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Seminar Report
on
GAMING CONSOLE
Seminar Coordinators Submitted by
Mr. R. K. Gupta Mohammad Fahad
Mr. Mohd. Shafeeq Roll No.: 1205310024
B.Tech. III Year, VI Sem.
Seminar Guide
Mr. Mohd. Shafeeq
Designation: Asst. Prof.
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
CERTIFICATE
Certified that Mohammad Fahad (Roll No-1205310024) has presented seminar entitled
“Gaming Console” for the award of Bachelors of Technology from Uttar Pradesh
Technical University, Lucknow under my supervision during the year 2014-15, in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelors of Technology
and that the seminar has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree,
diploma, fellowship or any other similar title.
Signature of the Guide:
Place:
Date:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my sincere gratitude to my seminar guide, Mr. Mohd. Shafeeq, Asst.
Prof., Department of Computer Science & Engineering, for his kind and able guidance
for the completion of the seminar work.
I am grateful to Ms. Madhulika Sharma, Head, department of Computer Science
& Engineering for her excellent support during my work.
Thanks to all my classmates for their love and support.
Last, but not least I would like to thank all faculty members of the department of
Computer Science & Engineering for their generous help in various ways for the
completion of this seminar.
Dated: (Mohammad Fahad)
Roll No: 1205310014
Session: 2014-2015
Contents
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------1
CHAPTER 2: WHY GAMING IS SO IMPORTANT
2.1 Why Gaming is so Important to the Computer Industry-----------------2
CHAPTER 3: HISTORY OF GAMING CONSOLES
3.1 History-------------------------------------------------------------------------4
3.2 Some Console Name With Their Release Year---------------------------6
CHAPTER 4: BASIC COMPONENTS OF A GAMING CONSOLE
4.1 Basic Components------------------------------------------------------------8
CHAPTER 5: A TYPICAL GAMING CONSOLE
5.1 JoyStick-----------------------------------------------------------------------10
New Addition------------------------------------------------------------12
CHAPTER 6: LATEST GAMING CONSOLES
6.1 PlayStation 4-----------------------------------------------------------------13
The Console--------------------------------------------------------------13
The Dual Shock 4-------------------------------------------------------14
The Play Station Camera-----------------------------------------------16
6.2 Xbox One---------------------------------------------------------------------16
The Console--------------------------------------------------------------17
The New Kinect---------------------------------------------------------19
The Controller-----------------------------------------------------------19
6.3 Comparison of PS4 & Xbox One------------------------------------------20
CHAPTER 7: BENEFITS OF GAMING
7.1 Benefits------------------------------------------------------------------------21
7.2 Benefits of Gaming from Medical Point of View----------------------21
CHAPTER 8: ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
8.1 Console Advantages---------------------------------------------------------22
8.2 PC Advantages---------------------------------------------------------------22
CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSION
9.1 Conclusion--------------------------------------------------------------------23
CHAPTER 10: REFERENCES
10.1 References-------------------------------------------------------------------24
Abstract
Gaming consoles are one of the best digital entertainment media now available.
Gaming consoles were designed for the sole purpose of playing electronic games and
nothing else. A gaming console is a highly specialised piece of hardware that has rapidly
evolved since its inception incorporating all the latest advancements in processor
technology, memory, graphics, and sound among others to give the gamer the ultimate
gaming experience.
Thirty years ago there was a stark difference between computers and video game
consoles. With the invention of the microprocessor personal computers became an
affordable reality instead of science fiction, albeit a reality only pursued by hobbyists
and skilled electricians. In contrast, the first video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey
released by Ralph Baer in 1972, did not even have a processor. Instead it used a series of
transistors and diodes and removable printed circuit boards that changed the hard--‐wired
game logic. Unlike the computers of the era, the Magnavox Odyssey was affordable and
could easily convert any television set into a gaming machine. Over the next twenty
years game consoles evolved from simple machines that only had an extremely small
library of a few, practically identical games, into specialized computers that hundreds of
developers created games for. As technology advanced, and processors and memory
became more affordable, the differences between game consoles and desktop computers
started to disappear. The only difference is that the game console specialized in doing
one thing, and doing it extremely well, so well in fact that even a child could use it.
List of Figures
Figure No. Name of Figure Page No.
Figure 1 Gaming Console 1
Figure 2 Atari 2600 4
Figure 3 Internal View of Atari 2600 5
Figure 4 Components of Gaming Console 9
Figure 5 Console Element 10
Figure 6 A Early Atari Joystick 11
Figure 7 Sensitive Analog-to-Digital Converter 12
Figure 8 PlayStation 4 13
Figure 9 Xbox One 17
Figure 10 PS4 vs Xbox One 20
1
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Gaming consoles have proved themselves to be the best in digital
entertainment. Gaming consoles were designed for the sole purpose of playing electronic
games and nothing else. A gaming console is a highly specialized piece of hardware that
has rapidly evolved since its inception incorporating all the latest advancements in
processor technology, memory, graphics, and sound among others to give the gamer the
ultimate gaming experience.
Figure 1: Gaming Consoles
A console is a command line interface where the personal computer game's
settings and variables can be edited while the game is running. But a Gaming Console is
an interactive entertainment computer or electronic device that produces a video display
signal which can be used with a display device to display a video game. The term "video
game console" is used to distinguish a machine designed for consumers to buy and use
solely for playing video games from a personal computer, which has many other
functions, or arcade machines, which are designed for businesses that buy and then
charge others to play.
2
CHAPTER 2: WHY GAMING IS SO IMPORTANT
2.1 Why Gaming is so Important to the Computer Industry
Research conducted in 2002 show that 60% of US residents aged six and
above play computer games. Over 221 million computer and video games were sold in
the U.S. Earlier research found that 35% of U.S. residents surveyed said that video
games were the most entertaining media activity while television came in a distant
second at 18%. The U.S. gaming industry reported sales of over $ 6.5 billion in the fiscal
year 2002-03. Datamonitor estimates that online gaming revenues will reach $ 2.9 billion
by 2005. Additional research has found that 90% of U.S. households with children has
rented or owned a computer or video game and that U.S. children spend an average of 20
minutes a day playing video games. Research conducted by Pew Internet and American
Life Project showed that 66% of American teenagers play or download games online.
While 57% of girls play online, 75% of boys reported to having played internet games.
This has great impact on influencing online game content and multiplayer capability on
websites.
The global computer and video game industry, generating revenue of over 20
billion U.S. dollars a year, forms a major part of the entertainment industry. The sales of
major games are counted in millions (and these are for software units that often cost 30
to 50 UK pounds each), meaning that total revenues often match or exceed cinema
movie revenues. Game playing is widespread; surveys collated by organisations such as
the Interactive Digital Software Association indicate that up to 60 per cent of people in
developed countries routinely play computer or video games, with an average player age
in the mid to late twenties, and only a narrow majority being male. Add on those who
play the occasional game of Solitaire or Minesweeper on the PC at work, and one
observes a phenomenon more common than buying a newspaper, owning a pet, or going
on holiday abroad.
Why are games so popular? The answer to this question is to be found in real
life. Essentially, most people spend much of their time playing games of some kind or
another like making it through traffic lights before they turn red, attempting to catch the
train or bus before it leaves, completing the crossword, or answering the questions
correctly on Who Wants To Be A Millionaire before the contestants. Office politics
forms a continuous, real-life strategy game which many people play, whether they want
to or not, with player-definable goals such as ‘increase salary to next level’, ‘become the
boss’, ‘score points off a rival colleague and beat them to that promotion’ or ‘get a better
job elsewhere’. Gaming philosophers who frequent some of the many game-related
online forums periodically compare aspects of gaming to real life–with the key
difference being that when “Game Over” is reached in real life, there is no restart option.
But why video games? Such entertainment and culture is not new, being
available for home use for over 30 years. Rapid advances in graphics, processing power,
game design and complexity have resulted in contemporary games rendering those of
even just a few years ago crude and simplistic in comparison. Games are designed to
sell, and therefore to be attractive, challenging, mind-engaging, stimulating, increasing
curiosity, and inviting further exploration in addition to an urge for ‘just one more go’ -
factors that have resulted in increased interest from the education, teaching and learning
sectors.
Video games are most often found on video gaming consoles that plug into
your television. These are produced by four well-known companies; Microsoft, which
3
manufactures the XBox; Sony, which manufactures the PlayStation and the PlayStation
2; Nintendo, which manufactures the GameCube; and Sega, which manufactures the
Dreamcast.
The PC is a major host of games, many of which make use of the standard
keyboard and mouse input configuration for games such as strategy simulations. Other
media devices, such as Interactive TV, handheld PCs and Palm Pilots, and the newer
generations of mobile phone, play host to increasingly complex games–basically, where
there is a processor and a screen, so there is the potential for games which is usually
quickly filled.
It is important to note the increasing complexity of the aforementioned video
gaming consoles, which increasingly resemble specialised, performance enhanced PCs -
though without the cost, instability, long start-up waits, complexity and need for
upgrades. The XBox, for example, contains a hard drive for saving game positions and
tracks from your favourite CDs, which then form the background music of various
games. These consoles also offer broadband capabilities for fast online gaming.
4
CHAPTER 3: HISTORY OF GAMING CONSOLE
3.1 History
Video games have been around since the early 1970s. The first commercial
arcade video game, Computer Space by Nutting Associates, was introduced in 1971. In
1972, Atari introduced Pong to the arcades. An interesting item to note is that Atari was
formed by Nolan Bushnell, the man who developed Computer Space. He left Nutting
Associates to found Atari, which then produced Pong, the first truly successful
commercial arcade video game.
That same year, Magnavox offered the first home video game system.
Dubbed the Odyssey, it did not even have a microprocessor. The core of the system was
a board with about four-dozen transistors and diodes. The Odyssey was very limited–it
could only produce very simple graphics, and required that custom plastic overlays be
taped over the television screen. In 1975, Atari introduced a home version of its popular
arcade game, Pong. Pong was a phenomenal success, opening the door to the future of
home video games.
