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6.2 software


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6.2 software

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6.2 software

  2. 2. data• Data is like raw material. It is not organised and has little value. Data can include text, numbers, images, audio and video. – Text data consists of sentences and paragraphs. – Number or numerical data consists of digits from 0 to 9. – Image data are graphical images. – Audio data can be sound, voice or tones – Video data consist of moving images
  3. 3. • What happen to the data? What do you feel?• The data/information is not structured and not organized
  4. 4. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM• 6.2.1 Definition – Database • Database is structured collection of information on specific subjects. • Its like an electronic filing system. Example; telephone book which contains records of names, addresses and contact numbers. – Database Management Systems (DBMS). • To access information from a database, you need a database management system (DBMS). This is a collection of programs that enables you to enter, organize, and select data in a database.
  5. 5. DATABASE PELAJARSOFTWARE Nama IC No Tel Tingkatan GURU NamaDBMS IC No Tel Matapelajaran IBU BAPA Nama IC No Tel Pekerjaan COMPUTER
  6. 6. • DATA will be organized in DATABASE, and its will managed by DBMS (DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM)
  7. 7. Benefits of using database• Save Time• Aid Communication• Are More Secure• Are Inexpensive Managers• searching speed• flexibility on the data level• consistency and forced harmony of data• archivizing advantage.• future grow advantage.• various of share at once.
  8. 8. Example of DBMSMicrosoft Access,MySQL,Microsoft SQL Server,Oracle,FileMaker Pro,FoxPro,dBASE
  9. 9. So, that’s all• What is Database?• What is DBMS?• What its benefit?• Example DBMS you may know?
  10. 10. Using Microsoft Access
  11. 11. What is Microsoft Access?Microsoft Access is a relational database managementsystem (DBMS or RDBMS). At the very core, it is asoftware “engine” that provides an interface betweenphysical data and user application queries.Other examples of DBMS applications include:•Oracle•mySQL•SQL Server (Microsoft)•DB2 (IBM)•Informix
  12. 12. Why choose MS-Access over SPSS / Excel? Although there is always overlap, the following rules might help when deciding when / when not to use MS Access: •MS Access is best used for long-term data storage and/or data sharing. •MS Excel is best used for minor data collection, manipulation, and especially visualization. •SPSS is best used for minor data collection and especially data analysis. It is easy to export data from MS Access to Excel  SPSS
  13. 13. Why choose MS-Access over other DBMS systems? Cheap, readily available (packaged with MS-Office Premium). Easy to use (relative to other systems –Oracle may require one FTE to maintain the server as a database administrator and another FTE to serve as an application developer). Includes front-end tools for rapid application development (RAD). This also makes MS-Access a good prototype environment.
  14. 14. MS Acess• MS Access is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS).• An RDBMS is used to store, retrieve and update data via facilities and mechanisms that are supported from within the database system, these mechanisms include tools to: – view the data. – update the data. – facility to store data (Tables). – present data (Forms, Reports, Access Web Pages). – generate reports from the database dynamically (Wizards). – Security utilities – only authorized users can access the database. – retrieve subset of the data based on a defined selection criteria (Queries). MS Access uses Structured Query Language (see query section) to support query services. – backing up and restoring data. – Facilities to share the date
  15. 15. MS Access Environment
  16. 16. Field• Field is a specific category of information in a table.• In a table, fields are usually shown in columns and it has its own field name at the top.• For example, StudentID, Name, MyKad Number, Date of Birth, Gender, Address and Contact Number.• All the data within the same field holds the same data type.• For example, StudentID, Name, Gender, Address and ContactNumber use text as data type. MyKad Number uses number as data type. Date Of Birth uses date as data type.• Several fields make up a record.
  17. 17. Record• Record is a collection of related fields about one person, place or thing in a table.• Records are arranged in rows.• The records consist of several data type such as of text, date or numerical data.• A record is also known as the row or tuple.• For example, we have a total of five records in this table.
  18. 18. File• A file is a set of data arranged in columns and rows.• They are grouped together for a specific purpose.• For example, this is a Student Registration System which records all the students’ information.• To form a file, the file must have fields and records.• A file is sometimes called a collection of related records. For example, a Book file and a Student file.
  19. 19. A FIELD is a list of entered data with the same category. Forexample, name category; Ali, Abu, Ahmad.A RECORD is the basic retrievable unit of information in a database. It consists of a named collection of data-items and/or dataaggregates.A FILE is a named collection of data-items in a record. Forexample, you could represent the date as a data-aggregateconsisting of the data-items month, day, and year.
