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Overview of Shrimp Sector in Bangladesh

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  1. 1. Welcome to the Presentation Group I Presented By Sk. Faijan Bin Halim (MSS 151510) Faria Hossain Nity (MSS 151511) Saddam Hossain (MSS 151528) S.M. Yusuf Ali (MSS 151529) Economics Discipline Khulna University Khulna Special Thanks To Nishad Nasrin Assistant Professor Economics Discipline Khulna University Khulna 1
  2. 2. Group I Shrimp Industry Study: Problems, Prospects and Intervention Agenda A Paper By ATDP Research Team September 18, 2005 2
  3. 3. Acronyms and Abbreviations ATDP = Agro-based Industries and Technology Development DANIDA = Danish International Development Agency EC = European Commission EU = European Union Govt. = Government ha = Hectare mt = Metric Ton PL = Post Larvae R&D = Research and Development SPS = Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary SSOQ = Shrimp Seal of Quality USAID = U.S. Agency for International Development WTO = World Trade Organization 3
  4. 4. Terminology  Antibiotics: Generally used for the treatment of a bacterial infection.  Bio-security: Bio-security is a set of measures designed to protect a property from the entry and spread of pests and diseases.  Brackish Water: Normally known as brack water. It is salt water and fresh water mixed together. It is saltier than fresh water but not salty as sea water.  Brood Mother: Brood mother is a specific pathogen free variety of shrimp for commercial aquaculture today. This ultimately helps the marginal farmers and increase export.  Greater Noakhali Agriculture Extension Project (GNAEP): A fisheries management model developed and tested for fisheries, giving genuine fisherman access to fishing rights direct from the government and aiming at a sustainable utilization of resources. It was first started in July 1998, with a project duration of 7 years.  Hatchery: A place where the hatching of fish is artificially controlled for commercial purposes. 4
  5. 5. Terminology (cont…)  Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCPP): It is a systematic preventive approach for food safety from biological, chemical and physical hazards that can make the finished product to be unsafe, and designs measurement to reduce these risks to a safe level.  Land Grabbing: Land grabbing means buying or leasing of large pieces of land in developing countries by domestic and transnational companies, government and individual.  Mortality Rate: The number of deaths in a given area or period, or from a particular cause.  Post Larvae: Hatcheries sell two products. One is nauplii (tiny, newly hatched and first stage larvae) and post larvae means which have passed through three larval stage.  Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary (SPS): SPS measurement enteed into force with the establishment of WTO in 1995. SPS measurement sets out the basis rule for food safety, and animal and plant health standard. It allows countries to set their own standard. 5
  6. 6. Terminology (cont…)  Shrimp Seal of Quality (SSOQ): SSOQ prepares certification standard pertaining to food safety, quality assurance, environmental sustainability and social responsibility in the Bangladesh shrimp sector. These standards apply to all operators in the shrimp sector.  Tax Holiday: It is a temporary reduction and elimination of tax. Government usually creates tax holidays as incentives for business investment.  Value Chain: A value chain is a set of activities that a firm operating in a specific industry performs in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market.  Wild Fry: Wild fry is also known as wild post larvae. There are abundant supply of naturally occurring post larvae therefore there is no need to develop hatchery technology. 6
  7. 7. Summary of The Study  Shrimp is one of the leading export items of Bangladesh and accounts for roughly 2.5 percent of global exports and fetches a fair amount of foreign exchange ($250-330) million for last three years.  It has ample demand in international market and Bangladesh is blessed with an environment congenial for shrimp production.  A primary study was undertaken to detect the problems plaguing the different levels of the value chain of shrimp in the country. Motive of the Study  This study aims to identify obstacles to the growth of the industry and develop some intervention strategies that would help eradicate these obstacles and begin to develop a strategic model to achieve an export target of $1 billion by 2010. 7
  8. 8. Problems of the Study  Inefficient Management  High Mortality Rates  Low Quality Shrimp  Negative Country Image Abroad  Indiscriminate Catching Brood Mothers  Lack of Integrated Agriculture Policy  Inadequate Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Measures  Lack of Standard  Virtual Competition Among Different Actors  Lack of Coordination among Donor Agencies  Lack of Awareness  Unfair Practice by Agents  Non-existent R&D endeavor 8
  9. 9. Intervention Strategies Towards Achieving Target  The study strongly recommends an integrated model for both Golda and Bagda projects.  Strategic business units can be cooperative based, where groups of farmers work together under a commercial umbrella and disseminate technical information and training to their farmer clients  Dialogues and forums should be held regularly with exporters and importers to raise and address questionable trade practices and standards.  The government must formulate an integrated agricultural policy to ensure sustainable development in this sector.  Instead of working in isolation, the donors should address these problems collaboratively so that transfer of learning and experience is ensured. 9
