper He is indifferent and from the market, he will ASHRAF fears that his work have to ensure that the (Purchase x Med might increase due to best raw materials would Manager) this. be purchases. So the reason of the rejection rate would not be the quality of paper or ink They are not supportive of the Both the machine HAMEED & TQM philosophy as operators will have to be RIZWAN they feel that their x High trained on quality control (Machine expertise is doubted. measures so that the need Operators) There will be all for reprinting is reduced. checks on them and they feel intimidated. 20
  21. 21. DEFINE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) They will ensure that the They are indifferent as whole printing process will WAQAR & they say it is not their run smoothly and the FAZAL (Assistant x job to control quality. Med machines would be Machine They just do as they cleaned after each job and Operators) are told. no any technical cause of print rejection occurs Waqar will ensure that the Supportive towards plates would be made WAQAR AHMED the idea, following error free and they will not x Low (Plate Maker) proper procedures of cause any problems of plate making double printing or color spillage 21
  22. 22. DEFINE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) Ibrahim will ensure the whole die cutting process Ibrahim is supportive to run smoothly and error towards the idea and free. He will make sure IBRAHIM (Die x follows the standard Low that no any rejection rate Cutter) practices of die occurs due to the cutting. cutting He will ensure the quality assurance in die cutting process Mehfooz will ensure the proper binding of the jobs Supportive towards and will be involved in the the idea, so as to MEHFOOZ Quality control process. If x maintain a better level Low (Binder) he will find any miss of service in the printings during binding printing industry he will report to the higher management 22
  23. 23. DEFINE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) Supportive towards These persons will assist OMAIR, LIAQAT the idea, as their tasks Mehfooz to ensure error & FAIZY x are not the main ones Low free binding of the jobs (Assistant that would hinder and to perform Quality Binders) quality control activities 23
  24. 24. MEASURE PHASE 24
  25. 25. MEASURE - Context Tools used in Measure Phase are:  Data Collection Plan  Histograms  As-Is Process 25
  26. 26. MEASURE – Data Collection Plan Data Source and Performance Measure Operational Definition Sample Size Location The book printing process • CEO from the time the client Unacceptable job • Production Manager gives the job till the time the Last 6 months rejection rate for books • Paper Suppliers job is printed should be • Process House defect free Other Data that When will data be How will data be Who will collect the data should be collected collected collected Rejection from various types of After completion of every CEO Manually defects, total jobs job and at month end of books each month 26
  27. 27. MEASURE – Histograms Books Calendars Cards Others Total September 12 0 3 0 15 October 13 0 0 5 18 November 13 0 5 3 21 December 16 7 1 2 26 January 15 1 3 1 20 February 14 1 1 4 20 Total 83 9 13 15 120 Histogram 1: Types of jobs printed by the company per month 30 26 25 21 20 20 20 18 15 16 15 14 15 12 13 13 10 7 5 5 4 5 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 September October November December January February Books Calenders Cards Others Total 27
  28. 28. MEASURE – Histograms Total Jobs of Books September 12 October 13 November 13 December 16 January 15 February 14 Total 83 Histogram 2: Total number of jobs of Books in 6 months 100 83 80 60 40 20 12 13 13 16 15 14 0 September October November December January February Total Total Jobs of Books 28
  29. 29. WORKING  Total jobs = 120  Total rejection= 40% of 120 = 48 rejected jobs  Total books rejected out of the rejected jobs = 48 * 48% = 23* *(48% that we have taken as rounded off to 50%)  Total books = 83  Total rejection of books = 28%*  Total books rejected= 83 * 28% = 23 *(28% that we have taken as rounded off to 30%)
  30. 30. MEASURE – Pie Chart for Rejection Total Jobs - 120 15 13 Total Jobs Books Total Jobs Calenders Total Jobs Cards 9 Total Jobs Others 83 Total Rejection: 40% of 120 jobs = 48 Books Books, 23 Others Others, 25 *48% of total jobs rejected accrues to books 30
  31. 31. MEASURE – Histograms Rejected Jobs of Books September 5 October 4 November 2 December 3 January 4 February 5 Total 23 Histogram 3: Total number of jobs of Books rejected in 6 months 25 23 20 15 10 5 4 4 5 5 2 3 0 September October November December January February Total Rejected Jobs of Books 31