THE ATARI 2600
Although the Fairchild Channel F, released in 1976, was the first true
removable game system, Atari once again had the first such system to be a commercial
success. Introduced in 1977 as the Atari Video Computer System (VCS), the 2600 used
removable cartridges, allowing a multitude of games to be played using the same
hardware.
Figure 2: Atari 2600
The hardware in the 2600 was quite sophisticated at the time, although it seems
incredibly simple now. It consisted of:
• MOS 6502 microprocessor
• Stella, a custom graphics chip that controlled the synchronization to the TV
and all other video processing tasks
• 128 bytes of RAM
• 4-kilobyte ROM-based game cartridges
5
Figure 3: Internal View of Atari 2600
The chips were attached to a small printed circuit board (PCB) that also
connected to the joystick ports, cartridge connector, power supply and video output.
Games consisted of software encoded on ROM chips and housed in plastic cartridges.
The ROM was wired on a PCB that had a series of metal contacts along one edge. These
contacts seated into a plug on the console's main board when a cartridge was plugged
into the system. When power was supplied to the system, it would sense the presence of
the ROM and load the game software into memory.
Systems like the Atari 2600, its descendant, the 5200, Coleco's ColecoVision
and Mattel's IntelliVision helped to generate interest in home video games for a few
years. But interest began to wane because the quality of the home product lagged far
behind arcade standards. But in 1985, Nintendo introduced the Nintendo Entertainment
System (NES), and everything changed.
The NES introduced three very important concepts to the video game system
industry:
 Using a gamepad controller instead of a joystick
 Creating authentic reproductions of arcade video games for the home system
 Using the hardware as a loss leader by aggressively pricing it, then making a
profit on the games themselves
Nintendo's strategy paid off, and the NES sparked a revival in the home video
game market that continues to thrive and expand even now. No longer were home video
game systems looked upon as inferior imitations of arcade machines. New games that
would have been impractical to create for commercial systems, such as Legend of Zelda,
were developed for the home markets. These games enticed many people who had not
thought about buying a home video game system before to purchase the NES.
Nintendo continued to develop and introduce new game consoles. Other
companies, such as Sega and Sony, then decided to create their own home video game
systems.
6
3.2 Some Console Name With Their ReleaseYear
Magnavox Odyssey August1972 Magnavox
Atari 2600 / Atari Video Computer System (VCS)
/ Sears Video Arcade
1977 Atari Inc.
Atari 2800 / Sears Video Arcade II (Japan Only) 1983 Atari, Inc
Magnavox Odyssey² 1978 Magnavox / Philips
Sega SG-1000 (Various Models) 1983 Sega
Sega Master System (Various Models) 1985
Sega , Tec
Toy
Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) /
Famicom (Various Models)
1983 Nintendo
Sega CD / Mega CD (Various Models)
1992 (N.
America)
Sega
Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) /
Super Famicom (Various Models)
1990 Nintendo
PlayStation 1994 Sony
Nintendo 64 1996 Nintendo
Dreamcast 1999 Sega
7
PlayStation 2 2000 Sony
Xbox 2001 Microsoft
PSX 2003 Sony
Xbox 360 2005 Microsoft
Wii 2006 Nintendo
PlayStation 3 2006 Sony
Wii U 2012 Nintendo
PlayStation 4 2013 Sony
Xbox One 2013 Microsoft
8
CHAPTER 4: BASIC COMPONENTS OF A
GAMING CONSOLE
4.1 Basic Components
The core components that all video game consoles have in common are:
 User control interface
 CPU
 RAM
 Software kernel
 Storage medium for games
 Video output
 Audio output
 Power supply
The user control interface allows the player to interact with the video game.
Without it, a video game would be a passive medium, like cable TV. Early game systems
used paddles or joysticks, but most systems today use sophisticated game controllers
with a variety of buttons and special features.
The CPU is the heart of the video game console. It is a microprocessor that
powers the game system. Microprocessors are required for the operation of any
computational device. On a game console, the CPU coordinates the functions of the
various hardware and software units.
Ever since the early days of the Atari 2600, video game systems have always
relied on RAM to provide temporary storage of games as they are being played. Without
RAM, even the fastest CPU could not provide the necessary speed for an interactive
gaming experience.
The software kernel is the console's operating system. It provides the
interface between the various pieces of hardware, allowing the video game programmers
to write code using common software libraries and tools.
The two most common storage technologies used for video games today are
CD and ROM-based cartridges. Current systems also offer some type of solid-state
memory cards for storing saved games and personal information. Flash memory cards
can be used to store personal information and game progress. Newer systems like the
Microsoft XBox and the Sony PlayStation 2 have DVD drives.
All game consoles provide a video signal that is compatible with the
television system. Depending on the country or region, this may be NTSC or
PAL/SECAM. NTSC is commonly found throughout America while PAL/SECAM is the
dominant TV system in Asia and Europe. Most consoles have a dedicated graphics
processor that provides specialized mapping, texturing and geometric functions, in
addition to controlling video output.
9
Another dedicated chip typically handles the audio processing chores and
outputs stereo sound or, in some cases, digital surround sound. Modern game consoles
have sound processors that have DTS functionality.
Power supply is required in some form or the other by virtually any device today.
Figure 4: Components of Gaming Console
10
CHAPTER 5: A TYPICAL GAMING CONSOLE
Figure 5: Console Element
5.1 Joystick
A joystick is used mainly to control on-screen movement in computer games.
It feeds three kinds of information to the computer–horizontal movement, vertical
movement, and on-off signals when the action buttons are pressed. Joysticks designed
for flight-simulator players have an extra control called a top hat on the top of the stick,
providing an additional set of thumb-operated horizontal and vertical movement
controls.
Joysticks were once the ultimate in controllers for electronic gamers, but
other types of controllers are increasingly becoming popular. For driving games there are
realistic steering wheels which often come with a separate foot pedal unit for
accelerating and braking.
The basic idea of a joystick is to translate the movement of a plastic stick into electronic
information a console can process. Joysticks are used in all kinds of machines, including
F-15 fighter jets, heavy earth moving equipment, cranes, bulldozers, wheelchairs and
11
industrial automation. The same principles applicable for game console joysticks also
apply to other sorts of joysticks.
The various joystick technologies differ mainly in how much information
they pass on. The simplest joystick design, used in many early game consoles, is just a
specialised electrical switch.
This basic design consists of a stick that is attached to a plastic base with a
flexible rubber sheath. The base houses a circuit board that sits directly underneath the
stick. The circuit board is made up of several ‘printed wires’, which connect to several
contact terminals. Ordinary wires extend from these contact points to the computer.
FIGURE 6: A EARLY ATARI JOYSTICK
The printed wires form a simple electrical circuit made up of several smaller
circuits. The circuits just carry electricity from one contact point to another. When the
joystick is in the neutral position–when one is not pushing one way or another–all but
one of the individual circuits are broken. The conductive material in each wire doesn't
quite connect, so the circuit can't conduct electricity.
Each broken section is covered with a simple plastic button containing a tiny
metal disc. When one moves the stick in any direction, it pushes down on one of these
buttons, pressing the conductive metal disc against the circuit board. This closes the
circuit–it completes the connection between the two wire sections. When the circuit is
closed, electricity can flow down a wire from the game console, through the printed
wire, and to another wire leading back to the console.
When the game console picks up a charge on a particular wire, it knows that
the joystick is in the right position to complete that particular circuit. Pushing the stick
forward closes the forward switch, pushing it left closes the left switch, and so on. In
some designs, the computer recognizes a diagonal position when the stick closes two
switches (for example, closing the forward switch and the left switch simultaneously
would mean a forward/leftward diagonal position). The firing buttons work exactly the
12
same way–when you press down, it completes a circuit and the console recognizes a fire
command.
New Additions
One solution is to add a sensitive analog-to-digital converter chip in a
specialised game adapter card or in the joystick itself. In this system, the converter spits
out digital information directly to the computer, which improves the accuracy of the
stick and reduces the work load on the host processor. These new joystick models can
usually connect to USB ports, which also improves speed and reliability.
Another solution is to skip the analog potentiometer technology all together.
Many newer controllers use optical sensors to read stick movement digitally. The
diagram below shows one common system.
Figure 7: Sensitive Analog-to-Digital Converter
In this system, the two shafts are connected to two slotted wheels. Each
wheel is positioned between two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and two photocells (the
graphic only shows one photocell, LED pair for the sake of simplicity). When light from
each LED shines through one of the slots, it causes the photocell on the other side of the
wheel to generate a small amount of current. When the wheel rotates slightly, it blocks
the light and the photocell doesn't generate current (or it generates less current).
When the shaft pivots, it spins the wheel, and the moving slots repeatedly
break the light beam shining on the photocell. This causes the photocell to generate rapid
pulses of current. Based on the number of pulses that the photocells have generated, the
processor knows how far the stick has moved. By comparing the patterns coming from
both photocells monitoring one wheel, the processor can figure out which way the stick
is moving. This is the same basic system used in many computer mice.
13
CHAPTER 6: LATEST GAMING CONSOLES
6.1 PlayStation 4
Video game consoles have always struggled to keep up with rapid pace of
innovation set forth by PCs, and more recently, mobile devices. In the last generation,
the PlayStation 3 in particular was bound by proprietary processing technology and a
rigid operating system that made software and new features arduous and costly to
produce.
The PlayStation 4 is the antithesis of the PS3. With powerful yet familiar
processing architecture, a more open approach to software, and an impressive set of day-
one features, the PS4 not only brings the PlayStation platform into a more modern era,
but establishes a strong foundation for long-term evolution.
Figure 8: PlayStation 4
 The Console
Jet black with sharp, angular edges and a blend of matte and high-gloss plastic,
the PS4 distances itself from the curved lines found on the PS3, and instead
follows the design language found on Sony’s broader range of smartphones,
tablets, and home entertainment products. The result is a distinctly more mature,
high-end look and feel. The thin LED illuminated strip that pierces through the
topmost panel offers a burst of color and light, but also serves a practical purpose
by indicating the various states of the system’s operation — orange while on
standby, pulsing blue when powering up or shutting down, and a steady white
while in use. On the front, two thin, semi-metallic capacitive buttons align with
the light strip — one for toggling the system power, the other for ejecting discs
from the slot-loading drive.