  20. 20. That’s all for now• From the example, could you tell which is Field, Tuple and File?
  21. 21. • 6.2.2 Features – State the relationship between attribute (field), row (record) and relation (file). – Define the primary key and foreign key. – State the importance of the primary key. – Differentiate between the primary key and foreign key. – State the importance of relationship between the primary key and foreign key
  22. 22. 6.0 INFORMATION SYSTEMS 6.2 SOFTWARE 4 period (160 minutes)*consist of students exploring the MS Access in Comp Lab
  23. 23. Using Microsoft Access
  24. 24. GETTING STARTED• Double click on your desk top icon or• Click Start, Programs, Microsoft Access.
  25. 25. Create a New Database• Click Blank Access Database• Click OK• Save in:- click the drop down arrow-click location to save database• File name: type a file name for the database.• Click Create.
  26. 26. Open an Existing Database• Click Open an Existing Database• Select a file from list of files presented in the open window• Click OK
  28. 28. ACCESS DATABASE:Relational Databases.ACCESS is a relational database management system. Relational databasesallow you to organize your data into tables; each table focuses on a specifictopic; the various tables can then be linked to each other for inquiry andreporting purposes.Database Components.Microsoft Access uses four objects to create a Database:• Tables• Queries• Forms• Reports.
  29. 29. Table A table is the basic element of a Database and contains the dataentered by users. Each row (or record) contains information about aparticular item (e.g., an employee). The record is made up of severalfields; each field contains one piece of information relating to the item(e.g., employees name, address, phone, etc.).QueryA query extracts selected data from a table (or another query) andpresents it in spreadsheet format.Form A form is a graphical template based on a table (or query). It isused to enter new data into the database or display existing data.ReportA report extracts selected data from a table (or query) and formats it forprinting.
  30. 30. DATABASE WINDOW COMPONENTSMenu BarCommand ButtonsObject TabsFavorites
  31. 31. DATABASE WINDOW COMPONENTSMenu BarThis toolbar contains commands and submenus. They will change dependingon the functions you are currently performing.Object TabsAllow you to see a list of all objects in that category: Tables, Queries, Forms,Reports, Macros, and Modules.Command buttonsyou to Open an existing database, modify the Design of an existing database orcreate a New database.GroupsA Group consists of shortcuts to the database objects that belong to it. You cankeep related objects of different types together in a group.For example, you may group a Form together with its Subforms and the Tables and/orQueries that the Forms are based on.FavoritesThe Favorites folder stores shortcuts to frequently used file folders anddatabases.
  32. 32. TABLESRecord (row)Field (column) Navigator Scroll Bars
  33. 33. - Move to first record- Move back one record- Move forward one record- Move to last record- Move to new record- Total number of records in the table
  34. 34. Movement KeysTab, Enter –move you from field to field.Scroll bars (vertical, horizontal) –move up and down rows, through pages of records, or across severalcolumns.Page Up and Down –move one page at a time.Ctrl/Home and Ctrl/End –move to the top or bottom of the table.
  35. 35. What is a Table?A table is a database object used to store, organize and view data. All otherobjects are based on the data stored in tables.Tables are comprised of:• Fields - represented by columns• Records - stored as rows.Tables look like EXCEL worksheets.
  36. 36. CHANGE COLUMN APPEARANCESelect a column with the down arrow:
  37. 37. CHANGE COLUMN APPEARANCEResize• Position mouse cursor on the vertical line between column headings to display across• Drag left or right or• Double click on the vertical line to let Access choose the best column width.Select a Column• Place the mouse cursor in the heading of a column 􀃐􀃐 and click.Move• Click the mouse in the heading of a column.􀃐􀃐 .• When the white arrow cursor is displayed, hold down the left mouse button. A smallwhite box appears.• Drag this column to its new position.
  38. 38. Hide:• Click cursor in any row of column to be hidden.• Click Format.• Click Hide Columns.Show:• Click Format.• Choose Unhide Columns.• Click check box next to the column name to be shown.• Click Close.Freeze: keeps selected columns on the left side of the screen when you scroll to theright to see those fields which are not in view.• Position cursor in column to be frozen.• Click Format.• Click Freeze Columns.Note: the frozen columns are re-positioned to the left side of the screen.Unfreeze:• Click Format.• Click Unfreeze All Columns.Note: you may want to move the unfrozen columns to their original position.
