Collection,Dispatch & Processing of toxicological samples.
laboratory staff must maintain good
communication in order to complete
their diagnostic efforts efficiently and
provide optimal service to the client.
The laboratory staff can provide guidance
when there are questions regarding
sample collection and handling, as well
as offering assistance in interpretation of
A detailed case history, owner, species, breed, sex, age,
animal identification, clinical signs, gross appearance
(including size and location) of the lesion(s), previous
treatment (if any), time of recurrence from any previous
treatment, and morbidity/mortality in the group.
The submission form should be placed in a waterproof bag.
Waterproof markers should be used when labelling .
If a known toxin is suspected, a specific
analysis should always be requested.
A complete description of clinical and
Tissues or fluids for chemical analysis
should be as fresh as possible and kept
In rare instances a chemical preservative
Samples can be preserved for 72 hr if packed
in a Styrofoam box with dry ice.
Plastic containers, both bags and jars, are
Jars with metal screw caps should be
Packed individually & well labelled.
Must conform to postal regulations.
If feed or water is suspected as the source of
poisoning, it should accompany the tissue
In some instances, suspected feed may be
fed to experimental animals .
Peripheral blood concentration has
been shown to be more reliable.
Usually 20 ml of blood is sufficient and it
has to be preserved in sodium fluoride of
10mg/ml and potassium oxalate, 30
mg/10 ml of blood concentration.
The glass container should be made of
Sodium fluoride protects blood from
postmortem changes such as bacterial
production of ethanol or other alcohols.
It also helps to protect other labile drugs
such as cocaine, ntrazepam and
clonazepam from degradation.
K2EDTA may also prove useful in cases
of suspected fluoride poisoning.
Concentrations are generally higher than in
A number of metabolites may also be
Preserved in sodium fluoride.
A sample of 20 ml is sufficient for
Opiates and acetaminophen(
It is not routinely preserved.
Useful for alcohols, or in diabetes and
insulin related deaths.
Useful where the body has
Biochemical tests such as urea, creatine,
glucose, lactose and alcohol.
Is preserved with sodium fluoride (10
Rarely required for toxicological analysis.
The CSF sample has to be preserved in
Like PERICARDIAL and SYNOVIAL FLUIDS
can be used for toxicological analysis
The most important tissue because it
concentrates many substances.
Establish whether acute or chronic
A minimum of 100 gm is sufficient for
Rumen, stomach and small intestine with
For toxins taken orally as the
concentrations will be many times higher
than in other fluids.
Analysing chronic poison ( heavy metals)
or drug of abuse (opioids).
Distinguish between episodic or
For those poisons which may have
already been eliminated from the body
by the time of death.
About 500 ug (20 – 30 hairs ) & the whole
In decomposed body, if maggots are
present 20 gms of maggots .
Saturated common salt as the
It only provides qualitative information.
The injection site has to be preserved.
The skin sample with the underneath
muscle tissue around the injection site
area must be preserved along with a
control sample .
Preserve in saturated solution of
Whole blood ,Plasma
Frozen/1-2 dps HgCl2
and related compounds)
Heparin or EDTA
Frozen, in airtight
Use only glass containers
Refrigerated or frozen
Serum, Urine, Kidneys
Fresh plus formalin fixed
Bones are the best.
Treated weeds, Urine
Ingesta, Liver or kidney
Feed, Rumen contents
Heart, Skeletal muscle
Lead (also Hg, Mo, Ni,
Kidney, Whole blood
Kidney, Whole blood
Also send urine, blood,
and stomach contents
from normal animals.
Gastric or rumen
In air tight container.
Whole blood, Feed
Liver, Hair clippings
Other half fixed in
Strychnine (and some
other convulsants such as Kidney
Fixed in formalin
Vitamin A (also D and E)
Vitamin D 3 (rodenticides) Kidney
Liver, Gastric contents
Use trace mineral tubes
The ideal samples are best sent in their original state without
adding any preservative in a refrigerated storage (4C) within
For long term storage it has to be kept in freezer
analysed and disposed off.
The most commonly used preservative for visceral tissues are
saturated solution of common salt.
The other option is rectified spirit (90% ethanol) except in
cases of poisoning due to alcohol, chloral hydrate,
chloroform, phenol formaldehyde, ether, and phosphorus.
Properly sealed and labelled.
Avoid loss during transport.
Comply with health and safety regulations.
The use of tamper-evident seals.
Should be handed over to the investigating
officer after obtaining proper receipt.
The choice of method for testing is highly
1) Kind of substance one expects.
2) The material on which the testing is
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.
DESTRUCTION OF THE ORGANIC MATRIX DETECTION OF METALS
BY CHEMICAL OR THERMAL OXIDATION.
THE REINSCH TEST,
EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OR X-RAY
DETECTION OF METALS
THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY, GASLIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AND
PRODUCTS, POLLUTANTS AND
OLDER METHODS INCLUDE: SPOT TEST
THE MARQUIS REAGENT, MECKE
REAGENT, AND FROEHDE'S REAGENT
MARQUIS REAGENT AND SIMON'S
AMPHETAMINE, METHAMPHETAMINE &
THE SCOTT'S TEST