It’s the most elegant console design in PlayStation history and one of the best
looking products Sony has ever produced. But the PS4’s form is sometimes at
odds with its function.
14
A cutaway wraps around the front and sides of the system, which breaks up the
top and bottom panels and prevents the design from taking on too much of a
nondescript brick-like trapezoid appearance. The gap houses the front-facing
USB ports and slot-loading disc drive, with air intakes on the sides, which draws
cool air through the system. Though a clever way to mask the ports and vents, the
gap can create issues with certain types of USB storage. While average-sized
USB cables or thin thumbdrives fit the slots, thicker devices may not work
without an extension cable. What’s more, the thin touch-enabled buttons on the
front are extremely narrow and tough to identify, and the choice to put the sole
thermal exhaust at the back of the system will centralize heat where ventilation
will be most limited in entertainment centers.
Ultimately, each decision is in service of the PS4’s unbelievably compact form
factor. Measuring at roughly 2” thick, 10.8” wide, and 12” deep, the PS4 is 35%
thinner and takes up considerably less surface area than the Xbox One. It’s even
slightly thinner than the PS3 Super Slim. In other words, the PS4 is entering the
new generation with a form factor smaller than what had previously taken six
years to reach with the PS3.
Even more impressive is how quiet and relatively cool the PS4 remains
throughout hours of use. Although by no means silent, the PS4’s noise profile
never seems to exceed a gentle hum, even when running the most GPU-taxing
titles. When placed on the entertainment center eight feet from my couch, it was
hard to even notice.
Under the hood, there’s the much touted AMD-based APU and 8GBs of GDDR5
memory, which is evidenced by the fast, fluid performance of the OS and various
apps, and of course, the substantial leap in graphics. Sony has severed all ties
with non-digital I/O, offering only HDMI video/audio output, optical digital for
surround sound audio, a ethernet port, and an AUX jack for the new PlayStation
Camera. There are also two USB 3.0 ports on the front, though as of launch, the
PS4 lacks support for external storage devices that would take advantage of the
increased data transfer speeds. However, each system ships with 500GBs of
storage that’s upgradable using off-the-shelf parts — a notable edge over the
Xbox One.
In face of the PS4’s other performance-focused features, it’s unusual that Sony
has outfitted the PS4 with a 802.11a/b/g/n Wi-Fi chip instead of the latest
standard, 802.11ac, which offers significant gains in range and signal strength. It
would have added to the cost of the system and market penetration for 802.11ac
products is still burgeoning, but Sony’s aspirations for Gaikai cloud streaming
and remote play would have reaped the benefits in the long-term.
 The Dual Shock 4
The DualShock 4 resolves just about every common criticism of the DualShock
3, and in my view, ranks alongside the exceptional Xbox 360 gamepad. It’s
bigger, more ergonomic, and at long last, has concave thumbsticks and triggers.
Whereas the DualShock 3’s handles were small and its convex triggers were
counterintuitive, the DualShock 4 feels substantial and conforms to your hands
with ridged indented thumbsticks and flat triggers that wrap around the pads of
your fingers.
The handles are approximately half an inch longer and have a wider, more
rounded shape that rests comfortably in your palms. The thumbsticks are shorter
15
with more resistance, creating a better sense of precision and responsiveness. The
buttons of the D-pad are slightly larger and pivot inward for better tactile
differentiation, while the X, square, triangle, and circle buttons are largely the
same.
What’s most striking about the DualShock 4 is how everything from the D-pad to
the action buttons — and even the center trackpad — are within effortless reach.
I’ve never had to arch my thumbs or index fingers to reach the shoulders or home
button, which now falls between the two analog sticks. Simply put, the
DualShock 4 feels fantastic.
In addition to the significant ergonomic leap, the DualShock 4 also adds new
functionality, most notably wireless game audio. Using the standard headphone
jack built into the base of the controller, you can plug in any standard headset or
earbuds and access in-game audio, as well as chat. While it lacks the surround-
sound processing found on the mixamps of third-party gaming headsets, the
audio quality is surprisingly good (even if the included single-earbud set is not).
I’ve noticed odd feedback issues with certain headsets, like Apple’s earpods,
while most work just fine. It’s by no means a replacement for high-end Astros or
Turtle Beach headphones, but it’s more than sufficient for general use and cuts
down on wire clutter considerably.
There’s also the new integrated speaker, but usage at launch is sparse. Of the
games that do take advantage, very few make a compelling case for its inclusion.
The controller speaker will most often just mimic an in-game effect, but in a
diminished, tinny tone.
Support for the built-in trackpad is even rarer, and most of the time it’s simply
used as just a large button to replace the Select button or, in the case of Killzone:
Shadow Fall, as an additional D-pad. What’s worse, it’s not even used in
applications where it would make the most sense, like the web browser. Instead
of using the trackpad to control the cursor, the function is mapped to the left
thumbstick.
But no feature is more underutilized and seemingly superfluous than the lightbar.
The next-generation manifestation of the PS3’s PS Move controllers, the lightbar
was clearly designed to work alongside the PlayStation Camera and help identify
players for motion-based games. But with plans to bundle the sensor in with
every system scrapped prior to launch, its utility is now largely aesthetic unless
you buy the add-on. While the lightbar can be used to assign players to specific
controllers or react to the beat in Sound Shapes, it’s good for little more than
novelty. After all, it’s hard to notice small glowing effects when your focus is
largely on your TV, let alone a light that’s not even facing you.
We’re likely to see greater adoption and subsequently more alluring uses for the
DualShock 4’s unique features as the platform ages, but for now, there’s not
much use for them.
In terms of battery life, the DualShock 4 can run for anywhere from eight to nine
hours on a single charge, which is considerably less than the DualShock 3’s
advertised 30-hour lifespan. Still, it’s more than ample charge time for even the
most enthusiastic players, and now that the PS4 can recharge controllers while in
standby mode, it’s fairly easy to keep your DualShock 4 juiced up.
16
 The PlayStation Camera
Like the DualShock 4’s lightbar, the PlayStation Camera is clearly part of a long-
term vision not yet fully realized. The optional $59.99 add-on can be used to log
in to the system using visual recognition, issue voice commands, motion
detection for select games, and video broadcasting, but at launch, software
support and the effectiveness of each function is so limited that it’s hard to
recommend the purchase.
Users can calibrate the camera to recognize them once the system boots up, but
rather than just recognizing a player and logging in, the PS4 requires you to raise
a DualShock 4 into view as an added authentication step. Although reasonably
precise and responsive, the process is less intuitive and effective than just using
the gamepad to begin with.
The camera also listens for certain voice commands, which can be used to launch
a game or app, power down the system, take screenshots, or swap users. For the
most part, the system detects vocal cues rapidly and accurately, but environments
with louder ambient noise can throw it off. What’s worse, the camera can take
commands from anyone within range of its microphones, making it easy for
unscrupulous housemates to disrupt the experience. The camera is inherently
useful for motion-based games like Just Dance 2014, and in that use case it
performs well, but the number of games that make use of or require it is still a
small fraction of those available.
The camera’s lone killer app, however, is providing a picture-in-picture video
feed while streaming gameplay to Twitch TV or Ustream. With the camera
connected, you can add a personal spin to your livestream by offering a
windowed view of yourself as you play. That alone may not be enough to warrant
the $60 price of admission, though.
The PlayStation Camera could become a larger part of the software ecosystem
and PS4 experience, but at the moment, a Kinect killer it is not.
6.2 XBOX One
Considering the fact that it has been almost a year since the console was first
launched, quite a few things have changed, but the experience has more or less remained
the same. Also keep in mind that the Xbox One's TV functionality won't work in India at
launch, but we will provide more details once Microsoft outlines their plans.
The Xbox One is at odds with itself. As a gamer, I would have been happy with a
more powerful Xbox 360 clone that tapped into today's vast social ecosystem. But
Microsoft is clearly trying to both keep me happy and to reach beyond the traditional
gamer, to the vast expanse of people that spend more time watching Netflix, Hulu Plus,
or Amazon Prime on game consoles than they do playing. I, too, have grown tired of
waiting for a smarter television screen, constantly switching between my Apple TV,
Xbox 360, and even PC. So when Microsoft said Xbox One would bring gesture control,
voice commands, and blockbuster games to my living room, that all-in-one strategy
completely resonated with my needs.
17
Figure 9: XboxOne
 The Console
Function over form takes the stage with Microsoft's simple, boxy new console.
Sleek black and covered with heat-dissipating vents, it is the American muscle
car of console designs. It wants to be seen and doesn't care about how much
space it takes up. It fits in with modern living rooms, mimicking common designs
with Blu-ray players and audio receivers. You could say that's part of the plan,
but the more likely story is Microsoft learned its lesson from the more artful
Xbox 360 design, which suffered issues from overheating. The front of the Xbox
One is beveled on the bottom to reduce its forward-facing profile, which is
completed by a thin, slot-loading Blu-ray drive and capacitive-touch power
button. It beams a bright, white Xbox logo and is almost too responsive – a brush
of the skin will power the system on or off. It's a non-issue for most, where the
console will sit permanently in the distance, but in close quarters it could lead to
minor frustration.
The left side panel contains both a high-speed USB 3.0 input and the controller
sync button – I find both perplexing. It was initially difficult to find the sync
button, and as for the USB, it seems a poor choice to place this more
"convenient" USB on the side, where adding a thumb drive or cable will only
further increase the width of the system. In a home entertainment cabinet, you'll
likely be fighting for space with the interior wall. Thankfully, the back of the
Xbox One is loaded with two additional USB ports.
