Book 22 sacrifices (kitab al−adahi)


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Book 22 sacrifices (kitab al−adahi)

  1. 1. Bk 22 Sacrifices (Kitab Al−Adahi)INTRODUCTIONReligion, at its highest and best, is the devotion of thetotal self, through service and adoration, to the Almighty Whocontrols the universe. In this sense all the manifold rites,consecrations, and purifications, offerings and sacred feasts,all the working of asceticism and morality are only theindirect expression of the inner experience of religion−theexperience of trust, surrender, yearning and enthusiasm.Sacrifice, whether that of wealth or desires, is the practicalproof of mans devotion to his Creator. It is in fact religionin action. The Holy Quran expresses this attitude of mind andheart in the following words:" Say: Truly, my prayer and myservice of sacrifice, and my living and my dying are for God(alone), the Sustainer of all the worlds, in Whose Divinitynone has a share. Thus I have been bidden−and I am foremostamong those who surrender themselves unto Him" (vi. 162−163).The Id al−Adha is commemorative of that unparalleled act ofdevotion of that noble soul. Abraham (peace be upon him), who,in obedience to the Command of his Lord, readily offered thelife of his son Ismail. The Holy Quran narrates this soul−stirring event in these words:" And when he (Ismail) attainedthe age to assist him in his (Abrahms) work, he (Abraham)said: O my son! I see in vision that I offer thee insacrifice. Now see what is thy view. The son said: O myfather, do as thou art commanded. Thou wilt find me, if God sowills, patient. So when they both had surrendered themselvesto (Allah), and he laid him down prostrate on his forehead(for sacrifice), We called out to him: O Abraham, thou hastindeed fulfilled the vision. Thus do We reward the doers ofgood. Surely this is a manifest trial. And We ransom− ed himwith a great sacrifice. And We left (this blessing) for himamong the later generations. Peace be upon Abraham I Thusindeed do We reward those who do good; for he was one of Our
  2. 2. believing servants" (xxxvii. 102−111) In the above−quotedverses axim (great), the adjective qualifying" Sacrifice."may be understood both in literal and figurative sense. Inliteral sense it implies that a big ram was substituted. Thefigurative sense is even more important. It was indeed a greatand momentous occasion, when two men with concentrated willranged themselves in ranks of those to whom self−sacrifice inthe service of God was the supreme thing in life. Similarly,the words" thou hast indeed fulfilled the vision" show that itwas not in fact the act of slaughtering which was needed forthe fulfilment of the vision, but it was the attitude ofsubmission and surrender, an attitude of preparedness tosacrifice ones all in the path of Allah. that was demanded ofAbraham and his illustrious son, and they eminently stood thistest. Readiness to Sacrifice Ones Life. In Islam the act ofsacrifice is the symbol of a Muslims readiness to lay downhis life, and to sacrifice all his interests and desires inthe cause of truth. The purpose of sacrifice is not fulfilledonly by shedding the blood of an animal, but it is reallyfulfilled when a man submits himself completely to the commandof Allah. This has been clearly laid down in Sura Hajj, verse37;" Not their flesh, nor their blood reaches Allah, but it isthe piety from you that reaches Him." This verse eloquentlyspeaks of the fact that sacrifice in Islam is nothing elsethan a natural expression of homage and gratitude to theCreator. It is the spirit of willing devotion and cheerfulobedience underlying sacrifices that is accepted by Allah Whois the Fountainhead of all morality. It is only piety ofheart. nobility of soul and righteousness of conduct, that isacceptable to Him. It is essentially symbolic, an externalsymbol of dedication, devotion to Allah. Tafsir Ibn Kathirstresses this point:" The man who offers sacrifice should keepthis fact uppermost in his mind that the most important motivebehind this is the willing submission to Allah" (Vol. VI, p.183). Such truths, so self−evident to the Muslim readers,needed a clear and emphatic enunciation in view of thehorrible misconceptions which had crowded round the act ofsacrifice before Islam. " Throughout the Semitic field,"
  3. 3. observes Robertson Smith, in his well known book. The Religionof the Semitics, the fundamental idea of sacrifice was that ofcommunion between the God and his worshipper by jointparticipation in the living flesh and blood of a sacredvictim" (p. 49). " The Greeks also looked upon sacrifice as aCommunion feast with the Divinity, in which the God and hispeople became of one flesh by partaking together of the fleshof the victim; the animal was regarded, as in some degree,divine, as having the divine spirit incarnate in it. Among theBabylonians the gods feast in heaven, they eat the offerings,they scent the savour, like flies do they gather themselvestogether with the offerers" (Hastings, Encyclopedia of Rdigion& Ethics, Article" Sacrifice" ). The Holy Quran strikes atthe very root of such wrong concepts of sacrifice and assertsthat" it is neither the flesh nor the blood of (animals) thatreaches Allah, but it is your piety that reaches Him," for Goddoes not stand In need of food or