MUET Jamshoro Chemical Engineering DeptTopic:- Analysis of Coal Briquettes using Indigenously Fabricated Mechanical Press.
Supervised By Dr. Shaheen AzizCo-Supervised By Dr. Sohail A. SoomroGroup Members Muhammad Faisal Khan Rind(G.L) 08CH75 Muhammad Naqi Raza (V.G.L) 08CH65 Rao Faizan Ahmed 08CH77 Syed Ali Haider 08CH92 Zahid Soomro 08CH20 Rao Muhammad Faheem 08CH84 Muhammad Tahir 08CH44
ContentsIntroductionApplications & AdvantagesAims & ObjectivesScope of the ProjectEquipment DescriptionExperimental WorkResults & DiscussionConclusion
Introduction Pakistan has vast coal reserves and ranked 6th in coal rich countries. 185 billion tons of coal reserves are present in different regions of the country. A coal reserves available in Pakistan are mostly Lignite (low grade coal) and therefore not safe for combustion from the environmental point of view.
Continue… The main problem concern with indigenous coal is their high amount of moisture and sulphur. There are also some problems with raw coal like Incomplete Combustion, Spontaneous Combustion, Handling etc.
Continue… Coal briquetting is a process by which raw coal, generally low grade coal is converted into uniform, usually hard and impact resistance agglomeration, making it a useful superior quality fuel with good calorific value for domestic and industrial purposes.
Applications & Advantages ApplicationsCoal briquettes can be use in: Boilers, kilns, gasifiers, blast furnaces, power plants, foundries, refugee camps, domestic heating, hamams, restaurant, hotels, armed forces, rural areas, space heating, poultry farms etc.
Advantages Following are some advantages of coal briquetting: Increase in Heating Value. Resistance to weathering. Resistance to handling. Efficiency as a fuel. Create environmental problem but less as compared to mineral coal. Spontaneous combustion and wastage coals can effectively be controlled.
Aims & Objectivesi. Fabrication of Mechanical Pressii. Briquetting of Coaliii. Analysis of Coal Briquettes
Scope Of The Project In Pakistan there are so many energy crises. Shortfall of electricity is upto 4000 to 6000 MW. While now a days load shedding of gas is also start due to decrease in gas reserves. As we know that we are 6th rank in coal rich counties. But main issue with utilization of indigenous coal is pollution. We cannot neglect use of coal by saying that it pollute environment.
Continue… Our project give path to utilize indigenous coal reserves without polluting environment.
Equipment DescriptionIntroductionWhat is Mechanical Press? Mechanical Press is an equipment which is use to form compacted coal briquettes.
Continue… What is Working Mechanism? Make homogenous mixture of coal, additive and binder. Pour homogeneous mixture into molds manually. Put press on molds, by using hydraulic jack apply pressure for 2 to 3mins. Compacted coal briquettes are taken out from mold
SpecificationsType of Machine Manual type MachinePressure 3 ton hydraulic pressureCapacity 14 briquettesSize of mold 9.5x6.3inchMaterial of construction Medium Carbon steelThickness of sheet 3mm
Experimental WorkMechanical work for fabrication of Mechanical Press: Sizing Cutting Welding Molding Sharping Coloring Finishing
After Fabrication… Front View Of Machine Side View Of Machine
Continue… Casing Of Machine with Mold Casing Of Machine with Press
Briquetting Of Coal Material required in coal briquetting are categorized as under:a. Coalb. Additivesc. Binders Coal: Coal mostly available in country is lignite and suitable for briquetting. For briquetting we need fine coal particles therefore first we crush lump particle into jaw crusher and grind into ball mill.
Continue… Additive: Coal present in Pakistan contain high amount of sulphur. Which on combustion produce Sulphur dioxide, it is main cause of acid rain. Sulphur dioxide is also cause of health problems due to this people face asthma etc. To over come environmental and health hazardous, Calcium Carbonate is used as additive in coal briquettes, to convert sulphur contents into sulfate.
Continue… Following are Chemical Reactions CaCO3 CaO+CO2 S+O2 SO2 SO2+1/2O2 SO3 CaO+SO3 CaSO4 Above reactions show that CaCO3 react with sulphur and form Calcium Sulfate which will be collected in the form of ash. So in this way briquettes of coal get rid from sulphur
Continue… Binder: It is use to bind fine coal particles physically. Different types of binding materials are used in coal briquettes. The binders we select are very less due to their availability in market. Binders which we use in coal briquetting are listed as follows: 1. Bentonite 2. Starch 3. White Cement 4. Molases 5. Portland Cement
Briquetting Procedure In this first we make homogeneous mixture of coal, additive and binder. Eight samples made with different binders. In five samples lakhra coal is use while in remaining three, Thar coal is used. Tables in next slides show list and composition of samples.
Sulphur Contents In Briquetted & Un- Briquetted Coal 0.03Sulphur Contents 0.025 0.02 ppm 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 IL IT B BW BW BB BB BP BP B M BW L L T T L T BS L L Coal Samples Graph shows that sulphur contents are same in all samples. Sulphur contents in briquetted samples are determined after combustion in furnace.
14000 12134 12000 10000 9223Calorific Value 9517 9144 8758 8758 8636 8832 Kcal /kg 8000 7755 6947 6000 4000 2000 0 IL LBB LBW LBP LBWB LBSMB IT TBB TBW TBP Coal Samples Variation in calorific values is due to moisture contents.
Moisture Contents In Briquetted & Un- Briquetted Coal 30Moisture Contents 25 23.52 23.88 21.73 20 20 19.11 20.59 (%) 15 16.41 10 11.6 8.95 7.35 5 0 IL IT B BW BW BB BB BP BP B M BW L L T T L T BS L L Coal Samples Variation is because of un properly drying of coal briquettes if we give proper time for drying then moisture can be reduced.
Continue… Our results shows reduction of sulphur in coal briquettes clearly while increment in calorific is also sure if we dry coal briquettes properly either in sun or in drier.
Conclusion Pakistan face lot of problems in energy sector specially now a days country face shortage of gas due to this our industries going to be close day by day. Coal briquetting is a easiest and economical technology to solve our country energy problems without affecting environment because CaCO3 used in briquettes to reduce or vanish sulphur.
Continue… Coal briquetting is solution of all those problems which we face in raw coal like incomplete combustion, spontaneous combustion, handling etc. We can get complete combustion by increasing heating time and reduce or vanish emission of CO. Coal briquetting is a solution of spontaneous combustion.
Continue… Spontaneous combustion is the self oxidation of coals and start burning itself if exposed to atmosphere losing heat potential of coal. Spontaneous combustion is due to aerial oxidation of coal in presence of moisture. Briquetting is a best way to utilize a indigenous coal reserves. Over all conclusion of coal briquetting is: Energy saving Less air pollution