However, right now, you can’t use these for much. While it packs a 500GB hard
disk, this internal drive cannot be replaced or added to, unlike the PlayStation 4’s
user-replaceable drive. (Microsoft says it plans to support external storage in the
future.) Now is a good time to mention there's no central software view of how
much space you're taking up on the hard drive as you install games or apps or
download and record video. You have to navigate through your games and apps
18
individually to determine the sizes, all of which is required to be installed rather
than streamed from the disc. Storage management is a standard in today's
consoles, smartphones and tablets, and PCs, making it more apparent that
Microsoft launched a console with software that isn't totally ready for what the
Xbox One’s trying accomplish.
The back of the box also contains one of the biggest distinguishing features:
HDMI pass-through. This is where your TV cable or satellite box connects, but
technically you can put any HDMI signal through it. (We tested game consoles,
but there's significant lag so this isn't recommended.) You could easily run
something like Apple TV or a PC through it, and still get the advantage of
snapping to a second app or getting game invites. Snapping opens a panel on the
right side of the screen. However, a dealbreaker for some is that the HDMI signal
doesn't pass through when the Xbox One is off. Given how simple it is to turn it
on, though, I actually don't see this as an inconvenience, other than when major
updates could potentially interrupt viewing.
If you're having trouble communicating with your devices, there's an IR blaster
port on the back as well - but the Kinect is an incredible universal remote, a feat
it achieves by reflecting a swarm of IR beams across your room. It rarely fails.
Also, while the back of the box has an optical output, it only supports 5.1 and 7.1
uncompressed signals, and not Dolby. Many new receivers support uncompressed
formats, and Xbox One does support DTS as another surround option. It's an
annoyance, but only a minor one that Microsoft (again) intends to fix. Be sure to
look into the surround-sound beta feature in the system settings if you're trying to
get multi-channel audio out of your TV set-top box.
For connecting to your home network, the Xbox One comes outfitted with both
an Ethernet port and 802.11n wi-fi (but notably not the latest 802.11ac protocol
or Bluetooth). It also supports Wi-Fi Direct for streamlined communication with
your tablet or phone’s SmartGlass apps. From streaming video playback to
remote control functions via Wi-Fi Direct, your data is more likely to avoid
interruption.
Importantly, the Xbox One remains quiet during operation and stays cool while
watching TV and running most entertainment apps. Once the graphics processors
kick in for gaming, the box can get pretty warm to touch, but so far this has been
a non-issue. The giant exhaust on top of the console seems to moderate the heat
well enough.
Finally, under the hood, lies the Xbox One's most important assets: 8GBs of
DDR3 memory, accompanied by 32MBs of eSRAM and an eight-core custom
combination CPU and integrated graphics processor. It's an architecture built
around several OS components that make background processing of TV and
multitasking with other apps efficient. DDR3 is not cutting-edge, however, and
the system architecture is theoretically more bottlenecked than its main
competitor, the PlayStation 4. It's led to several launch games running at 720p (or
900p) instead of full 1080p. Will you notice? Possibly, especially if you've seen
the 1080p version; or, if you're a videophile and can sense the softness that lesser
pixel density brings. Games still look dramatically better than Xbox 360 versions,
but the larger your screen, the more you'll notice when they’re running at lower-
than-native resolutions. I expect most games will be 1080p in the future, but it's
an issue for now. Still, it could be an ongoing disadvantage that the theoretical
limits of the PlayStation 4 are higher than the Xbox One.
19
 The New Kinect
While Kinect's stability and functionality has a long way to go, throw out
whatever concept you may have about the original Kinect with Xbox 360. It's a
toy compared to the impressively wide 1080 HD camera, multi-microphone array
peripheral that is bundled with the Xbox One (and accounts for much of the price
difference between it and the PlayStation 4). The new Kinect also features an IR
camera to aid vision, even seeing in the dark. Likewise, the aforementioned IR
blasters that use basic remote commands for your TV and audio-visual receiver,
if you have one. In terms of specifications, it is one of the most impressive
peripherals ever bundled with a console, and in the long run I think it’s worth the
extra expense. How the software ultimately interfaces with it is another story, but
there's not much I can say to knock it.
It even features onboard processing, which might explain the thick, roughly 10-
foot cable you'll need to tether it to your Xbox One. So, something to consider is
how far you intend to place the Xbox One itself from your TV. While you can
disconnect the peripheral, I don’t recommend it, as it removes many of the
interface advantages - voice commands, hands-free voice chat, video calling with
Skype, visual sign-in, and more.
 The Controller
It's no surprise that Microsoft's iteration on the popular Xbox One controller has
been subtle. Overall, all these small additions and changes are for the better. For
starters, it's got a real D-pad, and it's hard to imagine how we lived without it for
so long on the previous console. The controller is lightweight and, at least for me,
the grip is better. These slight adjustments in profile and surface material make
for a more elegant controller. As for the two analog thumb sticks, they're still
concave and more rigid to touch, with a very sharp interior edge, which helps
keep your thumbs from slipping off. I don’t mind the edges, but I've heard
complaints.
The triggers and bumpers on the back of the controller are perhaps the most
changed. The triggers have more action, which is an indisputable improvement,
especially for shooters and racers. They also feature a slight bevel on the outer
edge, which helps your fingers rest more comfortably. The bumpers are nearly
the same as before, also featuring slight bevels. Enthusiasts will notice they have
a discernable click to them, which I actually like. It's a lot of the same, but it's
certainly better.
The big difference is the inclusion of the rumble triggers. Each trigger now
features individual and programmable response motors in addition to the handles.
While it's not yet a widely used feature, my experience with Forza Motorsport 5
has sold me on the feature. You can feel the difference between sliding around
left banks or spinning out. The vibrations can be subtle or intentionally agitating,
which truly adds another layer to the experience.
Meanwhile, the battery life is exceptional, but a major oversight is the lack of a
battery level indicator. You'll have to use AA batteries, a play-and-charge kit, or
keep the controller wired (not advised). I know many dread AA batteries, but one
fresh set will power the controller for more hours than I've been able to test
(which was made somewhat difficult by the fact that Kinect sees when you're
holding the controller and powers it down when you’re not). Sometimes it did
annoy me, however, as powering on the controller takes time. In the future, I
hope they add settings so I can personalize the standby.
20
And, lastly, the included headset provides a ton of value. The Skype-codec
powered audio is clearer than ever, but the build quality of the set itself is
excellent considering it's bundled in. The new data port creates a lack of
backwards compatibility with better headsets that the Xbox 360 support, and it
means you may need to wait for new models. Unlike the PS4, you cannot simply
stream game audio through a pair of headphones connected to the controller,
which is very useful in quieter environments.
6.3 Comparison of PS4 & Xbox One
Figure 10: PS4 vs Xbox One
21
CHAPTER 7: BENEFITS OF GAMING
7.1 Benefits
 Games are sets of restrictive rules designed to create an artificial challenge that
requires specific application of skill to surmount.
 Brains are trained to do multitasking.
 Games can help improve both visual attention and visual acuity
 Games can help adults process information much faster and improve their
fundamental abilities to reason and solve problems.
 Enhance split-second decision making and even, potentially, boost auditory
perception.
 Building Confidence.
 Encouraging Cooperation and Teamwork.
 Desire to beat high score.
 RPG’s allow players to create their own character and gives an emotional
attachment to the character.
 The desire to find the clue and move to the next level.
 People are free to do whatever they to do and no one is going to judge them.
 Relationships provided by the online games.
 The thrill of discovering places . It allows one to explore new environments and
they can interact with them.
7.2 Benefits of Gaming from Medical Point of View
 Absorption in a game distracts the mind from pain and discomfort.
 Playing games could help children suffering from Attention deficit disorders.
 Games help people who are recovery from physical injuries gain motor skills and
coordination too. Now doctors are using in physiotherapy too.
 It helps players to improve hand-eye co-ordination and help players gain many
skills.
 Modern fast-paced action video games in particular first-person shooter games
may sharpen your vision, improve your attention and working memory.
22
CHAPTER 8: ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
8.1 Console Advantages
 Almost every game released will come out on consoles.
 You get to play with a controller for more competitive gaming and better first
person shooter experiences for games like call of duty and battlefield.
 Updates for console games come in first before pc games get updated.
 Huge fan base and social networks like xbox live and playstation plus (get to
play with your friends easily and effortlessly) .
 Many add-ons to games (extra content).
 Cheaper than pc's (cost a lot of money to build a quality pc for gaming).
 More people play consoles than pc so you have a lot more competition .
 Party chat on xbox let's you sit and talk to your friends (very fun) .
 Amazing graphics (not as good as pc though) .
8.2 PC Advantages
 Much better graphics than consoles on every game .
 Sometimes it is very fun to play with a mouse and keyboard although difficult
to get used to it gets very fun after a while .
 You pay a lot of money for your pc but it will surely last you a long time
(probably longer than a console would last) .
 Has many fun exclusives like (Day Z Arma 3, Marvel Heroes) also you can
download and pirate games for free (not recommending just saying) .
 Many downloadable pc only games that are not on consoles.
 Many websites where you can play fun (app-like)games such as
addictinggames.com
 Use of steam (http://store.steampowered.com/) .
23
CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSION
9.1 Conclusion
On the whole, gaming consoles are the better option in the long run. After
all, they are designed for gaming right from scratch. This has helped the industry
understand the basic requirements of 3D and multimedia applications. Without a doubt,
this will affect the designs of PCs in the future and make them more gamer friendly.
“Gaming is indeed heading in the direction of becoming a mainstream form
of entertainment. Gaming experience drives technology requirements and in turn
contributes to the growth of the IT industry. For gaming there is a need for better
graphics and better storage to be able to handle heavy data. As games become
increasingly complex, peripherals and technology can provide significant assistance to
the gamer, enhancing the gaming experience.”
“Through various experiments, scientists across the world have started to
study children’s brains to understand what goes on during the hours they spend on
gaming. It seems clear that children are growing adept at handling visual information and
multitasking, making group online gaming actually help some kids overcome childhood
problems. Some games foster problem-solving and role-playing skills. There is even
evidence that gaming may make kids smarter. Many psychologists say that gaming may
contribute to better IQ scores and that measure quickness in solving pattern-recognition
problems. If anything, it probably means that they are better suited to being fighter pilots
or air traffic controllers.”
