Thesis book BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14


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BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14

Thesis book BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14

  1. 1. DedicationEvery challenging work needs self efforts as well asguidance of elders especially those who were very closeto our heart.My humble effort I dedicate to my sweet and lovingFather & Mother,Whose affection, love, encouragement and prays of dayand night make me able to get such success and honor,Along with all hard working and respectedTeachers
  2. 2. ABSTRACTThe study emphasis on the industrial health and safety, fire fighting techniques, work permits,ppe’s, environmental conditions and health procedure of the organizations The industrial health andsafety is being adopted throughout the world because it is a cost saving option and providing shieldto the workers and this work has high magnitude and significance.The study was carried on at National Refinery Limited (NRL) Karachi situated at KorangiIndustrial area near the Chorangi commonly known as Chamra Chorangi. National RefineryLimited (NRL) was incorporated on august 19, 1963 as a public limited company. Government ofPakistan took over the management of NRL under the economic reforms order. The refinerycomplex comprises of three refineries, consisting of two lube refineries and a fuel refinery where asproducts are grouped into three categories:As a result of these products stack emission, waste water effluent, noise pollution health and safetythreats remain there, which is required to analyze and mitigate by HSE Engineers. These HSEissues are caused to serious incidents and hazards if not managed/tackle properly.We observe during the project study that Noise level is high near the machinery compare to theother sounding areas and the stack gaseous emissions were found within the NEQs limits where asthe chances of incidents remain present in such a big complex and its happening as well but glad toknow that these were not the sever nature that can cause permanent disabability in spite of this theyfocused on the health issue of their precious workers.In short this organization established within an aims to facilitate and promote environmental,healthcare and education awareness among the people and the visitors. Further improvement can beachieved to adopt the required international standards and by drillings activities.
  3. 3. LIST FO ABRIVIATIONSNRL = National Refinery LimitedNEQs = National Environmental Quality StandardsEPA = Environmental Protection AgencyPEPA = Pakistan Environmental Protection AgencyUAE = United Arab EmiratesAPI = American Institute of PetroleumISO = International Standardization OrganizationOHSAS = Occupational Health & Safety Advisory ServicesHSE = Health Safety & EnvironmentCOD = Chemical Oxygen DemandBOD = Biological Oxygen DemandTSS = Total Suspended SolidsTDS = Total Dissolved SaltpH = Percentage of Hydrogen IonsBTX = Benzene Toluene XyleneLBO = Lube Base OilMg/l = Milligram per literKg = Kilogram*C = Degree CentigradeCl = ChloridesPb = LeadCO = Carbon Mono OxideCO2 = Carbon DioxideSOx = Oxides of SulfurNOx = Oxides of NitrogenH2O = Water (vapors)
  4. 4. LIST OF FIGURES3.1 National Oil Refineries Limited (NRL) Karachi (00)3.2 Policy Statement of NRL (00)4.1 Personal Protective Equipments and their Use (00)4.2 Eye Protector Safety Glass (00)4.3 Ear Protector or Ear Plugs (00)4.4 Multipurpose Head and Ear Protector (00)4.5 Arms and Hand Protector Safety Gloves (00)4.6 Protective Clothes and High Visible Safety Apparel (00)4.7 Foot Protector or Safety Shoes (00)4.8 Fire brigade vehicle uses during firing for water showering (00)4.9 Fire fighters during operation (00)4.10 Controlling equipments like nozzles to increase the velocity of water (00)4.11 Workers work in Confined Space (00)4.12 Hot work is doing in a Confined Space (00)
  5. 5. LIST OF TABLESTable 5.1 High Noise Level of working area near the Machines (00)Table 5.2 Low Noise Level in open area and working places awayfrom heavy machines (00)Table 5.3 Time duration with Noise Level (00)Table 5.4 Determination of Stacks gaseous emission inNational Oil Refineries (00)Table 5.5 Determination of Stacks Particulate matters emission in NRL (00)Table 5.6 Ambient Air Quality of different area of NRL (00)Table 5.7 Ambient Particulates Matters Monitoring in NRL (00)Table 5.8 Determination of amount of particles in waste effluent (00)Table 5.9 Determination of VOCs and H2S inside the refinery (00)Table 5.10 Month wise status of incidents and loss time injuries in NRL (00)
  6. 6. LIST OF GRAPHSFigure 5.1 Graphical representation of Noise Variation and comparedwith NEQ (00)Figure 5.2 Graphical comparison of stacks Particulate matters emissionwith NEQs (00)Figure 5.3 Temperature value of NRL with compared with NEQs (00)Figure 5.4 Amount of Total Dissolved solids of NRL compared with NEQs (00)Figure 5.5 Values of COD, BOD and TDS in NRL compared with NEQs (00)Figure 5.6 Value of Grease and Oil in NRL compared with NEQs (00)Figure 5.7 Graphical Representation of monthly number of incidents in NRL (00)