  10. 10. Intervention Strategies Towards Achieving Target (cont….)  Donors should also formulate smooth exit strategies whereby projects are handed over to the private sector after completion.  Ecological protection and gender equity issues can be controlled by working with the aforementioned strategic units to prohibit certain dangerous practices like land grabbing, indiscriminate catching, child labor and participation of women across the value chain, etc.  Mass awareness can be generated on such issues as bio-security by again working through the established industry channels that will benefit from them. These again are the business units and association groups.  The SSOQ and DANIDA models can be applied in this area. The positive aspects of both the models may be applied in the value chain.  It is found that such intervention can be done quite possibly if all the stakeholders confront them jointly in an integrated fashion. 10
  11. 11. Shrimp Industry in Bangladesh  Largest export commodity of the country.  Bangladesh Produces 2.5 percent of the global production of shrimp generating more than US$ 300 million annually.  Main cultured species is the tiger shrimp (bagda shrimp) a marine shrimp and mainly cultivated in brackish water. Around $250 million contributed from Bagda alone.  Next cultured species for export is the fresh water variety locally called golda.  Shrimp industry provides direct employment to over 6,00,000 people who in turn support over 3.5 million dependents.  Suffers from lack of vision and strategic direction. 11
  12. 12. Shrimp Sector Contribution Year Percentage Contribution to Total Export Export to EU (mt) Value (million taka) 2001-2002 4.76 19235 7925.70 2002-2003 5.10 21941 9392.60 2003-2004 5.71 25522 11775.00 2004-2005 5.90 27508 12628.95 2005-2006 4.56 29177 15230.00 2006-2007 4.90 36851 1660.00 Japan, EU and USA are the main importer of Bangladeshi shrimp 12
  13. 13. Shrimp Culture  Follow traditional method and annual yield is 250-300 kg/ha  Total Shrimp farming area-2,76,000 ha  Marine Shrimp-195000 ha and Freshwater Shrimp-86,000 ha  District involved-20, Upazila-52  Bangladesh captured only 2-3 percent of world production of shrimp.  Shrimp sector contributes 84% share of total fishery export in Bangladesh (2012-13).  Country-wise Share USA-26%, Belgium-21%, UK-13%, Netherland-5%, Germany-8%, Japan-4%, Russia-3%, Others-20% Supply Chain of Shrimp Culture Supplier Agent Depot Commission Agent Factory Boat, Rickshaw Boat, Truck 13
  14. 14.  Objective of the Study The objective of this study is to identify the industry-embedded problems and then to layout intervention strategies at each step of the value-chain to address the same.  Ultimate Goal of the Study The ultimate goal of the research is to assess the possibilities of developing a strategic business model that can help achieve an export target worth US$1 billion by 2010.  Methodology of the Study  The methodology entailed both secondary and primary qualitative study. Secondary research included both local and international studies conducted on the subject. Primary study involving depth interviews of actors across the value chain.  The findings of the first phase of the study was validated in a stakeholders workshop focusing on problems outlined by the members of the value chain and the intervention strategy developed based on the outcome of the study 14
  15. 15. Interviewed Representative Members of Value Chain  Scope of the Study The scope of the study included the entire value chain and covered both bagda and galda. Geographical coverage was Cox’s Bazaar, Chittagong, Noakhali, Dhaka, Bagerhat, and Khulna. Brood Agency Hatchery/Nursery Transport Agency Trade Agency Depot Farm-Shrimp/Nursery Processing Industry Financial Agency Laboratory Wholesale Market Department of Fisheries Facilitating Agency Shrimp Technologist Association Donor Agency 15
  16. 16. Sector Map of Bangladesh Shrimp Industry 16
  17. 17. Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (General)  Lack of integrated agricultural policy  Wild fry collection  Land grabbing  Lack of standard at all level of value chain  Hatcheries operating under capacity  High demand but inadequate supply due to high mortality rates and farms are unable to supply to the processors despite of high international demand  Change in price due to inconsistency in supply chain  Farmers sometimes inject illegal material to shrimp for necessary weight requirement  Lack of proper monitoring mechanism  Government provided extension workers perform very poorly. Post Larvae of Shrimp 17
  18. 18. Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (Brood Parent Collectors)  According to experts indiscriminate catching of brood mothers may extinct from our country within two to three years  In Bangladesh male and female shrimps are harvested together. There is no mechanism for harvesting brood mothers separately  Inadequate policy measures regarding the time of catching, technology and human resource  Lack of local expertise in the time of fry collection from the sea  People involved in this business have no knowledge regarding wild life  Lack of monitoring compliance affect the value chain as well Brood Parents 18
