Introduction To Terrorism

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Useful Info about Terrorism

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Introduction To Terrorism

  1. 1. Introduction to TerrorismFaheem Ul Hasan<br />
  2. 2. Outline <br />Definitions<br />• Conceiving and Evaluating the Threat<br />• Waves Theory<br />• Terror Typologies<br />• Old Vs. New Terrorism<br />• Terrorist Organizations<br />• Terrorist Attack Cycles<br />• Response trends and Issues<br />
  3. 3. Terms & Definitions<br />Terrorism – A Functional Definition<br />The use or threatened use of<br />violence against non-combatants, for<br />the purposes though not exclusive<br />purposes, of changing the policy or<br />policies of a given society.<br />International vs. Domestic Terrorism<br />
  4. 4. Radicalisation & Extremism<br />Radical Latin radix for the rood<br />Extremism is a label, usually pejorative<br />meaning outside the mainstream.<br />
  5. 5. Conceiving the Threat<br />Ideas – Internet <br />STRATEGIC<br />Groups – Al Qaeda, Jemaah Islamia, ASG,OPERATIONAL<br />Individuals and small groups – homegrown jihadists <br />TACTICAL<br />
  6. 6. Evaluating the Threat <br />Ideas – Internet<br />STRATEGIC<br />Groups – Al Qaeda, Jemaah ,Islamia, ASG,<br />OPERATIONAL<br />Individuals and small groups – homegrown jihadists<br />TACTICAL<br />
  7. 7. The Waves Theory <br />Anarchists -1880’s -1914<br />Ethno-Nationalists/ Independence -1919-1998<br />Ideological -1920s-1991<br />Religio Political -1979-current<br />
  8. 8. Traditional “Old” Terrorism<br />Secular motivations<br />Hierarchical structure<br />Symbolic violence<br />
  9. 9. ETHNO-NATIONALIST GROUPS <br />Nationalist:<br />LTTE (Sri Lanka)<br />PKK (Turkey)<br />ETA (Spain)<br />FRETILIN ( East Timor)<br />ETA (Spain)<br />PLO (Palestine)<br />FLN (Algeria)<br />Lehi, Irgun (Israel)<br />MNLF (Philippines)<br />
  10. 10. ETHNO-NATIONALIST GROUPS <br />Irredentist:<br />IRA (Northern Ireland) <br />PIRA (Northern Ireland)<br />JKLF (Kashmir) <br />KLA (Kosovo)<br />EOKA (Cyprus)<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Leftist / Revolutionary <br />FARC (Colombia)<br />Shining Path (Peru)<br />Tupac Amaru (Peru)<br />PFLP (Palestine)<br />RAF (Germany)<br />Maoists (Nepal)<br />Japanese Red Army (Japan)<br />Red Brigades (Italy)<br />November 17 (Greece)<br />Weather Underground (USA)<br />
  13. 13. Rightist / Reactionary <br />Ku Klux Klan (USA)<br />Aryan Nations (USA)<br />Arizona Vipers (USA)<br />Skinheads (Europe)<br />AUC (Colombia)<br />Omega 7 (USA/Cuba)<br />Independent Committee<br />for the Liberation of the<br />Kidnappers (Colombia)<br />
  14. 14. The New Type Of Terror <br />Religious Motivation<br />Networked structure<br />Binary world view: Us and Them, Tag hoot<br />Violence a “moral imperative”<br />Cyberspace, Critical Infrastructure and the Danger of CBRN Terror.<br />
  15. 15. Religio-Political Groups <br />Al-Qaeda<br />Jemaah Islamiyah<br />GIA (Algeria)<br />GSPC (Algeria)<br />Hamas (Palestine)<br />Islamic Jihad (Palestine)<br />Babbar Khalsa (India)<br />Hezbollah (Lebanon)<br />Kahane Chai (Israel)<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Single issue groups <br />Animal rights (ALF)<br />Environmentalist (Earth First!)<br />Anti-abortion (Army of God)<br />Other<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. TERRORIST ORGANIZATION <br />OPERATIONAL NETWORK<br /> LEADERS<br />EXPERTS<br />CELLS<br />SUPPORT NETWORK<br />SUPPORTERS<br />SYMPATHIZERS<br />PUBLIC<br />
  20. 20. JMB-A Case Study <br />Founded in 1998<br />Foundational Roots in the Ahle Hadith<br /> Movement Bangladesh (AHAB)<br />Mutation into Jagrata Muslim Janata<br /> Bangladesh (JMJB) in 2002-2004<br />Major Attacks in the period 2001-2005.<br />The Dirty Flot – A Foray into the Domain of<br /> CBRN Terror?<br />
  21. 21. The Serial Bomb Blasts Key Points<br />Specific target sets<br />Leaflets at every attack site<br />Not intended in mass killing<br />Size and Scale of the Attack<br />Achieving Surprise<br />
  22. 22. Strategic Communication <br />Strong emphasis on strategic communication<br />• Multi Platform strategy for communication<br />• Making strong arguments using religion<br />• Fighting the ‘Tag hoot’<br />• Increased reliance on audio visual means<br />
  23. 23. Operational Structures <br />Organizational Linked Cells<br />Semi-Linked Cells<br />Independent Cells<br />Lone Wolf<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Terrorist Attack Cycle <br />Concept<br />Planning and Development<br />Rehearsal<br />Attack<br />Escape & Evasion<br />Exploitation<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. The Evolving Threat <br />
  28. 28. Strategic Trends<br />Terrorist<br />• Al Qaeda in a Strategic Cul de Sac<br />• Shift in Motivations <br />• Shift in Focus<br />Non-Terrorist<br />• Fear and Uncertainty Rule<br />• What model is next?<br />• Is the Interwar Period ending? <br />
  29. 29. Operational Trends<br />Think Globally Act Locally<br />• Return of the Organization<br />• Networks less Important<br />• Aviation Remains a Critical Target<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Tactical Trends <br />Home-Grown Cells<br />• Increase Attacks on Transportation<br />• Devolution of Attacks<br />• Knowledge Transfer<br />
  32. 32. Global / Regional<br />UN no political impact limited practical impact<br />Lack of Comprehensive Regional Approach<br /> towards CT in South Asia<br />Transnational Cooperation Still at a Minimal<br /> Level<br />In the Absence of Effective Bilateral or Multilateral Cooperation, the Terrorist Organizations Thrive<br />
  33. 33. Response Trends<br /><ul><li>Strong and Effective</li></ul>Kinetic Response<br />• Lagging but Increasing<br />Ideological Response<br />• Anti-Jihadi Backlash<br />
  34. 34. Conclusions<br />Religio-Political Terrorism is a long-term threat<br />Need to Address the Deeper Issues of Radicalisation and Extremism<br />Addressing the Governance Deficit<br />Identity and Integration will be Significant<br />Think Globally act Locally<br />Primary Response is Political and Primarily non-Kinetic<br />
  35. 35. Thank You <br />

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