24
CHAPTER 10: REFERENCES
10.1 Refrences
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_console
 http://www.nintendo.com
 http://www.gamecubenetwork.com
 http://www.sony.com
 http://www.sony.net
 http://www.playstation.com
 http://www.sega.com
 http://www.dreamcast.com
 http://www.xbox.com
 http://www.microsoft.com/xbox/.
 http://www.ign.com
 http://www.gameguru.com

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Gaming Console Report By Fahad

  • 1. Seminar Report on GAMING CONSOLE Seminar Coordinators Submitted by Mr. R. K. Gupta Mohammad Fahad Mr. Mohd. Shafeeq Roll No.: 1205310024 B.Tech. III Year, VI Sem. Seminar Guide Mr. Mohd. Shafeeq Designation: Asst. Prof. Department of Computer Science & Engineering
  • 2. CERTIFICATE Certified that Mohammad Fahad (Roll No-1205310024) has presented seminar entitled “Gaming Console” for the award of Bachelors of Technology from Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow under my supervision during the year 2014-15, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelors of Technology and that the seminar has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree, diploma, fellowship or any other similar title. Signature of the Guide: Place: Date:
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere gratitude to my seminar guide, Mr. Mohd. Shafeeq, Asst. Prof., Department of Computer Science & Engineering, for his kind and able guidance for the completion of the seminar work. I am grateful to Ms. Madhulika Sharma, Head, department of Computer Science & Engineering for her excellent support during my work. Thanks to all my classmates for their love and support. Last, but not least I would like to thank all faculty members of the department of Computer Science & Engineering for their generous help in various ways for the completion of this seminar. Dated: (Mohammad Fahad) Roll No: 1205310014 Session: 2014-2015
  • 4. Contents CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------1 CHAPTER 2: WHY GAMING IS SO IMPORTANT 2.1 Why Gaming is so Important to the Computer Industry-----------------2 CHAPTER 3: HISTORY OF GAMING CONSOLES 3.1 History-------------------------------------------------------------------------4 3.2 Some Console Name With Their Release Year---------------------------6 CHAPTER 4: BASIC COMPONENTS OF A GAMING CONSOLE 4.1 Basic Components------------------------------------------------------------8 CHAPTER 5: A TYPICAL GAMING CONSOLE 5.1 JoyStick-----------------------------------------------------------------------10 New Addition------------------------------------------------------------12 CHAPTER 6: LATEST GAMING CONSOLES 6.1 PlayStation 4-----------------------------------------------------------------13 The Console--------------------------------------------------------------13 The Dual Shock 4-------------------------------------------------------14 The Play Station Camera-----------------------------------------------16 6.2 Xbox One---------------------------------------------------------------------16 The Console--------------------------------------------------------------17 The New Kinect---------------------------------------------------------19 The Controller-----------------------------------------------------------19
  • 5. 6.3 Comparison of PS4 & Xbox One------------------------------------------20 CHAPTER 7: BENEFITS OF GAMING 7.1 Benefits------------------------------------------------------------------------21 7.2 Benefits of Gaming from Medical Point of View----------------------21 CHAPTER 8: ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES 8.1 Console Advantages---------------------------------------------------------22 8.2 PC Advantages---------------------------------------------------------------22 CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSION 9.1 Conclusion--------------------------------------------------------------------23 CHAPTER 10: REFERENCES 10.1 References-------------------------------------------------------------------24
  • 6. Abstract Gaming consoles are one of the best digital entertainment media now available. Gaming consoles were designed for the sole purpose of playing electronic games and nothing else. A gaming console is a highly specialised piece of hardware that has rapidly evolved since its inception incorporating all the latest advancements in processor technology, memory, graphics, and sound among others to give the gamer the ultimate gaming experience. Thirty years ago there was a stark difference between computers and video game consoles. With the invention of the microprocessor personal computers became an affordable reality instead of science fiction, albeit a reality only pursued by hobbyists and skilled electricians. In contrast, the first video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey released by Ralph Baer in 1972, did not even have a processor. Instead it used a series of transistors and diodes and removable printed circuit boards that changed the hard--‐wired game logic. Unlike the computers of the era, the Magnavox Odyssey was affordable and could easily convert any television set into a gaming machine. Over the next twenty years game consoles evolved from simple machines that only had an extremely small library of a few, practically identical games, into specialized computers that hundreds of developers created games for. As technology advanced, and processors and memory became more affordable, the differences between game consoles and desktop computers started to disappear. The only difference is that the game console specialized in doing one thing, and doing it extremely well, so well in fact that even a child could use it.
  • 7. List of Figures Figure No. Name of Figure Page No. Figure 1 Gaming Console 1 Figure 2 Atari 2600 4 Figure 3 Internal View of Atari 2600 5 Figure 4 Components of Gaming Console 9 Figure 5 Console Element 10 Figure 6 A Early Atari Joystick 11 Figure 7 Sensitive Analog-to-Digital Converter 12 Figure 8 PlayStation 4 13 Figure 9 Xbox One 17 Figure 10 PS4 vs Xbox One 20
  • 8. 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Gaming consoles have proved themselves to be the best in digital entertainment. Gaming consoles were designed for the sole purpose of playing electronic games and nothing else. A gaming console is a highly specialized piece of hardware that has rapidly evolved since its inception incorporating all the latest advancements in processor technology, memory, graphics, and sound among others to give the gamer the ultimate gaming experience. Figure 1: Gaming Consoles A console is a command line interface where the personal computer game's settings and variables can be edited while the game is running. But a Gaming Console is an interactive entertainment computer or electronic device that produces a video display signal which can be used with a display device to display a video game. The term "video game console" is used to distinguish a machine designed for consumers to buy and use solely for playing video games from a personal computer, which has many other functions, or arcade machines, which are designed for businesses that buy and then charge others to play.
  • 9. 2 CHAPTER 2: WHY GAMING IS SO IMPORTANT 2.1 Why Gaming is so Important to the Computer Industry Research conducted in 2002 show that 60% of US residents aged six and above play computer games. Over 221 million computer and video games were sold in the U.S. Earlier research found that 35% of U.S. residents surveyed said that video games were the most entertaining media activity while television came in a distant second at 18%. The U.S. gaming industry reported sales of over $ 6.5 billion in the fiscal year 2002-03. Datamonitor estimates that online gaming revenues will reach $ 2.9 billion by 2005. Additional research has found that 90% of U.S. households with children has rented or owned a computer or video game and that U.S. children spend an average of 20 minutes a day playing video games. Research conducted by Pew Internet and American Life Project showed that 66% of American teenagers play or download games online. While 57% of girls play online, 75% of boys reported to having played internet games. This has great impact on influencing online game content and multiplayer capability on websites. The global computer and video game industry, generating revenue of over 20 billion U.S. dollars a year, forms a major part of the entertainment industry. The sales of major games are counted in millions (and these are for software units that often cost 30 to 50 UK pounds each), meaning that total revenues often match or exceed cinema movie revenues. Game playing is widespread; surveys collated by organisations such as the Interactive Digital Software Association indicate that up to 60 per cent of people in developed countries routinely play computer or video games, with an average player age in the mid to late twenties, and only a narrow majority being male. Add on those who play the occasional game of Solitaire or Minesweeper on the PC at work, and one observes a phenomenon more common than buying a newspaper, owning a pet, or going on holiday abroad. Why are games so popular? The answer to this question is to be found in real life. Essentially, most people spend much of their time playing games of some kind or another like making it through traffic lights before they turn red, attempting to catch the train or bus before it leaves, completing the crossword, or answering the questions correctly on Who Wants To Be A Millionaire before the contestants. Office politics forms a continuous, real-life strategy game which many people play, whether they want to or not, with player-definable goals such as ‘increase salary to next level’, ‘become the boss’, ‘score points off a rival colleague and beat them to that promotion’ or ‘get a better job elsewhere’. Gaming philosophers who frequent some of the many game-related online forums periodically compare aspects of gaming to real life–with the key difference being that when “Game Over” is reached in real life, there is no restart option. But why video games? Such entertainment and culture is not new, being available for home use for over 30 years. Rapid advances in graphics, processing power, game design and complexity have resulted in contemporary games rendering those of even just a few years ago crude and simplistic in comparison. Games are designed to sell, and therefore to be attractive, challenging, mind-engaging, stimulating, increasing curiosity, and inviting further exploration in addition to an urge for ‘just one more go’ - factors that have resulted in increased interest from the education, teaching and learning sectors. Video games are most often found on video gaming consoles that plug into your television. These are produced by four well-known companies; Microsoft, which
  • 10. 3 manufactures the XBox; Sony, which manufactures the PlayStation and the PlayStation 2; Nintendo, which manufactures the GameCube; and Sega, which manufactures the Dreamcast. The PC is a major host of games, many of which make use of the standard keyboard and mouse input configuration for games such as strategy simulations. Other media devices, such as Interactive TV, handheld PCs and Palm Pilots, and the newer generations of mobile phone, play host to increasingly complex games–basically, where there is a processor and a screen, so there is the potential for games which is usually quickly filled. It is important to note the increasing complexity of the aforementioned video gaming consoles, which increasingly resemble specialised, performance enhanced PCs - though without the cost, instability, long start-up waits, complexity and need for upgrades. The XBox, for example, contains a hard drive for saving game positions and tracks from your favourite CDs, which then form the background music of various games. These consoles also offer broadband capabilities for fast online gaming.
