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Beyond Shingo: Prompt, Do,
Check, Act (PDCA) & Universal
Mistake Prevention and Quality
     Verification (UMPQV)

     Ne...
Agenda

 • Introduction to PDCA
 • Poke-Yoke & UMPQV
 • Relationship between PDCA & UMPQV




                Copyright 20...
What is PDCA?

 • Prompt, Do, Check, Act
 • Based on Shewhart Model (Plan, Do,
   Study, Act) for continuous improvement
 ...
“Prompt” Explained

 • What does a Prompt do?
   – Initiate action
   – Authorize
   – Indicate
     •   What actions need...
“Prompt” Explained

 • A Prompt encourages humans to
   perform the required process steps
   correctly.

 • PROACTIVE pro...
“Prompt” Examples

 Passive                               Proactive
 • Paper Manuals                       •   Buzzers
 • ...
“Do” Explained

 • Perform (Control) the task
   – Methods
     • Automatic (PLC, PC, etc)
        – Inputs: sensors, elec...
“Do” Examples

 • Picking parts from storage locations
 • Placing parts in machines
 • Assembling parts
 • Operating hand ...
“Check” Explained

 • Verify that the “Do” was done right
   – Operation completed
   – Quality metrics
   – Quantity
   –...
“Check” Explained

 • Types of Checks
   – Judgment
   – Informative
     • Source Inspection
     • Self Check
     • Suc...
“Check” Explained

 • Inspections should strive to be:
   – Frequent (100%)
      • Occurrences of mistakes in human contr...
“Check” Examples

 •   Visual inspection
 •   “Feel”
 •   Sound
 •   Measurement (distance, torque, etc.)
 •   Test equipm...
“Act” Explained

 • Act - Negative Outcome
   – Communicate outcome to:
     • Operator
     • Control system
     • Quali...
“Act” Explained

 • Act - Positive Outcome
   – Communicate outcome to:
     • Operator
     • Control system
     • Quali...
“Act” Examples

 •   Indicating light or display
 •   Transfer part to next station
 •   Engrave serial number
 •   Commun...
Part of a Lean Strategy

 • What methods makes up Lean?
   –   5S
   –   Kanban
   –   Kaizen
   –   Mistake Prevention (P...
Part of a Lean Strategy

 • How does PDCA fit into Lean?
   – Prompting
     • Reduces wasted production time through
    ...
Part of a Lean Strategy

 • How does PDCA fit into Lean?
   – Act
     • Reduces time, money, and effort through
       co...
Applying PDCA

 • Use as design criteria for design of new
   manual processes
 • Incorporate into Process FMEA
   – Inste...
Overview of Poke-Yoke

 • Japanese for “Mistake proof”
 • Developed by Shigeo Shingo
 • Primarily focused on preventing
  ...
Overview of Poke-Yoke

 • Generally applied to discrete systems or
   processes
 • Best applied to high volume, low variet...
UMPQV vs. Poka-Yoke

 Universal Mistake Prevention and Quality
   Verification
 • Includes all the elements of Poke-Yoke
 ...
UMPQV - Universal

 • Process oriented, not product oriented
   – Configurable to multiple product
     applications
 • Ea...
UMPQV - Mistake Prevention

 • Essence of Poke-Yoke
   – Prevent mistakes before they happen
     • Source Inspection
    ...
UMPQV - Quality Verification

 • Verify that the outcome is “Good” not
   just “Not Bad”
 • Mistake Prevention is a precur...
UMPQV - Examples

 • DC Torque Tools
   – Socket Tray Indicates socket and proper torque
     program (Prompt, Mistake Pre...
UMPQV - Examples

 • Sensor-based Pick-to-light
   – Prompt light indicates bin (Prompt, Mistake
     prevention)
   – Wor...
UMPQV – Poke-Yoke Conversion

 • UMPQV devices do not have to be COTS
   – Go/No-Go gage used to verify/modify several
   ...
UMPQV – Poke-Yoke Conversion

 • Poka-Yoke Issues
   –   No method to ensure correct gage is used
   –   No method to ensu...
UMPQV – New UMPQV Solution

 • Electronic Measuring Device
   – Custom tool developed to measure critical
     dimensions
...
Example Comparison
 Poke-Yoke                               UMPQV
 – Array of Physical gages                 – One electro...
Poke-Yoke vs. UMPQV
 Poke-Yoke Device                         UMPQV Device
 – 100% inspection                            –...
Mistake Prevention Strategy

 • Design mistakes out of product/process
 • Analyze process using PDCA Manual Process Model
...
Questions?