blood. What He, in fact,desires is the devotion and piety of our hearts. and, as asymbol of such offer, the visible institution of sacrifice hasbeen instituted. The Holy Quran has further elucidated themain parpose of the institution of sacrifice." For everypeople did We appoint rites (of sacrifice) that they mightcelebrate the name of God over the sustenance He gave themfrom animals (fit for food). But your God is One God. Sub− mitthen your wills to him (in Islam).... The sacrificial camelsWe have made for you as among the symbols from God. In them is(much) good for you So mention the name of Allah on themstanding in a row. Then when they fall down on their sides,eat of them, feed the contented one and the beggar. Thus haveWe made them subservient to you that you may be grateful"(xxii. 34−38). The Quran testifies to the historical factthat whatever may be the outward symbols of sacrifice, it hasbeen accepted in one form or another by all the nations of theworld. It had been a fundamental element of both Jewish andGentile religions, and Christianity. It had been corrupted bymany wrong practices and been overlaid by many wrong notionsbefore the advent of Islam. Islam purifies it from all wrongnotions and practices connected with it, and makes it
  4. 4. explicitly clear that the act of sacrifice is an outwardsymbol of mans readiness to lay down his life, if required,and to surrender all his interests in the cause of truth andrighteousness. The words" We have made them (subservient) toyou" have a very wide significance. A Muslim has been awakenedto the realisation of the fact that if they offer as asacrifice an animal over which they hold control, it is theirbounden duty to lay down their lives in the way of Allah, Whois not only their Master, but also their Creator and Sustainerand Who. therefore, exercises a far greater authority overthem than they do over the animals. This should be the truemotive of sacrifice, and it is with this spirit that this actshould be performed. The Quranic words" To Him is acceptableobservance of duty on your part" make it abundantly clear thatthe prevalent idea of atonement that" it is the blood thatmaketh an atonement for the soul" (Leviticus; 17: 11) has nofoundation in Islam. The expiation of sin in Islam restsentirely on the good deeds of men, repentance of the Winnersand the Forgiving and Merciful nature of God This fact cutsthe ground from under the feet of any theory of an atoningsacrifice. The opening verse" For every people did We appointrites (of sacrifice) that they might celebrate the name of Godover the beast cattle wherewith He bath provided them," speaksof the fact that the very idea of human sacrifice is repugnantto the true religion and Allah has never given it sanction.This practice of human sacrifice was not uncommon beforeIslam." Both on the mainland of Greece and in the Greekcolonies human sacrifice was practised, usually as a meanstowards expulsion of evil" (Encydopaedia Britannica,Articleon" Sacrifice" ). it occupied a prominent place in theritual of the mother goddesses of ancient times. " Theordinary form of sacrifice," says E. O. James, in his famousbook, The origins of Sacrifice," consisted in stripping thevictim of his ornaments, stretching him over the convexsacrificial stones and while fare priests held his arms, legs,head, the high priests or sacrificer cut open his breast witha flint or obsidian knife, and tore out the heart. This washeld up to the sun to provide it with nourishment, before it
  5. 5. was cast into a basin of Copal placed in a position to enablethe blood and incense to ascend to the gods. The body washurled down the steps of the temple to the court where it wasseized by the priest or by the warrior who captured thevictim. Some times a solemn feast was then held on the flesh,the skin having first been removed to be worn ceremonially bymen who seem to have acquired thereby the fertilising ndhealth−giving qualities of the victim. Some of the blood wascarried to certain temples and smeared on the hips of theimages of gods" (pp. 84−6). Islam has not only exterminatedthe very idea of human sacrifice, but has completely ended allsuch inhuman practices which were very common with the peoplebefore Islam. The Holy Quran makes a pointed reference to thefact that this sacrifice of animals is commemorative ofAbrahams offer of his sons life at the Command of Allah, whowas substituted by a ram, and it has been perpetuated byIslam. It is narrated that once the Companions of the HolyProphet (may peace be upon him) asked him about the sacrifice.He replied:" This is commemorative Sunnah of your fatherAbraham" (vide Ibn Kathir, Vol. III, p. 221). That thispractice of sacrifice was already prevalent amongst the peoplebefore Islam can be well borne out by the fact that we findclear references to it in the poetry of pre−Islamic Arabia.The well. known poet Umayya observes: Abraham was one whowould fulfil the pledges and offer sacrifices for Allahssake. Thus he offered the life of his only son whoseseparation and whose risk of life, he could not bear. Hesaid," O my son I have pledged you to Allah. May I sacrificemy life for you!Be steadfast and firm."He had hardly taken off the shirt of his son, when Allahsubstituted Ismail by a stout ram. Not only this practice ofsacrifice has been preserved in Islam, but even the way ofAbrahams has been declared to he one of righteousness andtruthfulness: " Say: Behold, my Lord has guided me to a waythat is straight−a religion of Right Path−the Path (trodden)by Abraham, who was wholly devoted to God, and was not ofthose who ascribe divinity to any beside him" (vi. 161). Even