  • 11. 4 CHAPTER 3: HISTORY OF GAMING CONSOLE 3.1 History Video games have been around since the early 1970s. The first commercial arcade video game, Computer Space by Nutting Associates, was introduced in 1971. In 1972, Atari introduced Pong to the arcades. An interesting item to note is that Atari was formed by Nolan Bushnell, the man who developed Computer Space. He left Nutting Associates to found Atari, which then produced Pong, the first truly successful commercial arcade video game. That same year, Magnavox offered the first home video game system. Dubbed the Odyssey, it did not even have a microprocessor. The core of the system was a board with about four-dozen transistors and diodes. The Odyssey was very limited–it could only produce very simple graphics, and required that custom plastic overlays be taped over the television screen. In 1975, Atari introduced a home version of its popular arcade game, Pong. Pong was a phenomenal success, opening the door to the future of home video games. THE ATARI 2600 Although the Fairchild Channel F, released in 1976, was the first true removable game system, Atari once again had the first such system to be a commercial success. Introduced in 1977 as the Atari Video Computer System (VCS), the 2600 used removable cartridges, allowing a multitude of games to be played using the same hardware. Figure 2: Atari 2600 The hardware in the 2600 was quite sophisticated at the time, although it seems incredibly simple now. It consisted of: • MOS 6502 microprocessor • Stella, a custom graphics chip that controlled the synchronization to the TV and all other video processing tasks • 128 bytes of RAM • 4-kilobyte ROM-based game cartridges
  • 12. 5 Figure 3: Internal View of Atari 2600 The chips were attached to a small printed circuit board (PCB) that also connected to the joystick ports, cartridge connector, power supply and video output. Games consisted of software encoded on ROM chips and housed in plastic cartridges. The ROM was wired on a PCB that had a series of metal contacts along one edge. These contacts seated into a plug on the console's main board when a cartridge was plugged into the system. When power was supplied to the system, it would sense the presence of the ROM and load the game software into memory. Systems like the Atari 2600, its descendant, the 5200, Coleco's ColecoVision and Mattel's IntelliVision helped to generate interest in home video games for a few years. But interest began to wane because the quality of the home product lagged far behind arcade standards. But in 1985, Nintendo introduced the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), and everything changed. The NES introduced three very important concepts to the video game system industry:  Using a gamepad controller instead of a joystick  Creating authentic reproductions of arcade video games for the home system  Using the hardware as a loss leader by aggressively pricing it, then making a profit on the games themselves Nintendo's strategy paid off, and the NES sparked a revival in the home video game market that continues to thrive and expand even now. No longer were home video game systems looked upon as inferior imitations of arcade machines. New games that would have been impractical to create for commercial systems, such as Legend of Zelda, were developed for the home markets. These games enticed many people who had not thought about buying a home video game system before to purchase the NES. Nintendo continued to develop and introduce new game consoles. Other companies, such as Sega and Sony, then decided to create their own home video game systems.
  • 13. 6 3.2 Some Console Name With Their ReleaseYear Magnavox Odyssey August1972 Magnavox Atari 2600 / Atari Video Computer System (VCS) / Sears Video Arcade 1977 Atari Inc. Atari 2800 / Sears Video Arcade II (Japan Only) 1983 Atari, Inc Magnavox Odyssey² 1978 Magnavox / Philips Sega SG-1000 (Various Models) 1983 Sega Sega Master System (Various Models) 1985 Sega , Tec Toy Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) / Famicom (Various Models) 1983 Nintendo Sega CD / Mega CD (Various Models) 1992 (N. America) Sega Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) / Super Famicom (Various Models) 1990 Nintendo PlayStation 1994 Sony Nintendo 64 1996 Nintendo Dreamcast 1999 Sega
  • 14. 7 PlayStation 2 2000 Sony Xbox 2001 Microsoft PSX 2003 Sony Xbox 360 2005 Microsoft Wii 2006 Nintendo PlayStation 3 2006 Sony Wii U 2012 Nintendo PlayStation 4 2013 Sony Xbox One 2013 Microsoft
  • 15. 8 CHAPTER 4: BASIC COMPONENTS OF A GAMING CONSOLE 4.1 Basic Components The core components that all video game consoles have in common are:  User control interface  CPU  RAM  Software kernel  Storage medium for games  Video output  Audio output  Power supply The user control interface allows the player to interact with the video game. Without it, a video game would be a passive medium, like cable TV. Early game systems used paddles or joysticks, but most systems today use sophisticated game controllers with a variety of buttons and special features. The CPU is the heart of the video game console. It is a microprocessor that powers the game system. Microprocessors are required for the operation of any computational device. On a game console, the CPU coordinates the functions of the various hardware and software units. Ever since the early days of the Atari 2600, video game systems have always relied on RAM to provide temporary storage of games as they are being played. Without RAM, even the fastest CPU could not provide the necessary speed for an interactive gaming experience. The software kernel is the console's operating system. It provides the interface between the various pieces of hardware, allowing the video game programmers to write code using common software libraries and tools. The two most common storage technologies used for video games today are CD and ROM-based cartridges. Current systems also offer some type of solid-state memory cards for storing saved games and personal information. Flash memory cards can be used to store personal information and game progress. Newer systems like the Microsoft XBox and the Sony PlayStation 2 have DVD drives. All game consoles provide a video signal that is compatible with the television system. Depending on the country or region, this may be NTSC or PAL/SECAM. NTSC is commonly found throughout America while PAL/SECAM is the dominant TV system in Asia and Europe. Most consoles have a dedicated graphics processor that provides specialized mapping, texturing and geometric functions, in addition to controlling video output.
  • 16. 9 Another dedicated chip typically handles the audio processing chores and outputs stereo sound or, in some cases, digital surround sound. Modern game consoles have sound processors that have DTS functionality. Power supply is required in some form or the other by virtually any device today. Figure 4: Components of Gaming Console
  • 17. 10 CHAPTER 5: A TYPICAL GAMING CONSOLE Figure 5: Console Element 5.1 Joystick A joystick is used mainly to control on-screen movement in computer games. It feeds three kinds of information to the computer–horizontal movement, vertical movement, and on-off signals when the action buttons are pressed. Joysticks designed for flight-simulator players have an extra control called a top hat on the top of the stick, providing an additional set of thumb-operated horizontal and vertical movement controls. Joysticks were once the ultimate in controllers for electronic gamers, but other types of controllers are increasingly becoming popular. For driving games there are realistic steering wheels which often come with a separate foot pedal unit for accelerating and braking. The basic idea of a joystick is to translate the movement of a plastic stick into electronic information a console can process. Joysticks are used in all kinds of machines, including F-15 fighter jets, heavy earth moving equipment, cranes, bulldozers, wheelchairs and
  • 18. 11 industrial automation. The same principles applicable for game console joysticks also apply to other sorts of joysticks. The various joystick technologies differ mainly in how much information they pass on. The simplest joystick design, used in many early game consoles, is just a specialised electrical switch. This basic design consists of a stick that is attached to a plastic base with a flexible rubber sheath. The base houses a circuit board that sits directly underneath the stick. The circuit board is made up of several ‘printed wires’, which connect to several contact terminals. Ordinary wires extend from these contact points to the computer. FIGURE 6: A EARLY ATARI JOYSTICK The printed wires form a simple electrical circuit made up of several smaller circuits. The circuits just carry electricity from one contact point to another. When the joystick is in the neutral position–when one is not pushing one way or another–all but one of the individual circuits are broken. The conductive material in each wire doesn't quite connect, so the circuit can't conduct electricity. Each broken section is covered with a simple plastic button containing a tiny metal disc. When one moves the stick in any direction, it pushes down on one of these buttons, pressing the conductive metal disc against the circuit board. This closes the circuit–it completes the connection between the two wire sections. When the circuit is closed, electricity can flow down a wire from the game console, through the printed wire, and to another wire leading back to the console. When the game console picks up a charge on a particular wire, it knows that the joystick is in the right position to complete that particular circuit. Pushing the stick forward closes the forward switch, pushing it left closes the left switch, and so on. In some designs, the computer recognizes a diagonal position when the stick closes two switches (for example, closing the forward switch and the left switch simultaneously would mean a forward/leftward diagonal position). The firing buttons work exactly the
  • 19. 12 same way–when you press down, it completes a circuit and the console recognizes a fire command. New Additions One solution is to add a sensitive analog-to-digital converter chip in a specialised game adapter card or in the joystick itself. In this system, the converter spits out digital information directly to the computer, which improves the accuracy of the stick and reduces the work load on the host processor. These new joystick models can usually connect to USB ports, which also improves speed and reliability. Another solution is to skip the analog potentiometer technology all together. Many newer controllers use optical sensors to read stick movement digitally. The diagram below shows one common system. Figure 7: Sensitive Analog-to-Digital Converter In this system, the two shafts are connected to two slotted wheels. Each wheel is positioned between two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and two photocells (the graphic only shows one photocell, LED pair for the sake of simplicity). When light from each LED shines through one of the slots, it causes the photocell on the other side of the wheel to generate a small amount of current. When the wheel rotates slightly, it blocks the light and the photocell doesn't generate current (or it generates less current). When the shaft pivots, it spins the wheel, and the moving slots repeatedly break the light beam shining on the photocell. This causes the photocell to generate rapid pulses of current. Based on the number of pulses that the photocells have generated, the processor knows how far the stick has moved. By comparing the patterns coming from both photocells monitoring one wheel, the processor can figure out which way the stick is moving. This is the same basic system used in many computer mice.
  • 20. 13 CHAPTER 6: LATEST GAMING CONSOLES 6.1 PlayStation 4 Video game consoles have always struggled to keep up with rapid pace of innovation set forth by PCs, and more recently, mobile devices. In the last generation, the PlayStation 3 in particular was bound by proprietary processing technology and a rigid operating system that made software and new features arduous and costly to produce. The PlayStation 4 is the antithesis of the PS3. With powerful yet familiar processing architecture, a more open approach to software, and an impressive set of day- one features, the PS4 not only brings the PlayStation platform into a more modern era, but establishes a strong foundation for long-term evolution. Figure 8: PlayStation 4  The Console Jet black with sharp, angular edges and a blend of matte and high-gloss plastic, the PS4 distances itself from the curved lines found on the PS3, and instead follows the design language found on Sony’s broader range of smartphones, tablets, and home entertainment products. The result is a distinctly more mature, high-end look and feel. The thin LED illuminated strip that pierces through the topmost panel offers a burst of color and light, but also serves a practical purpose by indicating the various states of the system’s operation — orange while on standby, pulsing blue when powering up or shutting down, and a steady white while in use. On the front, two thin, semi-metallic capacitive buttons align with the light strip — one for toggling the system power, the other for ejecting discs from the slot-loading drive. It’s the most elegant console design in PlayStation history and one of the best looking products Sony has ever produced. But the PS4’s form is sometimes at odds with its function.