             Copyright 2005   Page 34
Pick-to-Light examples




              Copyright 2005   Page 35
Torque Tool Examples




             Copyright 2005   Page 36
SPC Example
                                                                                                              ...
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Beyond shingo pdca

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Beyond shingo pdca

  1. 1. Beyond Shingo: Prompt, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) & Universal Mistake Prevention and Quality Verification (UMPQV) New tools for your "Lean" toolbox Tom Wiesen VP Engineering & Product Development - AVOW, LLC
  2. 2. Agenda • Introduction to PDCA • Poke-Yoke & UMPQV • Relationship between PDCA & UMPQV Copyright 2005 Page 2
  3. 3. What is PDCA? • Prompt, Do, Check, Act • Based on Shewhart Model (Plan, Do, Study, Act) for continuous improvement • Model for any manual process Operation Post Operation Prompt Do Check Act Copyright 2005 Page 3
  4. 4. “Prompt” Explained • What does a Prompt do? – Initiate action – Authorize – Indicate • What actions need to be performed • How the action is to be performed • Parameters of the action • What constitutes completion of the action Copyright 2005 Page 4
  5. 5. “Prompt” Explained • A Prompt encourages humans to perform the required process steps correctly. • PROACTIVE prompts are much more effective than passive prompts Copyright 2005 Page 5
  6. 6. “Prompt” Examples Passive Proactive • Paper Manuals • Buzzers • Printed Instructions • Lights • Files that musts be • Voice opened manually • Electronic • Training (Memory) displays Copyright 2005 Page 6
  7. 7. “Do” Explained • Perform (Control) the task – Methods • Automatic (PLC, PC, etc) – Inputs: sensors, electronic data, software – Outputs: actuators, data, alarms • Manual (Human Brain) – Inputs: touch, see, smell, hear, taste – Outputs: muscles, speech Copyright 2005 Page 7
  8. 8. “Do” Examples • Picking parts from storage locations • Placing parts in machines • Assembling parts • Operating hand tools (hammer, drill, screwdriver, etc.) • Mixing solutions • Medical examinations/procedures Copyright 2005 Page 8
  9. 9. “Check” Explained • Verify that the “Do” was done right – Operation completed – Quality metrics – Quantity – Functionality • Automatic checks are much more effective than manual checks • Check should be objective Copyright 2005 Page 9
  10. 10. “Check” Explained • Types of Checks – Judgment – Informative • Source Inspection • Self Check • Successive Check – “Inspection” is controversial (non-value added) Copyright 2005 Page 10
  11. 11. “Check” Explained • Inspections should strive to be: – Frequent (100%) • Occurrences of mistakes in human controlled processes are inherently unstable, making sampling operations useless – Inexpensive – Simple Copyright 2005 Page 11
  12. 12. “Check” Examples • Visual inspection • “Feel” • Sound • Measurement (distance, torque, etc.) • Test equipment (pressure/leak test, etc) • Functional test Copyright 2005 Page 12
  13. 13. “Act” Explained • Act - Negative Outcome – Communicate outcome to: • Operator • Control system • Quality/Production/Enterprise system – Resolve negative outcome • Fix/Re-work/Scrap part • Find root cause • Correct cause Copyright 2005 Page 13
  14. 14. “Act” Explained • Act - Positive Outcome – Communicate outcome to: • Operator • Control system • Quality/Production/Enterprise system – Identify part – Transfer part Copyright 2005 Page 14
  15. 15. “Act” Examples • Indicating light or display • Transfer part to next station • Engrave serial number • Communicate results electronically • Repair defect • Remove part from line for disposition Copyright 2005 Page 15
  16. 16. Part of a Lean Strategy • What methods makes up Lean? – 5S – Kanban – Kaizen – Mistake Prevention (Poka-Yoke) – Total Productive Maintenance – Value Stream mapping – Takt Time – Cellular Manufacturing Copyright 2005 Page 16
  17. 17. Part of a Lean Strategy • How does PDCA fit into Lean? – Prompting • Reduces wasted production time through increased productivity • Reduces mistakes – Check • Reduces Re-work & Scrap • Informative Inspection promotes Kaizen Copyright 2005 Page 17
  18. 18. Part of a Lean Strategy • How does PDCA fit into Lean? – Act • Reduces time, money, and effort through communication with other systems – Supply chain – Production systems – Quality systems • Visibility of the entire enterprise allows what was previously seen as waste to be seen as added value Copyright 2005 Page 18
  19. 19. Applying PDCA • Use as design criteria for design of new manual processes • Incorporate into Process FMEA – Instead of just looking at ways the process can fail, look for absence of PDCA steps that ensure that process is correct • Use to evaluate/improve current manual processes Copyright 2005 Page 19
  20. 20. Overview of Poke-Yoke • Japanese for “Mistake proof” • Developed by Shigeo Shingo • Primarily focused on preventing mistakes before they become defects • Poke Yoke devices help prevent errors and defects • Product Focused devices • Based on 100% inspection (Informative) Copyright 2005 Page 20