  32. 32. MEASURE – Histograms Total Jobs of Books Rejected Jobs of Books September 12 5 October 13 4 November 13 2 December 16 3 January 15 4 February 14 5 Total 83 23 Histogram 4: Total number of jobs of Books and their rejection per month 120 23 100 80 60 40 83 20 5 4 2 3 4 5 12 13 13 16 15 14 0 September October November December January February Total Total Jobs of Books Rejected Jobs of Books 32
  33. 33. MEASURE – Histograms Out of registration printing Ink related issues Plate related issues Picture resolution issues Total September 2 2 0 1 5 October 2 1 0 1 4 November 1 0 0 1 2 December 2 0 1 0 3 January 2 1 1 0 4 February 3 2 0 0 5 Total 12 6 2 3 23 Histogram 5: Type of defects per month 12 10 8 5 5 6 4 4 4 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 1 0 September October November December January February Out of registration printing Ink related issues Plate related issues Picture resolution issues Total 33
  34. 34. MEASURE - „As Is‟ Process Yes 34
  35. 35. Key Findings – Lessons Learned The books printed by Rosette Printers are mostly rejected by their CEO due to quality issues like out of registration printing, ink related issues, plate making issues and picture resolution issues The errors were caused by negligence and lack of skills of the staff. Errors are identified once the book is printed and there is a need for back working the process to find the source There is no proper procedure followed to keep a check and balance on the books printed that leads to blame game played by the staff. 35
  36. 36. Key Challenges There is no proper database maintained of the number of jobs rejected and the reason for their rejection. Data has been estimated with the help of VOC. No proper acceptance of the errors made by the respective personnel. Proper monitoring and quality check will be needed at each stage. 36
  37. 37. ANALYZE PHASE 37
  38. 38. ANALYZE - Context Tools used in Analyze Phase are:  Pareto Chart  Fishbone Diagram 38
  39. 39. ANALYZE – Pareto Chart Problem Type Out of registration printing Ink related issues Picture resolution issues Plate related issues Count 12 6 3 2 % 52% 26% 13% 9% Cumulative % 52% 78% 91% 100% 14 120% 12 100% 12 91% 100% 10 78% 80% 8 52% 6 60% 6 40% 4 3 2 2 20% 0 0% Out of registration Ink related issues Picture resolution Plate related issues printing issues Count Cumulative % 39
  40. 40. ANALYZE – Fishbone Diagram 40
  41. 41. Data Analysis & Summary Based on the Histogram, Fishbone Diagram and Brainstorming sessions, we have ascertained that the root causes of the problems are :  Lack of proper procedures and checks  No proper training institute exists for the printing technicians so they fail to differentiate quality errors  Since the machines are second hand, they tend to break down and their parts aren’t readily available  Paper delivery can sometimes be the cause of printing defects as the paper is normally ordered on phone and not checked 41
  42. 42. Plan for Improvement Create a plan for improvement: Generating creative solutions ideas Analyzing the solution options and selecting the best alternative (s) Developing implementation plan Learning from the pilot test and implementing the solutions full-scale 42
  43. 43. Proposal for Better Resolution of the Issue In order to resolve the errors in the book printing process, we have decided to appoint 2 quality inspectors. Their job description will include:  Ensure that the paper specifications match with the paper delivered.  Check for errors in film making by the Process House  Ensure that the plates are not over/under exposed and are intact 43
  44. 44. Proposal for Better Resolution of the Issue  Make sure that the machine operators maintain the machine, clean it after every job, check the roller and keep a close eye for out of registration printing errors.  Check the concreteness of ink prior to the entire printing of books with regular testing. 44
  45. 45. IMPROVE PHASE 45
  46. 46. IMPROVE – Context In order to improve the overall performance and resolve the issue at all levels it is important to evaluate the different alternatives or options that spring from brainstorming. It is also essential to understand how these alternatives would help meet the set target along with specifying the criteria for selection. 46
  47. 47. IMPROVE – Context Tools used in Improve Phase are:  Brainstorming  To Be Process Map  Solution Evaluation Matrix  Stakeholders’ Analysis  Communication Matrix  Training Schedule 47
  48. 48. IMPROVE – Brainstorming Replacing roller after a specified time interval. Appointing quality controller to check the overall operating process’s quality and identify and remove bottlenecks. Jobs should not become burdensome for the employees. Timely maintenance of machineries. Adding quality checks to the JD of the operator. Check the volume and mixing of ink before the printing starts to avoid ink from spreading over the paper 48