  • 21. 14 A cutaway wraps around the front and sides of the system, which breaks up the top and bottom panels and prevents the design from taking on too much of a nondescript brick-like trapezoid appearance. The gap houses the front-facing USB ports and slot-loading disc drive, with air intakes on the sides, which draws cool air through the system. Though a clever way to mask the ports and vents, the gap can create issues with certain types of USB storage. While average-sized USB cables or thin thumbdrives fit the slots, thicker devices may not work without an extension cable. What’s more, the thin touch-enabled buttons on the front are extremely narrow and tough to identify, and the choice to put the sole thermal exhaust at the back of the system will centralize heat where ventilation will be most limited in entertainment centers. Ultimately, each decision is in service of the PS4’s unbelievably compact form factor. Measuring at roughly 2” thick, 10.8” wide, and 12” deep, the PS4 is 35% thinner and takes up considerably less surface area than the Xbox One. It’s even slightly thinner than the PS3 Super Slim. In other words, the PS4 is entering the new generation with a form factor smaller than what had previously taken six years to reach with the PS3. Even more impressive is how quiet and relatively cool the PS4 remains throughout hours of use. Although by no means silent, the PS4’s noise profile never seems to exceed a gentle hum, even when running the most GPU-taxing titles. When placed on the entertainment center eight feet from my couch, it was hard to even notice. Under the hood, there’s the much touted AMD-based APU and 8GBs of GDDR5 memory, which is evidenced by the fast, fluid performance of the OS and various apps, and of course, the substantial leap in graphics. Sony has severed all ties with non-digital I/O, offering only HDMI video/audio output, optical digital for surround sound audio, a ethernet port, and an AUX jack for the new PlayStation Camera. There are also two USB 3.0 ports on the front, though as of launch, the PS4 lacks support for external storage devices that would take advantage of the increased data transfer speeds. However, each system ships with 500GBs of storage that’s upgradable using off-the-shelf parts — a notable edge over the Xbox One. In face of the PS4’s other performance-focused features, it’s unusual that Sony has outfitted the PS4 with a 802.11a/b/g/n Wi-Fi chip instead of the latest standard, 802.11ac, which offers significant gains in range and signal strength. It would have added to the cost of the system and market penetration for 802.11ac products is still burgeoning, but Sony’s aspirations for Gaikai cloud streaming and remote play would have reaped the benefits in the long-term.  The Dual Shock 4 The DualShock 4 resolves just about every common criticism of the DualShock 3, and in my view, ranks alongside the exceptional Xbox 360 gamepad. It’s bigger, more ergonomic, and at long last, has concave thumbsticks and triggers. Whereas the DualShock 3’s handles were small and its convex triggers were counterintuitive, the DualShock 4 feels substantial and conforms to your hands with ridged indented thumbsticks and flat triggers that wrap around the pads of your fingers. The handles are approximately half an inch longer and have a wider, more rounded shape that rests comfortably in your palms. The thumbsticks are shorter
  • 22. 15 with more resistance, creating a better sense of precision and responsiveness. The buttons of the D-pad are slightly larger and pivot inward for better tactile differentiation, while the X, square, triangle, and circle buttons are largely the same. What’s most striking about the DualShock 4 is how everything from the D-pad to the action buttons — and even the center trackpad — are within effortless reach. I’ve never had to arch my thumbs or index fingers to reach the shoulders or home button, which now falls between the two analog sticks. Simply put, the DualShock 4 feels fantastic. In addition to the significant ergonomic leap, the DualShock 4 also adds new functionality, most notably wireless game audio. Using the standard headphone jack built into the base of the controller, you can plug in any standard headset or earbuds and access in-game audio, as well as chat. While it lacks the surround- sound processing found on the mixamps of third-party gaming headsets, the audio quality is surprisingly good (even if the included single-earbud set is not). I’ve noticed odd feedback issues with certain headsets, like Apple’s earpods, while most work just fine. It’s by no means a replacement for high-end Astros or Turtle Beach headphones, but it’s more than sufficient for general use and cuts down on wire clutter considerably. There’s also the new integrated speaker, but usage at launch is sparse. Of the games that do take advantage, very few make a compelling case for its inclusion. The controller speaker will most often just mimic an in-game effect, but in a diminished, tinny tone. Support for the built-in trackpad is even rarer, and most of the time it’s simply used as just a large button to replace the Select button or, in the case of Killzone: Shadow Fall, as an additional D-pad. What’s worse, it’s not even used in applications where it would make the most sense, like the web browser. Instead of using the trackpad to control the cursor, the function is mapped to the left thumbstick. But no feature is more underutilized and seemingly superfluous than the lightbar. The next-generation manifestation of the PS3’s PS Move controllers, the lightbar was clearly designed to work alongside the PlayStation Camera and help identify players for motion-based games. But with plans to bundle the sensor in with every system scrapped prior to launch, its utility is now largely aesthetic unless you buy the add-on. While the lightbar can be used to assign players to specific controllers or react to the beat in Sound Shapes, it’s good for little more than novelty. After all, it’s hard to notice small glowing effects when your focus is largely on your TV, let alone a light that’s not even facing you. We’re likely to see greater adoption and subsequently more alluring uses for the DualShock 4’s unique features as the platform ages, but for now, there’s not much use for them. In terms of battery life, the DualShock 4 can run for anywhere from eight to nine hours on a single charge, which is considerably less than the DualShock 3’s advertised 30-hour lifespan. Still, it’s more than ample charge time for even the most enthusiastic players, and now that the PS4 can recharge controllers while in standby mode, it’s fairly easy to keep your DualShock 4 juiced up.
  • 23. 16  The PlayStation Camera Like the DualShock 4’s lightbar, the PlayStation Camera is clearly part of a long- term vision not yet fully realized. The optional $59.99 add-on can be used to log in to the system using visual recognition, issue voice commands, motion detection for select games, and video broadcasting, but at launch, software support and the effectiveness of each function is so limited that it’s hard to recommend the purchase. Users can calibrate the camera to recognize them once the system boots up, but rather than just recognizing a player and logging in, the PS4 requires you to raise a DualShock 4 into view as an added authentication step. Although reasonably precise and responsive, the process is less intuitive and effective than just using the gamepad to begin with. The camera also listens for certain voice commands, which can be used to launch a game or app, power down the system, take screenshots, or swap users. For the most part, the system detects vocal cues rapidly and accurately, but environments with louder ambient noise can throw it off. What’s worse, the camera can take commands from anyone within range of its microphones, making it easy for unscrupulous housemates to disrupt the experience. The camera is inherently useful for motion-based games like Just Dance 2014, and in that use case it performs well, but the number of games that make use of or require it is still a small fraction of those available. The camera’s lone killer app, however, is providing a picture-in-picture video feed while streaming gameplay to Twitch TV or Ustream. With the camera connected, you can add a personal spin to your livestream by offering a windowed view of yourself as you play. That alone may not be enough to warrant the $60 price of admission, though. The PlayStation Camera could become a larger part of the software ecosystem and PS4 experience, but at the moment, a Kinect killer it is not. 6.2 XBOX One Considering the fact that it has been almost a year since the console was first launched, quite a few things have changed, but the experience has more or less remained the same. Also keep in mind that the Xbox One's TV functionality won't work in India at launch, but we will provide more details once Microsoft outlines their plans. The Xbox One is at odds with itself. As a gamer, I would have been happy with a more powerful Xbox 360 clone that tapped into today's vast social ecosystem. But Microsoft is clearly trying to both keep me happy and to reach beyond the traditional gamer, to the vast expanse of people that spend more time watching Netflix, Hulu Plus, or Amazon Prime on game consoles than they do playing. I, too, have grown tired of waiting for a smarter television screen, constantly switching between my Apple TV, Xbox 360, and even PC. So when Microsoft said Xbox One would bring gesture control, voice commands, and blockbuster games to my living room, that all-in-one strategy completely resonated with my needs.