  7. 7. ACKOWLEDGEMENTNo work would be completed without sacrifice, motivation and encouragement.We are greatly thankful to almighty Allah who gave us such strength and enabled us to accomplishthis energy intensive and demanding work successfully.To complete this work we are greatly thankful from core of our heart to our supervisorMr. Junaid Ahsan ArainLecturer Energy & Environment Engineering department QUEST Nawabshah for his valuablecooperation, precious guidance, suggestion, constructive and comprehensive information alongwith continuous encouragement during the whole work.We are also the great thankful to the administration of National Refinery Limited. Deep thanks toEngr: Hafiz Waseem our field supervisor and Mr. Abdul Rasheed Fire Fighter Specialist inNational Refinery Limited.In Last we exchange our words of thankful to all of our friends and elders who boost us sprit towork day and night to achieve our long standing desires and to complete this work.Last but not least THANKS to all of youZakir Raza (G.L)Atiqur Rehman (A.G.L)Rao Babar (Member)Suhail Younus (Member)
  8. 8. CHAPTER NO 1INTRODUCTION1.1 INTRODUCTION TO STUDYIndustrial health and safety has paramount importance because all the working process, productsand environmental conditions based on it.For the auditing of any industry various activities related to health and safety issues are beingobserved, that the organization either flowing in proper direction smoothly and safely or not, andthis analyze gives us the outcome which reflects the current scenario of the organization andassociated problems in the shape of Health injury, waste water (contaminated water), stackemissions etc. to manipulate these issues different techniques are involved which contribute toreduce the hazards which seems to associated by improper working and misuse ofequipments/devices etc.1.1.2 INTRODUCTION TO OIL REFINERIESAn oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into moreuseful petroleum products, such as Gasoline, Diesel fuel, Asphalt, Heating oil, and Liquidpetroleum gas (LPG). Different product of crude oil is obtained by distillation process wheredifferent products are separated at different temperatures because of difference of boiling points.Oil refineries are typically large sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping runningthroughout, carrying steam and fluids between large chemical processing units.Raw crude oil is not useful in natural form as it comes out of the ground. For making it useful forhumans, the oil needs to be separated into parts and refined before its utilization as fuel andlubricants. Some of the by products of crude oil can be used in petrochemical processes to formother useful materials such as Plastic and Fiber. Oil refineries are large scale plants where severalhundred thousand barrels of crude oil is processed per day. This high capacity also makes processoptimization and advanced process control very desirable
  9. 9. 1.1.3 ABOUT THESIS WORKAs we know that our thesis work is on “Occupational Health and Safety (HSE) in National OilRefineries Limited” (NRL). During working in oil refineries there is maximum chance ofunpleasant event or chance of accidents. So we visited and analyze the HSE standers, workingprocedures, availability of personal protective equipments and their proper utilization in NRL.During the whole month of June we studied and visited the industry with Hafiz Waseem. In ourthesis work we observe the working conditions in Oil refineries and also rate of accidents andprobability of accidents. In our case study of occupational health and safety we will provideinformation about National Oil Refinery, Safety equipments, fire and fire fighting techniques,nature of accidents, and cause of accidents, techniques to prevent accidents and proper equipmentsfor specific accidents.1.1.4 SCOPE OF WORKIndustry means combination of machines, motors and workers. During work there will be chance ofaccidents like explosion, broken of rotating parts of machine, problem of high level of noise thatcause of headache and fatigue etc. To minimize these factors study of occupational health andsafety is very necessary and best for providing safer work place to workers and mitigate the rate ofaccidents. Human life is very precious and valuable for everyone and some accidents accurseduring work cause death and failure of body parts like legs or hands can be damage, for providinginformation about safety equipments and their proper utilization, intensity of accidents and alsopreventions. HSE is very important for any type of work in any industry to provide safer andefficient work also to mitigate the rate of accidents.Through ensuring that employees’ tasks are safe, meaningful and conducive to the development oftheir personalities, We seeks to create a work environment that fosters creativity as well asconstructive and critical thinking, good learning environment by ensuring that courses, welfareprovisions and the physical environment are adapted to their needs. The work and learningenvironment must support and promote its users’ capacity to work and learn, safeguard their healthand well-being, and protect them against work-related illnesses and accidents.