  6. 6. the Millat has been assigned a name after the name of Abraham:" He hath selected you and hath not placed upon you anyhardship in religion−the religion of your father, Abraham. Henamed you Muslims before this, and in this, that the Messengermay be a witness to you and you may he witnesses to mankind"(xxii. 78). Historical Continuity, The constant reference tothe earlier Prophets and the Quranic testimony to theirrighteousness and the preservation of some of their religiouspractices have been done to awaken the people to therealisation of a fundamental fact, i. e. the fact of thehistorical continuity of religious experience. The Muslimshave been asked to believe in that which has been revealedunto Prophet Muhammad (may peace be upon him) as well as inthat which was revealed before him. Life−so the Quran teachesus−is not a series of disconnected parts but a continuous,organic process: and this law applies also to the law of themind, of which mans religious experience (in its cumulativesense) is a part. To make religious experience more living, toset Allah the Ever−living with loving vividness before theeyes of living men, to make them feel Him as actually andeternally present in their lives, man needs a path, clear−cutpath, lightened with glories of the Messengers of Allah−a pathon which one should not feel lonely but the strength ofcomradeship of those noble souls upon whom Allah has bestowedHis choicest blessings. A few words may be said about the wayhow an animal should be slaughtered according to the teachingsof Islam. Three are the aims which should be kept before themind while slaughtering the animal: It should be slaughteredby reciting the name of Allah and glorifying Him. It should beslaughtered with a sharp knife so that its jugular vein may becut with the minimum possible pain and its skin should not beremoved and limbs should not be cut so long as there is anysign of life in it. The head should not be removed from thebody abruptly but only the jugular vein should be cut so thateven the last drop of blood flows out of its body. If theanimal is beheaded with a stroke, the blood congeals in itsveins which makes the flesh distasteful and pernicious tohealth.
  7. 7. Chapter 1: THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICEBk 22, Number 4818:Jundab b. Sufyan reported: I was with Allahs Messenger (maypeace be upon him) on the day of Id al−Adha. While he had notreturned after having offered (the Id prayer) and finished it,he saw the flesh of the sacrificial animals which had beenslaughtered before he had completed the prayer. Thereupon he(the Holy Prophet) said: One who slaughtered his sacrificialanimal before his prayer or our prayer (Id), he shouldslaughter another one in its stead, and he who did notslaughter, he should slaughter by reciting the name of Allah.Bk 22, Number 4819:Jundab b. Sufyan reported: I was with Allahs Messenger (maypeace be upon him) (on the occasion) of Id al−Adha. After hehad completed the prayer with people, he found that the goatshad been slaughtered, whereupon he said: He who slaughteredsacrificial animal before the prayer should slaughter a goat(again) in its stead and he who has not slaughtered he shouldslaughter it by reciting the name of Allah.Bk 22, Number 4820:This hadith has been narrated on the authority of al−Aswad b.Qais with the same chain of transmitters.Bk 22, Number 4821:Jundab al−Bajali reported: I saw Allahs Messenger (may peacebe upon him) observing (Id) prayer on the Day of Sacrifice(10th of Dhul−Hijja) and then delivering a sermon and hesaid: He who sacrificed the (animal) before offering (Id)prayer, he should offer again in its stead, and he who did notsacrifice the animal should slaughter it by reciting the nameof Allah.Bk 22, Number 4822:This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shubathrough another chain of transmitters.Bk 22, Number 4823:Al−Bara reported: My maternal uncle Abu Burda sacrificed hisanimal before (Id) prayer. Thereupon Allahs Messenger (maypeace be upon him) said: That is a goat (slaughtered for thesake of) flesh (and not as a sacrifice on the day of Adha). He
  8. 8. said: I have a lamb of six months. Thereupon he said: Offer itas a sacrifice, but it will not justify for anyone except you,and then said: He who sacrificed (the animal) before (Id)prayer, he in fact slaughtered it for his own self, and he whoslaughtered after prayer, his ritual of sacrifice becamecomplete and he in fact observed the religious practice of theMuslims.Bk 22, Number 4824:Al−Bara b. Azib reported that his maternaluncle Abu Burdab. Niyar sacrificed his animal earlier than the Holy Prophet(may peace be upon him) had sacrificed. Thereupon he said:Apostle of Allah, it is the day of meat and it is notdesirable (to have longing for it and not to make use of itimmediately), so I hastened in offering my animal as asacrifice, so that I might feed my family and neighbours andmy kith and kin. Thereupon Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) said: Offer again your sacrifice. He said: Messengerof Allah, I have a small milch goat of less than one year, andthat is better than two dry goats (from which only) meat (canbe acquired). Thereupon he said: That is better than the twoanimals of sacrifice on your behalf, and the sacrifice of agoat, of less than six months shall not be accepted as asacrifice on behalf of anyone after your (sacrifice).Bk 22, Number 4825:Al−Bara b. Azib reported: Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) delivered an address on the day (of Nahr) in whichhe said: None of you should offer sacrifice of animals untilhe has completed the (Id) prayer. Thereupon my maternal unclesaid: Messenger of Allah, it is the day of meat, so it is notdesirable (to keep my family in the state of longing). Therest of the hadith is the same.Bk 22, Number 4826:Al−Bara reported Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)having said: He who observes prayer like our prayer and turnshis face towards our Qibla (in prayer) and who offerssacrifices (of animals) as we do, he must not slaughter the(animal as a sacrifice) until he has completed the prayer.Thereupon my maternal uncle said: Messenger of Allah, I have
  9. 9. sacrificed the animal on behalf of my son. The Messenger ofAllah (may peace be upon him) said: This is the thing in whichyou have made haste for your family. He said: I have a goatwith me better than two goats. Thereupon he said: Sacrifice itfor that is the best.Bk 22, Number 4827:Al−Bara b. Azib reported Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) having said: The first (act) with which we startedour day (the day of Id−ul Adha) was that we offered prayer.We then returned and sacrificed the animals and he who didthat in fact adhered to our Sunnah (practice). And he whoslaughtered the (animal on that day before the Id prayer),for him (the slaughtering of animal was directed to theacquiring of) meat for his family, and there is nothing of thesort of sacrifice in it. It was Abu Burda b. Niyar who hadslaughtered (the animal before the Id prayer). He said: Ihave a small lamb, of less than one year, but better than thatof more than a year. Thereupon Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) qaid: Sacrifice it, but it will not suffice (as asacrifice) for anyone after you.Bk 22, Number 4828:A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority ofal−Bara b. Azib through another chain of transmitters.Bk 22, Number 4829:al−Bara b. Azib reported: Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) addressed us on the day of Nahr after the (Id)prayer. The rest of the hadith is the same.Bk 22, Number 4830:Al−Bara b. Azib reported: Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) addressed us on the day of Nahr and said: Noneshould sacrifice the animal unless he has completed the (Id)prayer. A person said: I have a milch goat of less than oneyear, better than two fat goats. Thereupon he said: Sacrificeit, and no goat of less than a year of age will be accepted assacrifice after you.Bk 22, Number 4831:Al−Bara b. Azib reported that Abu Burda slaughtered theanimal as a sacrifice before the (Id) prayer. Thereupon
  10. 10. Allahs Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Offer asubstitute for it (since it does not absolve you of theresponsibility of sacrifice). Thereupon he said: AllahsMessenger. I have nothing with me but a goat of less than sixmonths. Shuba (one of the narrators) said: I think he(al−Bara b. Azib also) said: And it is better than a goat ofone year. Thereupon Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)said: Make it a substitute for that (and sacrifice it), but itwill not suffice for anyone (as a sacrifice) after you.Bk 22, Number 4832:This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shuba withthe same chain of transmitters, but did not mention tht doubt(expressed in his statement) That is (the goat of less than ayear) is better than a goat of more than one year.Bk 22, Number 4833:Anas (b. Malik) reported Allahs Messenger (may peace be uponhim) having said on the day of Nahr (Sacrifice): He whoslaughtered (the animal as a sacrifice) before the (Id)prayer. should repeat it (i. e. offer another animal).Thereupon a person stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, thatis the day when meat is much desired, and he also made amention of the need of his neighbour, and perhaps AllahsMessenger (may peace be upon him) attested it. He (the personwho had sacrificed the animal before the Id prayer) said: Ihave a goat of less than one year of age with me and I like itmore than two fleshy goats; should I offer it as a sacrifice?He permitted him to do so. He (the narrator) said: I do notknow whether this permission was granted to anyone elsebesides him or not. Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)then turned towards two rams. and he slaughtered them, and thepeople came to the goats and got them distributed amongstthemselves (for offering them as sacrifice).Bk 22, Number 4834:Anas b. Malik reported that Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) offered the Id prayer and then delivered the sermongiving the command: He who slaughtered the animal beforeprayer should slaughter (another animal as a sacrifice). Therest of the hadith is the same.