  • 24. 17 Figure 9: XboxOne  The Console Function over form takes the stage with Microsoft's simple, boxy new console. Sleek black and covered with heat-dissipating vents, it is the American muscle car of console designs. It wants to be seen and doesn't care about how much space it takes up. It fits in with modern living rooms, mimicking common designs with Blu-ray players and audio receivers. You could say that's part of the plan, but the more likely story is Microsoft learned its lesson from the more artful Xbox 360 design, which suffered issues from overheating. The front of the Xbox One is beveled on the bottom to reduce its forward-facing profile, which is completed by a thin, slot-loading Blu-ray drive and capacitive-touch power button. It beams a bright, white Xbox logo and is almost too responsive – a brush of the skin will power the system on or off. It's a non-issue for most, where the console will sit permanently in the distance, but in close quarters it could lead to minor frustration. The left side panel contains both a high-speed USB 3.0 input and the controller sync button – I find both perplexing. It was initially difficult to find the sync button, and as for the USB, it seems a poor choice to place this more "convenient" USB on the side, where adding a thumb drive or cable will only further increase the width of the system. In a home entertainment cabinet, you'll likely be fighting for space with the interior wall. Thankfully, the back of the Xbox One is loaded with two additional USB ports. However, right now, you can’t use these for much. While it packs a 500GB hard disk, this internal drive cannot be replaced or added to, unlike the PlayStation 4’s user-replaceable drive. (Microsoft says it plans to support external storage in the future.) Now is a good time to mention there's no central software view of how much space you're taking up on the hard drive as you install games or apps or download and record video. You have to navigate through your games and apps
  • 25. 18 individually to determine the sizes, all of which is required to be installed rather than streamed from the disc. Storage management is a standard in today's consoles, smartphones and tablets, and PCs, making it more apparent that Microsoft launched a console with software that isn't totally ready for what the Xbox One’s trying accomplish. The back of the box also contains one of the biggest distinguishing features: HDMI pass-through. This is where your TV cable or satellite box connects, but technically you can put any HDMI signal through it. (We tested game consoles, but there's significant lag so this isn't recommended.) You could easily run something like Apple TV or a PC through it, and still get the advantage of snapping to a second app or getting game invites. Snapping opens a panel on the right side of the screen. However, a dealbreaker for some is that the HDMI signal doesn't pass through when the Xbox One is off. Given how simple it is to turn it on, though, I actually don't see this as an inconvenience, other than when major updates could potentially interrupt viewing. If you're having trouble communicating with your devices, there's an IR blaster port on the back as well - but the Kinect is an incredible universal remote, a feat it achieves by reflecting a swarm of IR beams across your room. It rarely fails. Also, while the back of the box has an optical output, it only supports 5.1 and 7.1 uncompressed signals, and not Dolby. Many new receivers support uncompressed formats, and Xbox One does support DTS as another surround option. It's an annoyance, but only a minor one that Microsoft (again) intends to fix. Be sure to look into the surround-sound beta feature in the system settings if you're trying to get multi-channel audio out of your TV set-top box. For connecting to your home network, the Xbox One comes outfitted with both an Ethernet port and 802.11n wi-fi (but notably not the latest 802.11ac protocol or Bluetooth). It also supports Wi-Fi Direct for streamlined communication with your tablet or phone’s SmartGlass apps. From streaming video playback to remote control functions via Wi-Fi Direct, your data is more likely to avoid interruption. Importantly, the Xbox One remains quiet during operation and stays cool while watching TV and running most entertainment apps. Once the graphics processors kick in for gaming, the box can get pretty warm to touch, but so far this has been a non-issue. The giant exhaust on top of the console seems to moderate the heat well enough. Finally, under the hood, lies the Xbox One's most important assets: 8GBs of DDR3 memory, accompanied by 32MBs of eSRAM and an eight-core custom combination CPU and integrated graphics processor. It's an architecture built around several OS components that make background processing of TV and multitasking with other apps efficient. DDR3 is not cutting-edge, however, and the system architecture is theoretically more bottlenecked than its main competitor, the PlayStation 4. It's led to several launch games running at 720p (or 900p) instead of full 1080p. Will you notice? Possibly, especially if you've seen the 1080p version; or, if you're a videophile and can sense the softness that lesser pixel density brings. Games still look dramatically better than Xbox 360 versions, but the larger your screen, the more you'll notice when they’re running at lower- than-native resolutions. I expect most games will be 1080p in the future, but it's an issue for now. Still, it could be an ongoing disadvantage that the theoretical limits of the PlayStation 4 are higher than the Xbox One.
  • 26. 19  The New Kinect While Kinect's stability and functionality has a long way to go, throw out whatever concept you may have about the original Kinect with Xbox 360. It's a toy compared to the impressively wide 1080 HD camera, multi-microphone array peripheral that is bundled with the Xbox One (and accounts for much of the price difference between it and the PlayStation 4). The new Kinect also features an IR camera to aid vision, even seeing in the dark. Likewise, the aforementioned IR blasters that use basic remote commands for your TV and audio-visual receiver, if you have one. In terms of specifications, it is one of the most impressive peripherals ever bundled with a console, and in the long run I think it’s worth the extra expense. How the software ultimately interfaces with it is another story, but there's not much I can say to knock it. It even features onboard processing, which might explain the thick, roughly 10- foot cable you'll need to tether it to your Xbox One. So, something to consider is how far you intend to place the Xbox One itself from your TV. While you can disconnect the peripheral, I don’t recommend it, as it removes many of the interface advantages - voice commands, hands-free voice chat, video calling with Skype, visual sign-in, and more.  The Controller It's no surprise that Microsoft's iteration on the popular Xbox One controller has been subtle. Overall, all these small additions and changes are for the better. For starters, it's got a real D-pad, and it's hard to imagine how we lived without it for so long on the previous console. The controller is lightweight and, at least for me, the grip is better. These slight adjustments in profile and surface material make for a more elegant controller. As for the two analog thumb sticks, they're still concave and more rigid to touch, with a very sharp interior edge, which helps keep your thumbs from slipping off. I don’t mind the edges, but I've heard complaints. The triggers and bumpers on the back of the controller are perhaps the most changed. The triggers have more action, which is an indisputable improvement, especially for shooters and racers. They also feature a slight bevel on the outer edge, which helps your fingers rest more comfortably. The bumpers are nearly the same as before, also featuring slight bevels. Enthusiasts will notice they have a discernable click to them, which I actually like. It's a lot of the same, but it's certainly better. The big difference is the inclusion of the rumble triggers. Each trigger now features individual and programmable response motors in addition to the handles. While it's not yet a widely used feature, my experience with Forza Motorsport 5 has sold me on the feature. You can feel the difference between sliding around left banks or spinning out. The vibrations can be subtle or intentionally agitating, which truly adds another layer to the experience. Meanwhile, the battery life is exceptional, but a major oversight is the lack of a battery level indicator. You'll have to use AA batteries, a play-and-charge kit, or keep the controller wired (not advised). I know many dread AA batteries, but one fresh set will power the controller for more hours than I've been able to test (which was made somewhat difficult by the fact that Kinect sees when you're holding the controller and powers it down when you’re not). Sometimes it did annoy me, however, as powering on the controller takes time. In the future, I hope they add settings so I can personalize the standby.
  • 27. 20 And, lastly, the included headset provides a ton of value. The Skype-codec powered audio is clearer than ever, but the build quality of the set itself is excellent considering it's bundled in. The new data port creates a lack of backwards compatibility with better headsets that the Xbox 360 support, and it means you may need to wait for new models. Unlike the PS4, you cannot simply stream game audio through a pair of headphones connected to the controller, which is very useful in quieter environments. 6.3 Comparison of PS4 & Xbox One Figure 10: PS4 vs Xbox One
  • 28. 21 CHAPTER 7: BENEFITS OF GAMING 7.1 Benefits  Games are sets of restrictive rules designed to create an artificial challenge that requires specific application of skill to surmount.  Brains are trained to do multitasking.  Games can help improve both visual attention and visual acuity  Games can help adults process information much faster and improve their fundamental abilities to reason and solve problems.  Enhance split-second decision making and even, potentially, boost auditory perception.  Building Confidence.  Encouraging Cooperation and Teamwork.  Desire to beat high score.  RPG’s allow players to create their own character and gives an emotional attachment to the character.  The desire to find the clue and move to the next level.  People are free to do whatever they to do and no one is going to judge them.  Relationships provided by the online games.  The thrill of discovering places . It allows one to explore new environments and they can interact with them. 7.2 Benefits of Gaming from Medical Point of View  Absorption in a game distracts the mind from pain and discomfort.  Playing games could help children suffering from Attention deficit disorders.  Games help people who are recovery from physical injuries gain motor skills and coordination too. Now doctors are using in physiotherapy too.  It helps players to improve hand-eye co-ordination and help players gain many skills.  Modern fast-paced action video games in particular first-person shooter games may sharpen your vision, improve your attention and working memory.
  • 29. 22 CHAPTER 8: ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES 8.1 Console Advantages  Almost every game released will come out on consoles.  You get to play with a controller for more competitive gaming and better first person shooter experiences for games like call of duty and battlefield.  Updates for console games come in first before pc games get updated.  Huge fan base and social networks like xbox live and playstation plus (get to play with your friends easily and effortlessly) .  Many add-ons to games (extra content).  Cheaper than pc's (cost a lot of money to build a quality pc for gaming).  More people play consoles than pc so you have a lot more competition .  Party chat on xbox let's you sit and talk to your friends (very fun) .  Amazing graphics (not as good as pc though) . 8.2 PC Advantages  Much better graphics than consoles on every game .  Sometimes it is very fun to play with a mouse and keyboard although difficult to get used to it gets very fun after a while .  You pay a lot of money for your pc but it will surely last you a long time (probably longer than a console would last) .  Has many fun exclusives like (Day Z Arma 3, Marvel Heroes) also you can download and pirate games for free (not recommending just saying) .  Many downloadable pc only games that are not on consoles.  Many websites where you can play fun (app-like)games such as addictinggames.com  Use of steam (http://store.steampowered.com/) .
  • 30. 23 CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSION 9.1 Conclusion On the whole, gaming consoles are the better option in the long run. After all, they are designed for gaming right from scratch. This has helped the industry understand the basic requirements of 3D and multimedia applications. Without a doubt, this will affect the designs of PCs in the future and make them more gamer friendly. “Gaming is indeed heading in the direction of becoming a mainstream form of entertainment. Gaming experience drives technology requirements and in turn contributes to the growth of the IT industry. For gaming there is a need for better graphics and better storage to be able to handle heavy data. As games become increasingly complex, peripherals and technology can provide significant assistance to the gamer, enhancing the gaming experience.” “Through various experiments, scientists across the world have started to study children’s brains to understand what goes on during the hours they spend on gaming. It seems clear that children are growing adept at handling visual information and multitasking, making group online gaming actually help some kids overcome childhood problems. Some games foster problem-solving and role-playing skills. There is even evidence that gaming may make kids smarter. Many psychologists say that gaming may contribute to better IQ scores and that measure quickness in solving pattern-recognition problems. If anything, it probably means that they are better suited to being fighter pilots or air traffic controllers.”
  • 31. 24 CHAPTER 10: REFERENCES 10.1 Refrences  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_console  http://www.nintendo.com  http://www.gamecubenetwork.com  http://www.sony.com  http://www.sony.net  http://www.playstation.com  http://www.sega.com  http://www.dreamcast.com  http://www.xbox.com  http://www.microsoft.com/xbox/.  http://www.ign.com  http://www.gameguru.com