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Phase structure

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Phase structure

  1. 1.  Presented to:Madam Amna Shahid Presented by:Ammara AhsanAyesha AmjadNajia MajidRashda Meraj
  2. 2. byAmmara AhsanAyesha AmjadNajia MajidRashda Meraj
  3. 3. DEFINITIONA phrase is a group of words that doesnot have a subject or a verb.For example:Eating a peachUnder the teacher‟s deskAfter seeing the Taj MahalTo buy a new phone
  4. 4. General ApproachUniversal Grammar (UG) / Language InstinctDataNative speakers‟ intuitions (acceptabilityjudgments)Resulting Theory of GrammarWords, phrases, categories for words and phrases(e.g. nouns, verbs, noun phrases, verb phrases)(basic concepts any theory of grammar must havein order to capture the data)
  5. 5. 1) Every word belongs to a lexical category2) Lexical categories forms heads of phrases3) How phrases are formed is governed by rules(= „phrase structure rules‟)
  6. 6. Rules that determine…what goes into a phrase („constituents‟)how the constituents are orderedConstituent: a word or group of words thatfunction as a unit and can make up largergrammatical unitsThe component that determines the propertiesof the constituent is the head, and theconstituent can be referred to as a phrase: e.g.noun phrase“noun phrases have a Det and a N”NP Det N
  7. 7. 1. S NP VP2. NP {Det N, Pro, PN}3. VP V (NP) (PP) (Adv)4. PP P NP5. AP A (PP)
  8. 8. • NP (Det) N• PP P NPThe boy (NP)TheNDetboythe boy in the yardNPTheNDetboyPPinNPPtheDet Nyard
  9. 9.  In P from a boy in a bubble P NPPhrase structure rule for PPs:PP  P (NP)
  10. 10. PP PPP P NPin from Det N PPa boy P NPin Det Na bubble
  11. 11.  “Verb phrases have a V, (sometimes) an NP, and(sometimes) a PP” VP -> V (NP) (PP) sang ate the cake ate the cake hungrily sang a song in the shower fell into the pond slowlyPhrase structure rule for VPs:VP  V (NP) (PP) (Adv)
  12. 12. VP VP VPV V NP V NP PP Advsang ate Det N sang Det N P NP badlythe cake a song in Det Nthe shower
  13. 13. Thank You