  11. 11. Bk 22, Number 4835:Anas b. Malik reported: Allahs Messenger (may peace be uponhim) addressed us on the day of Id al−Adha. He smelt theodour of flesh and he prohibited thern from slaughtering (theanimals before the Id prayer), saying: He who slaughtered theanimals (before the Id prayer) should do that again (as it isnot valid as a sacrifice).Chapter 2: OF WHAT AGE THE ANIMAL IS TO BE SACRIFICEDBk 22, Number 4836:Jabir reported Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) assaying: Sacrifice only a grown−up animal, unless it isdifficult for you, in which case sacrifice a ram (of even lessthan a year, but more than six months age).Bk 22, Number 4837:Jabir b. Abdullah reported: Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) led us in the Id prayer in Medina on the Day ofSacrifice. Some persons slaughtered their animals ahead of himunder the impression that Allahs Apostle (may peace be uponhim) had−already offered sacrifice. Thereupon Allahs Apostle(may peace be upon him) said: Those who had slaughtered theiranimals ahead of him should slaughter the other ones in theirstead. And they should not sacrifice the animal before AllahsMessenger (may peace be upon him) had sacrificed (his animal)Bk 22, Number 4838:Uqba b. Amir reported that Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) gave the gifts of goats to be distributed amongsthis Companions. They sacrificed them, but a lamb of one yearof age was left. (Someone) made a mention of that to theMessenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), whereupon he said:You sacrifice it.Bk 22, Number 4839:Amir al−Juhani reported: Allahs Messenger (may peace be uponhim) distributed sacrificial animals (amongst us forsacrificing them on Id al−Adha). So we sacrificed them. Therefell to my lot a lamb of less than one year I said: AllahsMessenger, there has fallen to my lot a lamb (Jadhaa),whereupon he said: Sacrifice that.Bk 22, Number 4840:
  12. 12. This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Uqba b.Amir al−Juhan with a slight change of wording.Chapter 3: IT IS MERITORIOUS TO SACRIFICE THE ANIMAL WITHONES OWN HAND AND SO IS MERITORIOUS THE RECITATION OFBISMILLAH (IN THE NAME OF ALLAH) AND TAKBIR (ALLAH−O−AKBAR)Bk 22, Number 4841:Anas reported that Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)sacrificed with his own hands two horned rams which were whitewith black markings reciting the name of Allah and glorifyingHim (saying Allah−o−Akbar). He placed his foot on their sides(while sacrificing).Bk 22, Number 4842:Anas reported that Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)sacrificed two horned rams of white colour with black markingsover them. He also stated: I saw him sacrificing them with hisown hand and saw him placing his foot on their sides, andrecited the name of Allah and Glorified Him.Bk 22, Number 4843:Shuba reported: Qatada informed me that he had heard Anassaying that Allahs Messenger (may peace be npon him)sacrificed (the horned rams) and like that. I said: Did you(Qatada) hear from Anas? He said. Yes.Bk 22, Number 4844:This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Anas witha slight variation of wording.Bk 22, Number 4845:Aisha reported that Allahs Messenger (may peace be uponhim) commanded that a ram with black legs, black belly andblack (circles) round the eyes should be brought to him, sothat he should sacrifice it. He said to Aisha: Give me thelarge knife, and then said: Sharpen it on a stone. She didthat. He then took it (the knife) and then the ram; he placedit on the ground and then sacrificed it, saying: Bismillah,Allah−humma Taqabbal min Muhammadin wa Al−i−Muhammadin, wa minUmmati Muhammadin (In the name of Allah," O Allah, accept[this sacrifice] on behalf of Muhammad and the family ofMuhammad and the Umma of Muhammad" ).Chapter 4: PERMISSIBILITY OF SLAUGHTERING THE ANIMAL WITH