  39. 39. ENTER, VIEW AND MODIFY DATAENTERING DATA Undo Sort FindEnter Data• Type data and press Enter or Tab to move to the next cell.VIEW DATAFind Data• Click the Find icon to locate a particular field value in the table.• The Find and Replace dialog box allows you to search for all or part of a field in one ormany columns.Sorting• Select a column and click the ascending or descending sort icon. The sort applies to thedisplay; the physically stored data remains unchanged on the table.
  40. 40. MODIFY DATAEdit Undo• Undo the last change by clicking Undo on the toolbar; you can undo the last saved recordby selecting Undo Saved Record from the Edit Menu.Esc (keyboard key)• Undo all changes to this record as long as you are still in edit mode.• Pencil on the left side of the record indicates edit mode (as opposed to view mode).Replace Data• On the Edit Menu, click Replace.• In the Find What box, type the value you want to find.• In the Replace With box, type the value you want to replace it with.
  41. 41. TABLE DESIGNDesign ViewData NormalizationPrimary KeySmallestComponents(Address)
  42. 42. TABLE DESIGNTables are the heart of a database. If tables are organized efficiently, query and report design willbe straightforward.Design a Table• Click Table Tab• Click New• Click Design View and OK.Categorize Your DataEach table should deal with one category of data and have a unique key to which all the other fieldsare related.Normalize Your DataData normalization increases the accuracy of your data and saves space on your database byeliminating duplicate information where it is not necessary.• Eliminate redundancy – data values should not be repeated in several records of a table andrecords should not have empty fields.• Define smallest components – break your data into distinct components; e.g., Last Name, FirstName, Street, ZIP, Area Code, etc.Choose a Primary KeyA Primary Key is a field that uniquely identifies each record in the table; all data in the table shouldbe related to that unique key.
  43. 43. DATA TYPE DEFINITIONSText• any character (alpha, special characters, numbers)• up to 255 in length• numbers cannot be used for calculationsMemo• any character (alpha, special characters, numbers)• up to 65,000 in length• numbers cannot be used for calculations• field cannot be sorted or indexedNumber• numeric data to be used for mathematical calculations• not to be used for currency fields• Field Size property further defines its function and sizeDate/ time• must be a valid date/time entry at entry time• format property determines display format
  44. 44. Currency• prevents rounding off during calculations• 15 digits to the left of the decimal point and 4 to the right are availableAuto Number• ACCESS automatically creates an incrementing unique number• controlled by ACCESS• cannot repeatNote: since an Auto number field value is unique within each table, it can beused as a Primary key if none of the other application fields contain uniquevalues.Yes/No• logical indicator (one of two values)• on/off, true/false, yes/no• Yes value is yes, on, true or -1;No value is no, off, false or 0 .OLE object• used to store Word or Excel documents• can also store pictures, sound and graphics created by other programs
  46. 46. FIELD PROPERTIESThe properties for each field in your table are displayed in the Field Properties pane inDesign View. ACCESS assigns default values for all properties that you can change.• Click a field in the Design view window• Press F6 to jump to the related Field Properties display.Field Size :- Sets a maximum size for data; varies according to Data Type:• text is 255 characters• number- byte (255)- integer (+/- 32,000, no fractions)- long integer (+/- 2 billion, no fractions)- single (floating point, decimal precision 7)- double floating point, (decimal precision 15)
  47. 47. Format Date/time, currency, and numbers have several display formats available. Click on the down-arrow to theright of the format cell to see options.Input Mask Controls the way data is entered; frequently used for telephone numbers, postal codes, SSN #’s, date/time fields. ACCESS offers a Wizard for text and date/time data types.Caption You specify text for the label attached to a field;will be used as the column heading when displaying tables,queries and reports. The default value is Field Name.Default Value Specifies a value that will be automatically entered when you create a new record.Validation Rule Controls the values to be entered into a field; e.g., < 1/1/2000Validation Text The message that will be displayed when the rule is broken; e.g., “Cannot enterdates later than 12/31/1999”.
  48. 48. Required Click Yes to indicate that data must be entered into the field.Allow Zero Length Applies to text, memo and Hyperlink only. Entering a zero length string (“”) means, “I know there is no value for this field”; used with Required property.Indexed An index helps ACCESS find and sort records faster; useon fields you search frequently, or fields you intend to join in queries. Indexes can be based on a single field or multiple fields; the field value does not have to be unique; e.g., LastName. • Click the Indexed property in Field Properties. • Click the drop down list arrow for options. • Click an option: - No to remove an existing index - Yes (Duplicates OK) for non-unique indexing or - Yes (No Duplicates) for unique indexing.