  49. 49. IMPROVE – Brainstorming A sample print should be done to make sure ink is in the right volume A sample print should be done to make sure that picture resolution is superior Check points to review quality on each step/stage All machines should be regularly maintained and checked before any job is to be started All employees should be given proper training and incentives to make sure all human errors are avoided and proper checks are maintained throughout the process 49
  50. 50. IMPROVE – Brainstorming Control over delivery of specified/desired cards/books to client should be our ultimate motto as our job is not only to print quality books but also to deliver to customer :) Proper scheduling the tasks assigned to workers to reduce over flow & avoid heat-up of machines which could also be the cause of text missing or blurred pictures/text Quality Assurance officer & Quality Controller ; Establishment of Quality Control Dept 50
  51. 51. IMPROVE – Selected Solutions Appointing quality controller to check the overall operating process’s quality and identify and remove bottlenecks.(QC to devise proper manuals & SOPS ) A sample print should be taken to make sure ink is in the right volume and sample print for the picture resolution also to be taken. Regular maintenance of machine and check before any job is to be started. Proper scheduling of the tasks to avoid heat-up of machines. The paper placement should be checked to make sure that there is no overlapping of text 51
  52. 52. IMPROVE - „To Be‟ Process 52
  53. 53. IMPROVE – Solution Evaluation Matrix Estimated Estimated List of Root Cause (s) List Solutions % of Effect Complexity Risk Priority Validation ? Cost Benefits This would 1. A sample print should prevent the be done to make sure that 95% PKR 350/- 1 hour time loss in Low 2 Yes picture resolution is Out of registration reprinting the superior & text is clear printing (Unclear whole job Text & Picture) 2. Reviewing quality This would (proper placement of PKR 15000 prevent the paper whilst printing) & 90% (salary of 2 hour time loss in Low 1 Yes ensure machine is QC) reprinting the performing optimally whole job 1. Proper scheduling of Crispness in machine to avoid heatup 30-45 min images leading 95% - High 1 No Picture resolution causing ink to spur over planning to good quality issues (Shaded paper print Pictures, Pictures 2. Match with dummy and PKR 500 A move looks double,etc) this task should be given (cost of towards to QC & paper quality 95% sample 1 hour Low 2 Yes customer should be checked before printing of satisfaction printing pictures) Cost savings as Concreteness of ink 1. Check the volume and ink would not (Density & mixing of ink before the 85% 1 hour Med 1 Yes be wasted due unnecessary lines) printing to negligence This would 1. QC ensures at first that prevent the Inadequate Plates plates are designed as per 90% PKR 250 1 day time loss in Low 1 Yes specification. reprinting the whole job 53
  54. 54. IMPROVE – Risk Analysis Score List the Solution Failure Mode Due Severity, S Probability, P = S X P or Major (What can go wrong) Date (1-10) 10 is (10 is very (High score Action Plan Owner Elements of List each failure for Worst probable) need solution mode Action attention) CEO will have to train the quality controller with the Reviewing Quality knitty gritties of Shaheed If the quality controller with the help of a 9 7 63 printing and ullah 18-Mar himself is ill informed quality inspector regularly monitor Baray his activities and guide him through the initial days. Hameed will Negligence on the part undertake a of the machine proper check of Before operator, Proper scheduling all the machine and underestimating the of machine to 7 4 28 critical parts prior Hameed after machine capacity, avoid heat up to every printing every machine break down job and conduct a job sooner, spare parts not follow up after the easily available job is printed. 54
  55. 55. IMPROVE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) The complaints were CEO completely internal and are very agrees with the critical in nature and this suggestions being has lead to the increasing Shaheedullah provided by the rejection rate of the job; Baray (CEO of x Project Team. As he is Low the business was facing the Company) the one, who has huge overhead costs and identified the key facing losses. Hence a problems at the detailed Six Sigma Project company was implemented upon the company After the complete analysis of the rejection rate of the He is very supportive jobs, Ahsan has got the and helpful as he urgent resolution of the AHSAN wants the company to problem and now this can (Production x Low earn more profits and be eliminated by strict Manager) provide better quality Quality control and to the customers Quality Assurance activities on each step of printing 55