  19. 19. Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (Agents and Hatchery) Agent  Agents are mostly traders and most of them entered into business by force. Traders force the farmers to buy PL in stocks.  Quality and price control mechanisms are compromised due to inadequate supply.  Inadequate control and monitoring by law enforcing agencies is also a troubling issue. Hatchery/Nursery  This portion complies too many players and all of them are engaged in marginal operation.  Most investors are motivated to turn black money white. Production and sales figures are often exaggerated to override the low.  Inadequate bio-security measures such as drainage, bacterial and viral control and use of medication lead to low quality of product. 19
  20. 20. Hatchery/Nursery (cont…)  In case of golda bio security related problems EU imposed a ban on Bangladeshi shrimp import due to failure to comply with EU regulation.  Lack of trained human resources. Majority 70% are from outside country and of which 50% are from Indian nationals. Illegal application of technology and medication represents a potential threat to bio-security.  Unethical business practice arises due to the direct result of govt. programmes directed in favor of the hatcheries.  Cost of R&D activities at the hatchery level is highly uneconomical. 20
  21. 21. Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (Agent-PL, Transport Agency) Agent-PL  Lack of working capital and availability of special interest rate is the main constraint  High mortality rate during transshipment from hatchery to farm especially in case of bagda  These agents control both farm and hatchery. They purchase on credit from the hatchery owner and receive commission from farm  In case of golda, a large number of PL imported from India which contains nitrofurine (a prohibited substance) Transport Agency  Poor infrastructure makes hindrance incase of transporting bagda from Cox’s bazar to Khulna.  Lack of landing facility from air transport in Khulna, it increase time and transportation cost. Policy for licensing air transport is inadequate.  Due to time heavy time consumption some hatcheries try to transport PL by road but the situation is still unimproved.  Temperature and oxygen controlled vans for road transport are still at the experimental stage. 21
  22. 22. Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (Farmer/Nursery)  Low awareness level resulting high mortality rate.  Inadequate banking support and financial ability hinder progress of daily work.  Processors of shrimp mostly get the benefit from export and pass some of benefit to agent from the higher price but other members do not absorb much of the benefit.  Higher production cost due to inefficient management bodies and high mortality. Higher price for the product does not always ensures higher profit due to higher production cost as like in Bangladesh.  Sale price is completely independent of cost.  However due to low production cost, survival of this sector is quite easy than from the other shrimp producing countries.  Cost of maintaining nurseries is too risky and expensive. 22
  23. 23. Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (Agent Shrimp, Processor) Agent Shrimp  Huge gap between demand for shrimp by processors and supply of the same by the farmers .  Processors dictate price based on international market.  Shrimps are injected with fluid and chemical substance to increase its weight.  Monitoring of compliance are alarmingly inadequate. Processor  Quality of shrimp supplied to the processor is not of good quality due to adulteration.  Processor engaged in their business during the tax holiday extension after that they shift their profession which rises financial default.  Low marketing effort and low prices reduces the demand in the international market and it also creates a negative image in the outside market. 23
  24. 24. Processor (cont…)  Inadequate technology and knowledge transfer impact market operation.  Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is still inadequate.  It is sometimes difficult to maintain the international standard of exported shrimp. For example: EU regulation for using nitrofurans is very low to maintain health standard which is not highly maintained in our country and it may ban the export of shrimp to EU. What We have Learnt ???? Have a Closer Look on the Marked Portion  This is a perfect example of inappropriate grounds for rejection by the developed countries. International laws can therefore sometimes be questionable. 24
  25. 25. Business Development System Co-ordination Related Problems  No coherent coordination and hatchery business is mainly set up for interest.  Industry needs are not well communicated with donor activities.  Donor activities also not well communicated among themselves.  Non-existent government activities. Technological Problems  Non-existent R&D activity.  Donor programmes are not well designed to develop appropriate technology.  Inappropriate imported technology.  Human resource development is not long term sustainable.  Hatcheries seem to be interested in profit sharing not technology sharing. Some General Barriers 25
  26. 26. Business Development System (cont…) Feed  Price of feed is beyond the quality of the poor farmer.  Most available feed suppliers are substandard, therefore we often have poor quality of shrimp.  Inefficient monitoring of feed and drug manufacturing system. Financial Problems  Financial agencies found financial farm non profitable therefore are reluctant in extending loan.  Inadequate knowledge of financial operator regarding the demand and supply status.  Large extent loan is disbursed towards hatcheries and processors as they seem to be larger in the actor of the value chain. Some General Barriers 26