  49. 49. TABLE RELATIONSHIPS View related tables in Datasheet view.Orders Order Details Sub datasheet
  50. 50. Fields from distinct tables can be merged on queries and reports
  51. 51. TABLE RELATIONSHIPSViewing multiple tables in the same window in Datasheet viewOpen multiple tables in Datasheet View:• From Database Window, click a table and click Open• Click a second table, click Open• Click Window on Menu Action Bar• Click Tile VerticallySub datasheet Access 2000 has a new feature which allows you to show a related table byclicking on the small + in each row in datasheet view. The related table will bedisplayed as a Sub datasheet (and the small + is now a -).Each Table has a Unique Focus Each table focuses on one topic; the topic is usuallydefined by the Primary Key – e.g., Order ID.Tables are related by common fields For Query and Reporting purposes, tables can be joinedso that all detail information can be displayed (see Ordersand Order Details Report on opposite page).Example The Orders Table lists: • Order numbers • Customer numbers.Customer details are carried in the Customers Table and Product descriptions are carried in theProducts Table.
  52. 52. HELP FROM THE WEB • Click Help in the Menu Bar. • Click Office on the Web to access the Internet and open the Microsoft Office Update web page. • Click: - Access Favorites (click on a topic) - Under Access, click "Assistance".
  53. 53. FORMS Form ViewHeaderDetailFooter
  54. 54. What is a Form?A Form is a database object used for data entry, update and display. A Form displaysonly one Table record at a time whereas a Table Datasheet shows multiple records atone time. You can design a user-friendly template (form) for data entry and update,which focuses on one specific record, or one set of joined records from multiple tables.Sections There are three Form sections:1. Form header Appears at the top of the page. This section displays a title for a form, instructions for using it and command buttons that open related forms or carry out other tasks.2. Detail Displays records. You can display one or many records on a screen.3. Form footer Appears at the bottom of every page. This section is used to display instructions, command buttons, or unbound controls to accept input.Controls Each section contains controls; controls are objects on a form that display data, perform actions or decorate the form. They arecreated through icons on the toolbox in Design View. Controls may be bound, unbound or calculated: • bound controls are tied to a field in an underlying table or query. • unbound controls do not have a data source; they display static information (labels, headings) or pictures.
  55. 55. FORM WIZARDAutoFormForm Wizard
  56. 56. FORM WIZARDThe quickest way to create a Form is to use the AutoForm Wizard. Even if you want acustomized Form, you may want to start with AutoForm and then modify it.Using Form WizardFrom Database window:• Click Table Tab and select a Table• Click Open• Click New Object: AutoForm icon in Table Datasheet Toolbar ORForm Wizard Menu• Click Forms Tab• Click New• Click Form Wizard• Select a Table or Query from the drop-down list (OK)• Follow prompts:- select Fields (Next)- select Layout (Next)- select Style (Next)- create a Title (Finish).
  57. 57. TOOLBARS (FOR MODIFICATION)Form DesignFormatting(Form / Report)Toolbox
  58. 58. Modify a Form for the following reasons:• data fields need to be relocated in order to fit on one screen• font size should be enlarged for easy reading• cosmetic purposes, e.g., adding a logo or enhancing appearance with color.Design View A form has three sections: Form Header, Detail, Form Footer.Toolbars Display three toolbars to modify a Form: Form Design, Formatting Form/Report and Toolbox To display toolbars: • Click the Forms Tab • Click Design • Click View in the Menu bar • Click toolbars • Click the desired Toolbar.FORMATTING TOOLBAR ICONS from Design View, click on the background sectionof the Form or a particular control on the form to select it for modification.Palettes There are 3 Color palettes available in the Formattingtoolbar: • Fill/Back color - paint background colors in forms, labels andtextboxes • Font/Fore Color - change text color • Line/Border Color - change line color, e.g., borderlines.
  59. 59. Line/Border/ Width Adjusts the thickness of lines.Special Effects Applies to label boxes and text boxes; boxes can be flat, raised, sunken, etched, shadowed, chiseled.Text formatting Standard font, intensity and alignment tools; apply these to text in label and text boxes.TOOLBOX TOOLBAR ICONSAdd label Add a label to the form: • click the icon • click the area where you want to insert the box • hold down the mouse button and draw (drag) a square big enough to hold the box • release the mouse button • type text.