  10. 10. 1.1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF WORKStudy of Health and safety plays an important role in working place in any type of industries toprovide safer working place and safe the valuable life of workers and also provide basicinformation about safety equipments.The health, safety and environmental (HSE) work at NRL shall constitute continuous andsystematic efforts that are integrated into the primary activities. HSE-related problems should besolved consecutively at the lowest possible level, in order to prevent employees from developingwork-related illnesses or suffering work-related accidents, and to prevent the activities from havinga negative impact on the environment and workers. We know that if there is unpleasant case accruelike firing, destruction in moving part of machine and problem of chemical leakage etc causesnumber of death and loss of valuable products, raw materials and effect the over all structure ofwork and work efficiency, to avoid such type of accidents and loss HSE department is varyessential and beneficial for plant.HSE department or safety engineers provide us safer working place which is beneficial for workeras well as industry and management to create awareness among employers and workers on theimportance of OH practices in industry to preserve and protect the health of workers from beingaffected by hazards in the working environment. To investigate the effect of specific hazard on thehealth of workers so that the short and long term measures can be taken to control the hazard.1.1.6 PROBLEM STATEMENTTo ensure the health and safety of NRL’s employees which are engaged to perform their duties inthe field, confined space or somewhere else in the premises of NRL for them it remains a hot issueas they work in the conducive environment than production will automatically increase. Once theconducive environment is developed it remains for longer time period which not only give thesafety to the worker but also helps to build up their moral once invest in the side of OccupationalHealth Safety it must give payback to the higher authorities in the shape of minimum chances tohappen accidents if not than may face injuries in the shape of temporary and/or permanentdisabilities, asthma, suffocation, skin burning, cardiovascular diseases, fatigue etc.
  11. 11. 1.1.7 DESCRIPTION OF CHAPTERS:For the partial requirement of bachelor degree this thesis comprises of several theoreticalaspects like health and safety issue, aims of HSE, Pakistan conditions of OSHAS, safety act,personal protective equipments, fire fighting and techniques, work permit, risk assessmentregarding occupational health and safety each of these aspect give clean and crystal picture thathow much importance they exist in the completion of case study.Chapter 1IntroductionIt contain those topic which are consider helpful for thefulfillment of project area study, these are background, scope ofstudy, objectives and other terms.Chapter 2Literature ReviewWork, References and publications of those who have beenworked on industrial health and safety.Chapter 3Project AreaGeneral description of about those term which have significancein the field of occupational health and safety like work permit,PPE’s, fire fighting techniques at working areaChapter 4Importance of HS& ETheoretical work related to HSEChapter 5Experimental WorkInvestigations, survey and questioner regarding to HSE in theorganization (NRL) and collection of data by utilizingequipments.Chapter 6ConclusionConclusion and recommendation towards the working conditionsand environment and final result.. 1.1.8 OBJETIVES OF WORK The objectives of the work are:• To analyze the health hazards and potential of hazards during working in Oil Refineries.• To analyze the HSE standers and availability of safety equipments for prevention ormitigation of the intensity of accidents.• To provide the basic information of PPE’s and proper use of PPE’s for specific hazards.• To analyze the accident rate and to collect the HSE reports of NRL.CHAPTER NO 2
  12. 12. LITERATURE REVIEWVarious works have been carried out for the safety of the workers and also environmental safety toprotect precious life of the workers as well as working area. Many scholars worked and give theirvaluable ideas related to Occupational Health and Safety. Their articles are briefly discussed below:Chun-Chieh Chi, He researched on industrial health and safety and states that petrochemical andpetroleum industries are two of the main sources of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Data used inthis study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in closeproximity to oil refinery plants. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants wassignificantly higher in mothers living near the oil refinery plants than in control mothers in Taiwan.After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status,maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.14 (95% CI=1.01–1.28) fordelivery of preterm infants for mothers living near oil refinery plants. These data provide furthersupport for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancies [01].Goldenhar, Linda M et al they studied often lacked a theoretical basis; they used small samples,and tested interventions lacking the intensity to cause the desired change. Most designs were eitherno experimental or quasi-experimental with uncontrolled sources of bias. Recommendations forfuture research include methods of minimizing the problems and biases caused by theseweaknesses. No methodological issues such as the costs of implementing interventions and thecultural and political dimensions of the workplace are also addressed. Although manymethodological issues associated with field-based research are not easily addressed, researchersshould make a stronger attempt to address these issues if the field of occupational health and safetyintervention research is to be productive [02].Craig Zwerling MD, PhD, MPH, he searched on Occupational injuries continue to exact a greattoll on American workers and their employers—the physical and financial costs are enormous.However, in the current political climate, few employers or regulatory agencies will implement
  13. 13. injury prevention interventions without specific evidence of their effectiveness. This paper reviewsthe literature on the design, conduct, and evaluation of occupational injury interventions. Ourreview suggests that randomized controlled trials are rare and also notes that the quasi-experimentalstudies in the literature often use the weakest designs. We recommend a hierarchical approach toevaluating occupational injury interventions—beginning with qualitative studies, following up withsimple quasi-experimental designs using historical controls, continuing with more elaborate quasi-experimental designs comparing different firms experience, and, when necessary, implementingrandomized controlled trials [03].Chrysanthi Lekka, Caroline Sugden they worked and suggested that there are a number ofpractices that organizations can adopt to achieve high levels of reliability and safety. Thesepractices are often discussed in the context of major incidents to highlight the safety standards thathigh hazard organizations should try to emulate. However, previous research has predominantlyfocused on non-profit organizations, and comparatively little research has examined whether highreliability practices may be meaningfully applied to commercial contexts. This paper addresses thisgap by using a qualitative approach to explore the types of reliability-enhancing practicesimplemented in a UK-based oil refinery in its attempt to achieve its ethos of ‘safe and reliableoperations’. The findings illustrate the successful application of reliability-enhancing practices inseveral domains, including: hazard identification and control; emergency preparedness andcollection; and analysis of incidents and near misses. Management commitment to safety emergedas an important factor underpinning the successful implementation of reliability-enhancingpractices, highlighting its potential significance in the context of commercial organizations.However, promoting an open reporting culture and maintaining high levels of managementvisibility may be some of the challenges encountered by organizations striving to implementreliability-enhancing practices [04].Tarja Ketola studied and stated that it regularly results in environmental shocks and stresses and inpublic outrage. Strategic planning has become very complex in practice as the traditional politicaland economic factors to be taken into account have now been accompanied by environmental
  14. 14. factors. This paper examines the strategic environmental planning process in two companies withdifferent approaches to change.It seems that top-down sophisticated strategic environmental planning leaves room for powerstruggles which may compromise the environmental behavior of a company. In addition, there isoften a gap between environmental scenarios and environmental policies which should be filledwith a vision. A bottom-up approach may lead to better environmental performance because thereis little room for political games and because the operating unit can respond directly to theenvironmental pressure exerted by its interest-groups. Yet the lack of scenarios and visions in abottom-up approach reduces the operating units chances to make long-term plans, and allows itonly to react to changes in its business environment. In general, companies should enrich theirstrategic environmental planning with visioning and link these two with rigorous strategicenvironmental leadership [05].Faisal I Khan and SA Abbasi studied and state that in their research article of Risk Assessment inChemical Process Industries the use of a new computer-automated tool TORAP (Tools for Rapidrisk Assessment in Petroleum refinery and Petrochemical industries) is demonstrated through arapid and quantitative risk assessment of a typical petroleum refinery. The package has beenapplied for an appraisal of the risks of accidents (fires, explosions and toxic release) posed bydifferent units of the refinery, and to identify steps to prevent/manage accidents. The studies revealthat TORAP enables a user to quickly focus on the accidents likely to occur, and enablesforecasting the nature and impacts of such accidents. This information is directly utilizable inidentifying soft spots and in taking appropriate remedial measures to prevent or control accidents.The special attributes of TORAP are: (a) wide range of applications — achieved by incorporatingmodels capable of handling all types of industrial fires and explosions, (b) sophistication —brought about by including state-of-the-art models developed by these authors and others, (c) user-friendliness — achieved by incorporating on-line help, graphics, carefully formatted output, and,above all, an automatic module, with which even a lay user can conduct a risk assessment. Theentire package, especially its automatic module, is supported by an extensive knowledge-base builtinto the software. [06].Faisal I Khan et al studied in Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries the term dominoeffect denotes `chain of accidents, or situations when a fire-explosion-missile-toxic load generatedby an accident in one unit in an industry causes secondary and higher order accidents in other units.Most of the past risk assessment studies deal with accident in a single industry, more so in one of
  15. 15. the units of an industry. But, often, accident in one unit can cause a secondary accident in a nearbyunit, which in turn may trigger a tertiary accident, and so on. The probability of occurrence andadverse impacts of such `domino or `cascading effects are increasing due to increasing congestionin industrial complexes and increasing density of human population around such complexes. Themulti-accident catastrophe which occurred in a refinery in India, on 14 September 1997, claiming60 lives and causing loss of property worth over Rs 600 million, is the most recent example of thedamage potential of domino effect Lees F.P. Loss prevention in process industries, Major accidentsin process industries and an analysis of their causes and consequences in Journal of LossPrevention in Process Industries, A quantitative study. Process Safety Progress, 18, 135-145.Recently, we have proposed a systematic methodology called `domino effect analysis (DEA). Thepaper makes a strong case for making DEA an integral part of all risk assessment initiatives [07].Bo Johansson, et al worked and the purpose of this study was to carry out a broad survey andanalysis of relevant research articles about piece rate wages and their effects on health and safetythat were published internationally until the fall of 2008. The aim was to summarize and describethe state of the art of the research in this field and if possible draw conclusions from theaccumulated research results. Although research is still sparse and fragmented, much of theaccumulated knowledge about the effects of piece rate work tells us that piece rates in manysituations have a negative effect on health and safety. The fact that 27 of the 31 studied articlesfound negative effects of piece rates on different aspects of health and safety does not provecausality, but together they give very strong support for the hypothesis that in most situations piecerates have negative effects on health and safety. In order to achieve better knowledge about theeffects of piece rates in branches where piece rates are regarded problematic, further research isneeded and such research has to be designed to meet the specific questions that are to be answered[08].Sauter Steven L et al studied and describe about NIOSH recognizes psychological disorders as aleading occupational health problem. This document, developed by a NIOSH working group led bythe present authors, represents a first attempt to fashion a comprehensive national strategy toprotect and promote the psychological health of workers. Roles are identified for industry, labor,government, and academia. Key initiatives include (a) steps to improve working conditions and
  16. 16. employee mental health services and (b) increased research and surveillance to advanceunderstanding of the problem. Because work-related psychological disorders appear to be a rapidlydeveloping problem lacking complete definition in terms of scope and etiology, this strategy is notto be considered a final statement of NIOSH policy [09].G.Waddell, A.K Burton, studied about back pain during work that there is increasingdemand for evidence‐based health care. Back pain is one of the most common and difficultoccupational health problems, but there has been no readily available evidence base orguidance on management there are well‐established clinical guidelines for the management oflow back pain, but these provide limited guidance on the occupational aspects. OccupationalHealth Guidelines for the Management of Low Back Pain at Work were launched by theFaculty of Occupational Medicine in March 2000. These are the first national occupationalhealth guidelines in the UK and, as far as we are aware, the first truly evidence‐linkedoccupational health guidelines for back pain in the world. They were based on an extensive,systematic review of the scientific literature predominantly from occupational settings orconcerning occupational outcomes. But a compact version is presented here to aid itsdissemination [10]