  27. 27. Business Development System (cont…) Bio-Security Problems  As agents are commercially driven, therefore they tend to oversell medications such as antibiotics and hormones just to gain more profit.  Inadequate laboratory facilities result in low R&D advantage.  Due to low level of knowledge regarding bacterial and fungal infestation lot of exports turn out to be infected. Some General Barriers Bacterial disease of shrimp Antibiotics of Shrimp 27
  28. 28. Target Achievement  It is evident that the target rate of US$ 1 billion target is achievable provided that certain bottlenecks are removed.  Here the main bottleneck is production level is unacceptably low.  With the dissemination of technology through the programmes like SSOQ production in the farmers level may be increased 4-5 fold making it possible for the industry to reach its desired target.  Concentration on increasing management efficiency ultimately reduce the high mortality rate and manifold the production level. 28
  29. 29. Intervention Strategy Strategies that were previously uncovered in the primary study illustrated below: 1. Agricultural Policy  Ministry of agriculture and land should initiate an integrated policy to enhance land productivity while considering different sub-sectors like shrimp, jute, horticulture etc.  Fisheries department should prepare different policies for bagda and golda as requirement for these two species are completely different.  As 70% of the foreign exchequer from shrimp is contributed by bagda, therefore; emphasis should be placed there.  Hatcheries, farmers and processors should be considered as single unit rather than competitors while formulating any policies.  Policy assessment and updating should be done on annual basis based on foreign technician and international market scenario. 29
  30. 30. Intervention Strategy (cont…) 2. Policy on Brood and Hatcheries  Brood parents catching for bagda and golda should be strongly monitored during some specific seasons whereas experts suggest that it should be banned in some specific areas specially in Sundarbans and Satkhira to enable a consistent flow of brood mothers.  Brood mothers collecting method should be changed in our country observing from others developed countries. Training facilities will be helpful in this case.  A 100% ban should be imposed on collecting PL for Bagda which makes industries non-existent. However such ban should not be imposed before making any alternative livelihood for the individuals whose main occupation rely on it.  In Cox’s Bazar govt. initiate tax holiday for bagda hatcheries, similar steps should be taken for golda.  Restrictions should be imposed on using net and individuals without trade license should not be allowed in this trade.  Private sector operation and support from the donor should be introduces.30
  31. 31. Intervention Strategy (cont…) 3. Policy on Bio-Security  A free market mechanism across the value chain with biologically safe food force the farmers to adopt bio-security measures.  Rather than depending on foreign technicians local manpower should be trained on testing measurement.  Certification program like SSOQ plays a major role for creating value addition in the form of better quality and enhance image. SSOQ has laboratory in Cox’s bazar which test the post larvae and then send it to the farmers.  Bio-security policy should include viral, bacterial and fungal diseases. Policies must be adopted in the use of harmful chemical substances.  Traceability is important which helps farmer to receive training on record keeping and certification procedure. It should be adopted at each and every stage of the value chain including importer. This proactive measurement helps to achieve larger export also. 31
  32. 32. Intervention Strategy (cont…) 4. Financial Policy  Restriction on number of hatcheries to control financial corruption which may eradicate unethical practices rampant in this sector.  Government should undertake investigation before granting any hatcheries/processors to operate.  Tax holiday should be directed towards the farmer in the form of low interest rate to ensure that traders do not take all the advantage.  Incentives can be more effective that helps farmer to meet certain bio- security measures. 5. International Policy  In the last few years consumers are more conscious about whether imported shrimp is produced maintaining international codes for food safety, produced in an environment friendly way. Therefore, international standard should be ensured. 32
  33. 33. International Policy (cont…)  Concerted effort on a global scale is necessary to assist LDCs in order to build capacity necessary to guarantee compliance.  The SPS (Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary) provisions should be formulated in a transparent and accountable manner.  If standards are to be harmonized, these should be take into consideration of regional condition. For example, though EU ban import shrimp but exporters are able to divert some a part of consignment to USA and Japan.  Adequate preparatory measures should be ensured for exporting countries (SPS measure) prior to imposition of any penalty.  Adequate financial and technical assistance should be provided to the LDCs to facilitate conformity with SPS requirement.  Certification procedure should be clearly addressed to avoid any conflicting interpretation with respect to standard. 33