  13. 13. ANYTHING WHICH MAY MAKE ITS BLOOD FLOW, EXCEPT TOOTH, NAIL ANDBONEBk 22, Number 4846:Rafi b. Khadij is reported to have said: Allahs Messenger,we are going to encounter the enemy tomorrow, but we have noknives with us. Thereupon Allahs Messenger (may peace be uponhim) said: Make haste or be careful (in making arrangementsfor procuring knives) which would let the blood flow (andalong with it) the name of Allah is also to be recited. Theneat, but not the tooth or nail. And I am going to tell you whyit is not permissible to slaughter the animal with the help oftooth and bone; and as for the nail. it is a bone, and thebone is the knife of Abyssinians. He (the narrator) said:There fell to our lot as spoils of war camels and goats, andone of the camels among them became wild. A person (amongstusl struck It with an arrow which brought it under control.whereupon Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Thiscamel became wild like wild animals, so if you find any animalgetting wild, you do the same with thatBk 22, Number 4847:Rafi b. Khadij reported: While we were with Allahs Messenger(may peace he upon him) in DhuI−Hulaifa in Tihama, we gothold of goats and camels. Some persons (amongst us) made hasteand boiled (the flesh of goats and camels) in their earthenpots. He then commanded and these were turned over; then heequalised ten goats for a camel. The rest of the hadith is thesame.Bk 22, Number 4848:Rafi b. Khadij reported from his grandfather that he said:Allahs Messenger, we are going to encounter the enemytomorrow, but we do not have long knives with us, should wethen slaughter them with the peel of the reed? The rest of thehadith is the same. (And at the end the words are):" A camelbecame wild (and got out of our control). We attacked it witharrows until we made it fall down." This hadith has beennarrated on the authority of Said b. Masruq with the samechain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.Bk 22, Number 4849:
  14. 14. Rafi b. Khadij reported that he said: Allahs Messenger, weare going to encounter the enemy tomorrow. and we do not havelarge knives with us. The rest of the hadith is the same, butno mention is made of this:" The people hastened and theyboiled (flesh) in the earthen pots. He (the Holy Prophet),cammanded and these were turned over and the narrator narratedthe whole event.Chapter 5: IT WAS NOT PERMISSIBLE TO EAT THE FLESH OFSACRIFICIAL ANIMALS BEYOND THREE DAYS AT THE BEGINNING OFISLAM, BUT THIS PROHIBITION WAS ABROGATED, AND NOW IT ISPERMISSIBLEBk 22, Number 4850:Abu Ubaid reported: I was with Ali b. Abi Talib on theoccasion of the Id day. He started with the Id prayer beforedelivering the sermon, and said: Allahs Messenger (may peacebe upon him) forbade us to eat the flesh of our sacrificialanimals beyond three days.Bk 22, Number 4851:Abu Ubaid, the freed slave of Ibn Azhar, reported that hesaid Id (prayer) with Umar b. al−Khattab, and then said theId (prayer) with Ali b. Abu Talib. He (the narrator further)reported: He led us in prayer before delivering the sermon andthen addressed the people saying: Allahs Messenger (may peacebe upon him) has forbidden you to eat the flesh of yoursacrificial animals beyond three nights, so do not eat that.Bk 22, Number 4852:This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri withthe same chain of transmitters.Bk 22, Number 4853:Ibn Umar reported kllahs Apostle (may peace be upon him)having said: None of you shculd eat the flesh of hissacrificial animal beyond three days.Bk 22, Number 4854:This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umarthrough another chain of transmitters.Bk 22, Number 4855:Ibn Umar reported that Allahs Messenger (may peace be uponhim) forbade that the flesh of sacrificial animals be eaten
  15. 15. beyond three (days) Salim (son of Ibn Umar) said: Ibn Umardid not eat the flesh of the sacrificial animals beyond three(days). Ibn Abu Umar said:" Beyond three days."Bk 22, Number 4856:Abdullah b. Waqid reported: Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) forbade (people) to cat the flesh of sacrificedanimals beyond three days. Abdullah b. Abu Bakr said, I made amention of that to Amra, whereupon she said: He has told thetruth, for I heard Aisha say: The poor among the people ofthe desert come (to the towns) on the occasion of Id al−Adhaduring the lifetime of Allahs Messenger (may peace be uponhim). Upon this Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)said: Retain with you (the flesh) sufficing for three (days),and whatever is left out of that give in charity. After this.they (the Muslims) said: Allahs Messenger, the people makewaterskins with the (hides) of their sacrificed animals andthey melt fat out of them. Thereupon