  60. 60. Unbound object frame Add an unbound picture to the form: • click the icon • click the area where you want to insert the object • hold down the mouse button and draw a square big enough to store the picture • release the mouse button (Insert Object window appears) • choose from a list of object types such as Clip Art, Gallery, Paintbrush picture, etc.Object frame properties Size Mode Property: default is Clip; you can changeto Stretch. • Right click on picture • Left click on Properties- Clip – If the picture cannot fit into the space allowed for it, it is clipped to fit.- Stretch – The picture is sized to fit the space allowed, keeping its height/widthratio.
  61. 61. QUERY WIZARD Find Duplicates
  62. 62. What is a Query?Queries ask questions about your database. You can design a query manually,specifying all of the tables and fields you wish to display on your screen, or you can usea Query Wizard to create simple displays in predefined formats.QUERY WIZARD :- Wizard Options• simple looks like the Table datasheet view• crosstab is similar to a spreadsheet with summary information inserted intothe intersection of each row and column• find duplicates lists the records which have duplicate values in any specified field• find unmatched compares two tables and identifies records, which do not have amatch in a related table.Using Query Wizard From Database window: • Click Query Tab • Click New • Select Query type from list (OK) • Follow prompts: - select Tables / Queries (Next) - select Fields (Next) - create a Title - click Finish.
  63. 63. DESIGN VIEW Sort sequence Selection criteria
  64. 64. SELECTION QUERIESA selection query searches for data that meet your selection specifications and creates aRecord set containing all the records that qualify. You can view this Recordset on yourscreen or use it as the source for a Report.When designing a query manually you can specify:• table(s) from which you want to extract data• fields you want displayed• calculations you want performed on those displayed fields• ranges of data• sort sequences for various fields.Query Design:• click the Query Tab• click New• click Design View• click OK.
  65. 65. Choose Source for Query Fields:The Query Design window and a pop-up Show Table window listing all the tables andqueries in your database are displayed. As you choose a table and/or query for yoursource, the selected object will be placed into the top pane of the Query window.• Click an object in the Show Table (table or query)• Click Add• Repeat these two steps for each object that is needed• Click Close.Select Fields:• Double click each field in the source object that you want to include in your query. Theselected fields will be placed into the Field portion of the Design grid. OR Drag and dropeach field from the source object into a cell in the Design grid.• Specify selection criteria (see next page) and/or sort sequence for each of the selectedfields.
  66. 66. CRITERIA EXPRESSIONS Selection criteria
  67. 67. COMMON EXPRESSIONSCriteria Expression Shows records whereFrance Value is FranceNot France Value is not FranceIn (France, Germany, Italy) Value is France, Germany, or Italy<M Value begins with letters A-L>=M Value begins with letters M-Z100 Numeric value is 100<=20 Numeric value is less than or equal to20Date() Date is today’s dateNow Current date and time>=#1/1/98# Date is on or after 1/1/98Between #1/1/98#AND#12/31/98# Date is in the year 19982/*/* Date is in the month of FebruaryNull The field does not contain a valueIs Not Null The field contains a value
  68. 68. EXPRESSIONS FOR FIELD ROWExpression ExamplesNames Table Field(Value): LastName(Smith) FirstName(Ruth) Expression: Name:LastName& “, ”&FirstName Result: Name: Smith, RuthAddress Table Field(Value): Street(101 E. 34th St.) City(New York) State(NY) ZIP(10016) Expression: Addr: Street&“, ”&City&“, ”&State& “ ” &ZIP Result: Addr: 101 E. 34th St., New York, NY 10016Calculations Table Field(Value): DateLastClass(06/04/1998) Expression: DaysUntilY2K: #01/01/2000#-DateLastClass Result: DaysUntilY2K: 576
  69. 69. SUMMATION QUERIES Click on Totals icon Totals row RUN
  70. 70. SUMMATION QUERIESQueries provide either detail information or summation information about the data inyour Tables.For example• Detail – Display information from an individual table row.• Summary – Show a count of the number of checks written to a particular PayeeTo obtain totals or “grouped by” category information, you must add the TOTALS row toyour Query design grid:• Click the Totals button on the toolbar.• The Totals Row is displayed underneath the Table row on your design grid and thephrase “Group By” appears in the Total cell for each Field.• You have several options for calculations: Sum, Average, Count, Last, etc.In the example on the opposite page, Access will group expenses together by “Pay To”,show the First check number paid in each group, and also count the number of checkswritten in each “Pay To” category.