  34. 34. Intervention Strategy (cont…) 6. Policy of Donor Agency  Donor agencies should develop a joint country strategy to ensure smooth and effective functioning.  Ensure greater transfer of knowledge which increases the effectiveness of the project by learning from other mistakes and implementing other success stories.  Donor agencies should develop a plan based on long term exist strategy rather and transfer of ownership should follow a smooth and efficient process.  Instead of acting only a financing source only donor agencies can also function as a broker and aid govt. to formulate an integrated agricultural policy.  Emphasis should focus on the private sector as from 1986 to 1996 govt. established only a few hatcheries whereas private sectors established total of 55 hatcheries with less fund.  Donors can aid in country image promotion and export diversification. 34
  35. 35. Intervention Strategy (cont…) 7. Operational Strategy: General  A shrimp association should be formed taking one representative from each value chain group. There exist two hatcheries and one processor association but they work in isolation with each other but they should work under an umbrella organization.  There are few agents who have control over farmers and hatchery supply. However they need to be enlisted to collect information from them and disseminated it to monitor of farm activities.  SSOQ model could be used in ensuring increase in production.  National target on exports as well as performance target should be directed towards the value chain to ensure efficient integration.  Bagda and Golda are two different generic brand therefore, their promotional strategies also need to be different.  In developing an operational strategy, grass root problems should be solved in the organization level. 35
  36. 36. Intervention Strategy (cont…) 8. Operational Strategy: Golda  For Golda project regional integration model may be helpful where all the value chain actor performed regionally and whey it matured then attempt to form a limited company.  GNAEP model is very much effective and have a goal of transition from project phase to private sector phase.  Regional association may be considered fro financial support.  All movement of good from hatcheries to processor recorded properly since a single entity is in operation.  Golda can also be cultivated in a poly-culture system with Carp to boost production. 36
  37. 37. Intervention Strategy (cont…) 9. Operational Strategy: Bagda  For the hatcheries to be stationed across the country, they have to consider the production of bagda as they are located near coastal belts and the strategies need to be different due to geological proximity.  Hatcheries can jointly run the PL and use technology using road as a means of transport. Code number for hatcheries, certification system improved efficiency in transport, distribution and traceability.  Farmers should be helped to form a group. Bargaining power of famers should be boosted for equitable distribution of benefit. Farmers of a specific geo-graphical region should be tagged for easy accessibility, supervision and traceability.  Govt. agencies should monitor bio-security measures and provide financial support to the farmer to develop export oriented industry.  Cooperatives have to be allowed freedom. 37
  38. 38. Intervention Strategy (cont…) 10. Processor  Support can be sought from the govt. and the donor agencies to enhance country image.  Strategies should also be generic for bagda and golda.  Strategies should be directed towards brand which increase industry competition within the country.  Maintain data banks of products.  Maintain liaison with the market and transmit information down the chain. 11. R&D  R&D facilities can be mobilized through linkage with the various universities of the country.  Research activities can be initiated by the regional integrated units or join effort by the hatcheries of bagda.  Strong linkage with the SSOQ is needed at the initial stage.  Internship program of the students in various universities can be developed at all level of value chain to ensure human resource development. 38
  39. 39. Intervention Strategy (cont…) 12. Operational Strategy: Donor  Donor should continue with SSOQ model to ensure smooth transition and placement of technology transfer.  Donor should develop a plan on milestone basis rather than time bound basis in the areas of technology, standardized operation and marketing strategies.  An integrated model should be developed by taking representative of the private bodies for smooth transition from the very beginning of the project.  A typical NGO driven model should be avoided since it lacks transition and partnership with public sector need also to be avoided because this may lead to ownership issue. 39
  40. 40. Conclusion  Integration of activities both in terms of value chain and region may help to achieve US $1 billion theoretically described in the above discussion.  Working with existing PL supply agents who control a significant number of farmers and also ensure quick dissemination of information and provide technical training.  Presence of donor in the absence of government guidance is very much essential for a planned time period as a facilitators only.  Private sector participation is essential and project should be handed over only after the sustainable profitability has been ascertained.  Fisheries department and donor should outline policy framework according to the need of the buyer and ask the govt. for implementation.  If all of the strategies are met only then Bangladesh can increase its market share and become one of the leader in the global shrimp market. 40
  41. 41. Thank You All From Any Questions???? 41