he said. What the then?They said: You forbade (us) to eat the flesh of sacrificialanimals beyond threoq (days), whereupon he said: I forbade youfor those (poor persons) who flocked (to the towns on thisoccasion for getting meat) but now when (this situation hasimproved) you may eat, preserve and give −in charity.Bk 22, Number 4857:Jabir reported that Allahs Apostle (may peace be upon him)forbade eating of the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three(days). but afterwards said: Eat, make a provision, and keepit.Bk 22, Number 4858:Jabir b. Abdullah reported: We did not eat the flesh of oursacrificial animals beyond three days in Mina. Then AllahsMessenger (may peace be upon him) permitted us saying: Eat andmake it a provision (for journey). I asked Ata whether Jabirhad also said: Till we came to Medina. He said: Yes.Bk 22, Number 4859:Jabir b. Abdullah reported: We did not eat the flesh ofsacrificed animals beyond three (days), but then AllahsMessenger (may peace be upon him) commanded us to make it aprovision for journey and cat it (beyond three days).
  16. 16. Bk 22, Number 4860:Jabir reported: We made provision (out of the flesh ofsacrificed animals for our journey) to Medina during thelifetime of Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him).Bk 22, Number 4861:Abu Said al−Khudri reported Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) having said: O people of Medina, do not eat theflesh of sacrificed animals beyond three days. Ibn al−Muthannisaid: Three days. They (the Companions of the Holy Prophet)complained to the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him)that they had children and servants of theirs (to feed),whereupon he said: Eat, and feed others, and store, and makeit a provision of food.Bk 22, Number 4862:Salama b. al−Akwa reported Allahs Messenger (way peace beupon him) having said: He who sacrifices (animal) among younothing should be left in his house (out of its flesh) on themorning of the third day. When it was the next year they (hisCompanions) said: Should we do this year as we did daring theprevious year? Thereupon he said: Dont do that, for that wasa year when the people were hard pressed (on account ofpoverty). so I wanted that the (flesh) might be distributedamongst them.Bk 22, Number 4863:Thauban reported that Allahs Messenger (way peace be uponhim) slaughtered his sacrificial animal and then said:Thauban, make his meat usable (for journey), and Icontinuously served him that until he arrived in Medina.Bk 22, Number 4864:This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Muawiya b.Salih with the same chain of transmitters.Bk 22, Number 4865:Thauban, the freed slave of Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him), reported: Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)said to me on the occasion of Hajjat−al−Wada (the FarewellPilgrimage): Make the flesh usable. So I made it usable (forhim) and he ate it constantly until he reached Medina. Thishadith has been narrated on the authority of Yabya b. Hamza
  17. 17. with the same chain of transmitters, but he did not say: Onthe occasion of Hajjat−al−Wada.Bk 22, Number 4866:Abdullah b. Buraida reported on the authority of his fatherthat Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) said this: Iprohibited you from visiting the graves, but (now) you mayvisit them, and I prohibited you (from eating) the flesh ofsacrific− ed animals beyond three days, but now keep it aslong as you like. I prohibited you from the use of Nabidhexcept (that preoared) in dry waterskins. Now drink (Nabidhprepared in any utensil), but do not drink when it becomesintoxicant.Bk 22, Number 4867:Ibn Buraida, on the authority of his father, reported AllahsMessenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: I used toforbid you. The rest of the hadith is the same.Chapter 6: SACRIFICING OF FARA AND ATIRA ARE IDOLATROUSPRACTICESBk 22, Number 4868:Abu Huraira reported Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)as saying: (The sacrifice of Fara and Atira) has no(sanction in Islam). Ibn Rafi made this addition in hisnarration that Fara means the first−born young one of acamel.Chapter 7: IT IS NOT PERMISSIBLE FOR ONE WHO INTENDS TOSACRIFICE THE ANIMAL TO GET ONES HAIR OR NAILS CUT AFTER THEBEGINNING OF DHUL−HIJJABk 22, Number 4869:Umm Salama reported Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)having said this: When any one of you intending to sacrificethe animal enters in the month (of Dhul−Hijja) he should notget his hair or nails touched (cut). It was said to Sufyanthat some of the (scholars) did not deem this hadith to beMaffu. He said: But I deem it as Marfu (i. e. chain ofnarration traceable right up to the Holy Prophet).Bk 22, Number 4870:Umm Salama reported Allahs Apostle (may peace be upon him) assaying: If anyone of you intends to offer sacrifice he should