  21. 21. Overview of Poke-Yoke • Generally applied to discrete systems or processes • Best applied to high volume, low variety production • Generally not well applied to high variety production or complex operations Copyright 2005 Page 21
  22. 22. UMPQV vs. Poka-Yoke Universal Mistake Prevention and Quality Verification • Includes all the elements of Poke-Yoke • Universal – Process Oriented, not product oriented – Inexpensive, Redeployable, COTS • “Mistake-Proof” split into Mistake Prevention and Quality Verification Copyright 2005 Page 22
  23. 23. UMPQV - Universal • Process oriented, not product oriented – Configurable to multiple product applications • Easy to Integrate – Standard physical and electronic interfaces – Programmable (Configurable) • Expandable & Easy to change • Communication Copyright 2005 Page 23
  24. 24. UMPQV - Mistake Prevention • Essence of Poke-Yoke – Prevent mistakes before they happen • Source Inspection • Self Check • Subsequent Check – Based on 100% informative inspection Copyright 2005 Page 24
  25. 25. UMPQV - Quality Verification • Verify that the outcome is “Good” not just “Not Bad” • Mistake Prevention is a precursor • “Mistake-Proof” does not imply that quality is verified • Informative - If quality is not verified, find out why and correct Copyright 2005 Page 25
  26. 26. UMPQV - Examples • DC Torque Tools – Socket Tray Indicates socket and proper torque program (Prompt, Mistake Prevention) – Operator presses trigger, Controller Controls (Do) – Transducer/Current sensor verifies torque (Check, Quality Verification) – Controller displays & communicates result (Act) – Tool is process oriented (torquing), product independent, and provides communication (Universal) Copyright 2005 Page 26
  27. 27. UMPQV - Examples • Sensor-based Pick-to-light – Prompt light indicates bin (Prompt, Mistake prevention) – Worker picks parts (Do) – Sensor detects proper pick (Check, Quality Verification) – Controller communicates result (Act) – Tool is process oriented (part picking), product independent, and provides communication (Universal) Copyright 2005 Page 27
  28. 28. UMPQV – Poke-Yoke Conversion • UMPQV devices do not have to be COTS – Go/No-Go gage used to verify/modify several critical dimensions – Started with a few product variations – New Poke-Yoke devices (Custom designed reference fixtures) were created for each product variation – Over time, more than 30 custom devices created at significant expense and are complicated to use Copyright 2005 Page 28
  29. 29. UMPQV – Poke-Yoke Conversion • Poka-Yoke Issues – No method to ensure correct gage is used – No method to ensure any gage is used – Operator dependent results (subjective) – No communication or requirement for correction of negative results Copyright 2005 Page 29
  30. 30. UMPQV – New UMPQV Solution • Electronic Measuring Device – Custom tool developed to measure critical dimensions – Device has highly repeatable results – Communicates results to operator and electronically to other systems – Setup/measurement requirements selected by product model (Barcode or RFID) – Applicable to all product variations – Can require defect resolution (tagging, electronic acknowledge, etc.) Copyright 2005 Page 30
  31. 31. Example Comparison Poke-Yoke UMPQV – Array of Physical gages – One electronic measuring device – No method for selecting – Barcode/RFID selects proper proper gage program (Prompt, Mistake – No method to ensure that prevention) any gage was used – High repeatability and objectivity – High level of variation in in results (Check, Quality results Verification) – No communication – Communication to Operator and – No requirement for defect electronically (Act, Universal) resolution – Lower life cycle cost of device Copyright 2005 Page 31
  32. 32. Poke-Yoke vs. UMPQV Poke-Yoke Device UMPQV Device – 100% inspection – 100% inspection – Poke-Yoke principles – Poke-Yoke principles+ – Simple, Fast, Cheap – Simple, but more complex and higher initial cost – Product specific – Process specific – Low level communication – High level communication – Best applied to high – Best applied to high variety, volume, low variety complex production production Copyright 2005 Page 32
  33. 33. Mistake Prevention Strategy • Design mistakes out of product/process • Analyze process using PDCA Manual Process Model • Where mistakes can occur, use Source Inspection to prevent occurrence of mistakes that lead to defects • Use Self and Subsequent inspections to detect defects (100%) • Use Control methods over warning methods when feasible • Use UMPQV solutions where there are common processes and/or high variety • Use end-of-line testing as a last resort Copyright 2005 Page 33
  34. 34. Questions? Copyright 2005 Page 34
  35. 35. Pick-to-Light examples Copyright 2005 Page 35
  36. 36. Torque Tool Examples Copyright 2005 Page 36
  37. 37. SPC Example Inspected Samples SPC Error Catching Actual Defects 2 1 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 Samples Copyright 2005 Page 37

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