• GROUP: Two or more individuals interacting &
interdependent who have come together to achieve particular
• Formal group: A designated work group defined by an
• Informal group: A group that is neither formally structured
nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in
response to the need for social contact.
• Command group: A group composed of the individuals
who report directly to the given manager.
• Task group: People working together to complete a job task.
• Interest group: People working together to attain a specific
objective with which each is concerned.
• Friendship group: People brought together because they
share one or more common characteristics.
• 5 Stage Model
• Forming: The first stage in group development, where the
whole character of a certain group is showed.
• Storming: In this stage the clear hierarchy of leadership
within the group is decided.
• Norming: This stage shows the solid group structure & the
common set of expectations of the group.
• Performing: The fourth stage is complete when a group is
• Adjourning: The final stage for temporary groups who are
concerned with wrapping up activities rather task performance.
• Role: A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to
someone occupying a given position in social unit.
• Identity: Certain attitudes & behaviors consistent with a role.
• Perception: An individuals view of how he or she is
supposed to act in given situation.
• Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a
• Psychological Contract: An unwritten agreement that sorts
out what management expects from an employee.
• Conflict: A situation in which an individual is confronted by
divergent role expectations.
Many evidence indicates that, smaller groups are faster at
completing tasks than are larger ones and also individuals
perform better in smaller groups. Although for problem
solving larger groups are always better.
One of the most important findings related to the size of
groups is known as Social loafing. Which is the tendency for
individuals to expend less effort when working collectively
than when working individually.
Studies indicate that employees in Miles, China , that those
people perform better in groups. But in USA people perform
better as individuals.
Cohesive: The degree to which group members are attracted
to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.
If performance are high a cohesive group is more productive.
IT stimulate competition with other groups.
When cohesiveness & performance related norms are both
high it makes a high productivity.
When cohesive is low though norms are high productivity
Cohesiveness sometimes make individuals less tend to do their
Groups generate more complete information & knowledge.
Groups generate increased diversity of views.
Increased acceptance of a solution.