  18. 18. not get his hair cut or nails trimmed.Bk 22, Number 4871:Umm Salama reported (these words) directly from AllahsMessenger (may peace be upon him): If anyone has in hispossession a sacrificial animal to offer as a sacrifice (onId al−Adha), he should not get his hair cut and nails trimmedafter he has entered the first days of Dhul HijjaBk 22, Number 4872:This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Amr b.Muslim with the same chain of transmitters.Bk 22, Number 4873:Umm Salama, the wife of Allahs Apostle (may peace be uponhim), reported Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) tohave said: He who has a sacrificial animal with him whom (heintends) to offer as sacrifice, and he enters the month ofDhuI−Hijja, he should not get his hair cut or nails trimmeduntil he has sacrificed the animal.Bk 22, Number 4874:Amr b. Muslim b. Ammar al−Laithi reported: While we were ina bathroom just before Id al−Adha some of the persons triedto remove the hair with the help of hair−removing chemicals.Thereupon some of the people owning the bath (or some of thepeople sitting therein) said that Said b. Musayyib did notapprove of it, or he prohibited it. Then I met Said b.Musayyib and made a mention of that to him, whereupon he said:O my nephew, this is the hadith which has been forgotten, andabandoned. Umm Salama, the wife of Allahs Apostle (may peacebe upon him), narrated to me Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) having said as narrated above.Bk 22, Number 4875:Amr b. Muslim al−Jundani reported that Ibn Musayyib had toldhim that it was Umm Salama, the wife of Allahs Apostle (maypeace be upon him), who had informed him of that as narratedabove.Chapter 8: IT IS FORBIDDEN TO SACRIFICE THE ANIMAL FOR ANYONEBESIDES ALLAH, THE EXALTED, AND CURSE UPON ONE WHO DOES ITBk 22, Number 4876:Abu Tufail Amir b. Withila reported: I was in the company of
  19. 19. Ali b. Abi Talib, when a person came to him, and said: Whatwas it that Allahs Apostle (may peace be upon him) told youin secret? Thereupon he (liadrat All) was enraged and said:Allahs Apostle (may peace be upon him) did not tell meanything in secret that he hid from people, except that hetold me four things. He said: Com− mader of Faithful, what arethese? He said: Allah cursed him who cursed his father; Allahcursed him who sacrificed for anyone besides Allah; and Allahcursed him who accommodates an innovator (in religion) ; andAllah cursed him who changed the minarets (the boundary lines)of the land.Bk 22, Number 4877:Abu Tufail reported: We said to Ali b. Abi Talib: Inform usabout something which Allahs Messenger (may peace be uponhim) told you in secret, whereupon he said: He told me nothingin secret which he bid from people, but I heard him say: Allahcursed him who sacrificed for anyone besides Allah; and cursedhim who accommodated an innovator; and Allah cursed him whocursed his parents and Allah cursed him who changed theboundary lines (of the land possessed by him).Bk 22, Number 4878:Abu Tufail reported: Ali was asked whether Allahs Messenger(may peace be upon him) had showed special favour (bydisclosing to him) a thing (which he kept secret from others).Thereupon he said: Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)singled us not for (disclosing to us) anything (secret) whichhe did not make public, (but those few things) which lie inthe sheath of my sword. He drew out the written documentcontained in it and on that (it was mentioned): Allah cursedhim who sacrificed for anyone else besides Allah; and Allahcursed him who stole the signposts (demarcating the boundarylines of the) land; and Allah cursed him who cursed hisfather; and Allah cursed him who accommodated an innovator (inreligion).