  56. 56. IMPROVE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) Since his job is to purchase the raw material such as ink and paper from the market, After the implementation of Six He is indifferent and Sigma at the Company, ASHRAF fears that his work Now he will have to (Purchase x Med might increase due to ensure that the best raw Manager) this. materials would be purchased. After the implementation of this, the reason of the rejection rate would not be the quality of paper or ink After the successful They are moderately Implementation of Six supportive of the HAMEED & Sigma at the Company, TQM philosophy as RIZWAN both the machine x they feel that their Med (Machine operators will have to be expertise is doubted. Operators) trained on quality control There are however, measures so that the need willing to give it a try. for reprinting is reduced. 56
  57. 57. IMPROVE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) After Six Sigma Implementation, they will They are indifferent as ensure that the whole WAQAR & they say it is not their printing process will run FAZAL (Assistant x job to control quality. Med smoothly and the Machine They just do as they machines would be Operators) are told. cleaned after each job and no technical cause of print rejection occurs Waqar will ensure that the Supportive towards plates would be made WAQAR AHMED the idea, following error free and they will not x Low (Plate Maker) proper procedures of cause any problems of plate making miss or double printing or color spillage 57
  58. 58. IMPROVE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) Ibrahim will ensure the whole die cutting process Ibrahim is supportive to run smoothly and error towards the idea and free. He will make sure IBRAHIM (Die x follows the standard Low that no any rejection rate Cutter) practices of die occurs due to the cutting. cutting He will ensure the quality assurance in die cutting process Mehfooz will ensure the proper binding of the jobs Supportive towards and will be involved in the the idea, so as to MEHFOOZ x Quality control process. If maintain a better level Low (Binder) he will find any miss of service in the printings during binding printing industry he will report to the higher management 58
  59. 59. IMPROVE – Stakeholders‟ Analysis Your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from supportive to opposed. Neutral List of Moder Level of Strongly (indiffere Strongly Moderately Stakeholders by ately Reason for Resistance Supporti nt or Against/ Against/ Actions dept / Individual Suppo Resistance (High, Med, ve undecide Opposed Opposed names rtive Low) d) The Quality inspectors Strongly supportive as Quality employed at various levels x they are employed for - Inspector(s) will ensure that all the ensuring quality processes are followed 59
  60. 60. IMPROVE – Communication Matrix Audience Method Frequency Owner Sponsor – Mr. Shaheedullah Baray, Daily as required or 2-3 times a Project Face to Face CEO, Rosette Printers week Manager Stakeholder - AHSAN (Production Daily as required, At times Project Face to Face Manager) Weekly Manager Stakeholder- ASHRAF (Purchase Daily as required, At times Project Face to Face Manager) Weekly Manager Stakeholder - HAMEED & RIZWAN Daily as required, At times Project Face to Face (Machine Operators) Weekly Manager Stakeholder - WAQAR AHMED (Plate Project Face to Face Weekly Maker) Manager Project Stakeholder - IBRAHIM (Die Cutter) Face to Face Weekly Manager Project Stakeholder - MEHFOOZ (Binder) Face to Face Weekly Manager 60
  61. 61. IMPROVE – Training Schedule Training Schedule - Pre Live Training Training Schedule Sr. No Pre - Live Training Program Responsibility Date 1 Orientation of the new process 17-Mar Project Manager 2 Detail description of procedures 17-Mar Project Manager 3 Departments role and responsibilities 18-Mar Project Manager 4 Process Monitoring tools 19-Mar Project Manager 5 Mini case studies 20-Mar Project Manager 6 Role Play 21-Mar Project Manager 7 Quiz on New process flow 21-Mar Project Manager Training Schedule - Post Live Training Training Schedule Sr. No Post - Live Training Program Responsibility Date 1 Discussion Sessions 22-Mar Process Owner 2 Review of Process 23-Mar Process Owner 3 Refresher Training on the Process 24-Mar Process Owner 61
  62. 62. Key Findings – Lessons Learned Implementation of the solution was an interesting task since we had placed checks at every level. The CEO’s guidance and support in mapping and implementing the process was an add on. Objective measurement of the results was needed. 62
  63. 63. CONTROL PHASE 63
  64. 64. CONTROL – Context The main objective of this area is to ensure that the entire process has close controls and is being monitored. Control is required at all levels of the new process. Number of Graphs were used to measure the effectiveness of the process. The control phase helped us to fix the process and shows the level of commitment and seriousness required at the different stages of the process Tools used in Control Phase are:  Control Chart  Control Plan 64