  71. 71. FILTERS: Filter by SelectionBased on a Table:Select value to beused as criterion.Filtered data
  72. 72. Filter by FormBased on a Query:Enter selection criteriaFiltered data
  73. 73. What is a Filter?Filters act like Queries; they allow you to select and view data records quickly.A filter differs from a query in the following ways:a) entire records are reviewed, not just specified fieldsb) multiple tables cannot be accessed in a filterc) calculations cannot be performed in a filterd) the filter tool can be selected from table datasheet view, query view or form view.Applying a Filter There are two ways to filter:Filter by Selection –specify one criterion by clicking on a value you are looking for within a datasheet or form: • open a table • click on a specific value in any field on the table • click on the Filter by Selection icon in the toolbar • Access will display all rows having the same value as the field you selected.Filter by Form – specify both criteria and conditions in a blank version of your table. • open a table • click on the Filter by Form icon in the toolbar • key in selection values or conditions in any field (s) OR click the drop down list arrow in any field and click a specific value in the list • Access will display all rows having the same value(s).
  74. 74. • 6.2.2 Features – State the relationship between attribute (field), row (record) and relation (file). – Define the primary key and foreign key. – State the importance of the primary key. – Differentiate between the primary key and foreign key. – State the importance of relationship between the primary key and foreign key
  75. 75. 6.0 INFORMATION SYSTEMS 6.2 SOFTWARE 2 period (80 minutes)*consist of students exploring the MS Access in Comp Lab
  76. 76. …continue from the last project
  77. 77. REPORTS Design ViewUnbound ControlsBound ControlsCalculationPrint PreviewHeadersDetailFooters
  78. 78. What is a Report?A Report is used to display and print selected information from a Table or Query. Reportscan display detail information as well as sub-totals and grand totals; queries can displayeither details or totals.A Report has several sections:• Report header Appears once at the beginning of a report; it is printed on the first page,before the page header.• Report footer Appears once at the end of the report; it is printed on the last page,before the page footer.• Page header Appears at the top of every page.• Page footer Appears at the bottom of every page.• Group header Appears at the beginning of a new group of records.• Group footer Appears at the end of a group of records.• Detail Contains the main body of a report’s data; controls in this section repeat for eachrecord of the database.
  79. 79. Controls Each section contains controls; controls are objects on a form that display data, perform actions or decoratethe form; they are accessible through the toolbox inDesign View. Controls may be bound, unbound or calculated: • bound controls are tied to a field in an underlying table or query • unbound controls do not have a data source; they displayfixed data (information, lines, pictures) • calculated controls use expressions as the source of data.
  81. 81. REPORT WIZARDSThe quickest way to create a report is to use the AutoReport Wizard. Even if you wanta customized Report, you may want to start with one of the Report Wizard formatsand then modify the layout.Using the Report Wizard From Database window: • Click Reports Tab • Click New • Select Report Wizard from list (OK) • Follow prompts: - choose a Table or Query (OK) - select fields (Next) - select grouping* levels (Next) - specify sorting sequence (Next) - select layout and orientation (Next) - click Finish.* Grouping levels: allow you to keep together data belonging to a specificgroup; e.g., all customers with the same Zip code.
  82. 82. CHART WIZARD
  83. 83. CHART WIZARDCharts and graphs can be created using Report Wizard.Access offers a variety of chart styles:• bar charts• pie charts• line charts• area charts• 3-D charts.Using the Chart Wizard From Database window: • Click Reports Tab • Click New • Select Chart Wizard from list (OK) • Follow prompts: - choose a Table or Query (OK) - select fields (Next) - select type of chart (Next) - specify layout (e.g., x and y axis fields) (Next) - specify a title for the chart(Finish).
  85. 85. VIEWING THE REPORTPreview the report in design view:• Click down arrow on the View icon • Print Preview shows the entire report; you must use the scroll bars toview left and right and page down. • Layout Preview shows one sample page, displaying the varioussections. From Report View (or Print Preview), you can use the Page buttonsto see one, two or multiple pages at once; the Zoom button allows you toenlarge and view any section in order to read it.Print Report To print a Report: • click the Reports tab • click the report you want to print • click the Printer icon Note: Always preview your Report before printing.
  86. 86. CLOSING ACCESS Object Window Close Button Access Application Close Button
  87. 87. CLOSING ACCESSClose• Click Close icon for the object.Note: if you are in design view, you will be asked if you want to save the design changes to the object. If you are in object view, you will be asked if youwant to save the layout changes to the object. Changed data was saved as you moved to each new record. • Click Close icon for the database. • Click Close icon for the application.