  65. 65. CONTROL – Charts Books Calendars Cards Others Total September 12 0 3 0 15 October 13 0 0 5 18 November 13 0 5 3 21 December 16 7 1 2 26 January 15 1 3 1 20 February 14 1 1 4 20 March 13 0 5 0 18 April 17 0 0 3 20 May 15 0 2 2 19 Total 128 9 20 20 177 Histogram 1: Types of jobs printed by the company per month 30 26 25 21 20 20 20 19 20 18 18 17 15 16 15 14 15 15 12 13 13 13 10 7 5 5 4 5 5 3 3 3 3 12 1 1 11 22 0 September October November December January February March April May Books Calenders Cards Others Total 65
  66. 66. CONTROL – Charts Total Jobs of Books September 12 October 13 November 13 December 16 January 15 February 14 March 13 April 17 May 15 Total 128 Histogram 2: Total number of jobs of Books in 9 months 150 128 100 50 12 13 13 16 15 14 13 17 15 0 September October November December January February March April May Total Total Jobs of Books 66
  67. 67. CONTROL – Charts Rejected Jobs of Books September 5 October 4 November 2 December 3 January 4 February 5 March 1 April 2 May 1 Total 27 Histogram 3: Total number of jobs of Books rejected in 9 months 30 27 25 20 15 10 5 4 4 5 5 2 3 2 1 1 0 September October November December January February March April May Total Rejected Jobs of Books 67
  68. 68. CONTROL – Charts Total Jobs of Books Rejected Jobs of Books September 12 5 October 13 4 November 13 2 December 16 3 January 15 4 February 14 5 March 13 1 April 17 2 May 15 1 Total 128 27 Histogram 4: Total number of jobs of Books and their rejection per month 180 160 140 27 120 100 80 60 128 40 5 4 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 20 0 12 13 13 16 15 14 13 17 15 September October November December January February March April May Total Total Jobs of Books Rejected Jobs of Books 68
  69. 69. CONTROL – Charts Out of registration printing Ink related issues Plate related issues Picture resolution issues Total September 2 2 0 1 5 October 2 1 0 1 4 November 1 0 0 1 2 December 2 0 1 0 3 January 2 1 1 0 4 February 3 2 0 0 5 March 0 1 0 0 1 April 1 0 0 1 2 May 0 0 1 0 1 Total 13 7 3 4 27 Histogram 5: Type of defects per month 12 10 8 5 5 6 4 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 September October November December January February March April May Out of registration printing Ink related issues Plate related issues Picture resolution issues Total 69
  70. 70. CONTROL – Plan („To Be‟ Process) 70
  71. 71. CONTROL – Plan Control Checking Indicators Checking Item Responsibility Limit Frequency T1: Delivery of the Every time a Quality control staff, Paper sets returned to specified paper for 1 Day new job is Admin, purchase the supplier printing ordered manager Inaccurate plates Every time a Quality control staff, T2: Plate making 1 Day returned to the pre press new job is plate maker department for remaking printed Inaccuracy in ink Every time a Quality control staff, T3: Preparation of 1 Hour preparation and returned new job is machine operator, ink for re preparation printed production manager Quality control staff, After every job T4: Printing of Books being reprinted production manager, 2 Days of books are books due to inaccuracy machine operator, printed CEO T5, T6, T7: Inaccuracy in cutting, For every job Quality control staff, Cutting, Creasing creasing or binding and 1 Day of books Cutter, Binder, & Binding of returned to the post printed Assistant Binder books press department 71
  72. 72. Key Findings – Lessons Learned Strict monitoring of all activities and procedures is compulsory Regular updates with machine operators, plate makers and Process House is needed to ensure that problems are identified and resolved in due time. Accurate registration of complaints Quality inspectors will have complete responsibility to ensure that the processes are followed but the employees will also have to take responsibility Training of operation staff is mandatory 72
  73. 73. Key Findings – Team Lessons Learned A prerequisite for implementing Six Sigma effectively is team work All team members had to give in their time and effort to understand the entire printing process prior to starting work on Six Sigma implementation Since the CEO was our group member’s father, the data collection process was convenient Six Sigma helped in the identification of the loopholes in the process and provided a solution to reduce the errors 73
  74. 74. APPENDIX Tools used in the project were: Project Plan Project Charter Process Mapping VOC to CTQ Stakeholders’ Analysis in Define Phase Data Collection Plan Measure – Various Histograms Detailed ‘As is’ Process Map Pareto Chart Fishbone Structure (Cause And Effect) ‘To be’ Process Map Solution Evaluation Matrix Stakeholders’ Analysis in Improve Phase Communication Matrix Training Schedule Control – Various Histograms Control Plan 74
  75. 75. THANK YOU! 75

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