  17. 17. Quick, James Campbell and Tetrick, Lois E. Declared about Occupational health psychology,that it is a relatively young specialty within the science and practice of psychology. This handbookis designed to consolidate and organize the rising knowledge in the field from the interdisciplinaryperspectives of an international group of scholars and researchers. Provide historical,contemporary, and future-oriented perspectives on this emerging specialty after first discussingprevention and public health in occupational settings. That addresses key causes of health andsafety at work as well as key risks to health and safety, focusing on factors both within the specificworkplace as well as broader occupational factors and factors from the personal life area.Regardless of how effectively organizations design prevention and public health programs toprotect the health and safety of people at working place, some experience symptoms and healthdisorders, and the specific primary, secondary, or tertiary interventions for health and safety, Thisbook addressing issues of epidemiology, program evaluation, and socioeconomic cost-benefitanalysis [11].DEFRA (2002) and Hunt et al (2000) Both stated that the adverse health effects of exposure tohigh concentration of chemicals such as Benzene, 1,3-butadiene, Carbon monoxide, Lead Nitrogenoxides, Ozone, Particles and sulpher dioxide, range from mental impairment to cancer and withexcessive exposure death. Whilst Air quality has been improved in Urban and Rural areas duringthe last 20 years, between 123000 and 24100 death are thought to be hastened annually due to airpollution by ozone, Particulates and sulpher dioxide (ibid,:3; DEFRA, 2003:76). Poorer peoplesliving in the disadvantaged areas are exposed to the highest level of air pollution [12].L.H Vassie and W.R Lucas studied and states about health, safety and Environment that team canbe managed in different ways: using supervisor, team leaders, or self-managed. Themanagement of health and safety and other business risk is dependent on the way in which theteam is managed. Although the differences are not always significant, it is noticeable thatwithin organization using supervised work environment, there is a lack of communication ofspecific health and safety information, little involvement and participation in safety activities,and a greater reliance on the safety functions. However in organization using team leader andself-managed groups, there is evidence of greater management involvement, more opencommunication, and greater employee involvement in health and safety, Althoughempowerment in its true sense was still limited in these organizations [13].
  18. 18. Hunt et al (2000) stated that the impact of the environment on the health is a complex and difficultto disentangle; health within an environmental context must be considered as a Multiphase andholistic Phenomenon, They recognize that identification of a link between environment and Publicis not a new and that Environmental Legislation targeted at protecting health through improvedhousing and sanitation go back centuries (ibid.; See also Morris, 2003; Gesler, 1998). In past years,there have been some reports (Meng et al., 1995; Meng and Zhang 1997) from many countries,which showed significant excess of chromosomal aberration hazards of the employees of phosphatefertilizers plant [14].Shang hwa hsu, chun-chia lee, muh-cherng wu, these above listed professionals identify thesafety factors and their influence mechanism in Taiwan and Japan oil refinery. Taiwanese purelyemphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision as well as quality of safetyperformance, Where as Japanese engaged to work on systematic safety and efficient reportingsystem of team work which can minimize the health safety threats. These perform task and scriptprovide safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively [15].
  19. 19. CHAPTER NO 3PROJECT AREA3.1 INTRODUCTION TO NATIONAL OIL REFINERIES (NRL).A national oil refinery (NRL) is the largest petroleum refining complex in Pakistan. Comprisesof three refineries and a BTX plant located in the industrial zone of Korangi 1, KarachiMetropolitan area 15 Km South East of Karachi.National Refinery Limited (NRL) was incorporated on August 19, 1963 as a public limitedcompany. Government of Pakistan took over the management of NRL under the EconomicReforms Order, 1972 under the Ministry of Production, which was exercising control throughits shareholding in State Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Corporation (PERAC).The Government of Pakistan had decided to place the National Refinery Limited under theadministrative control of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources in November 1998.In June 2003 the Government of Pakistan decided to include NRL in its privatizationsprogrammed.The selling of 51% equity and transfer of management control to a strategic investor had beenproposed accordingly, the due diligence process for the privatization was initiated. Aftercompetitive bidding NRL was acquired by Attock Oil Group in July 2005.The Company has been privatized and the management handed over to the new owner (AttockOil Group) on July 7, 2005.
  20. 20. National Oil RefineriesFigure 3.1 National Oil Refineries Limited (NRL) Karachi
  21. 21. 3.1.2 MAJOR PRODUCTS OF NRLThis classification of crude oil products is based on the way by which crude oil is distilled andseparated into fractions, and this process is called distillation process. Most products of oilprocessing are usually grouped into three categories:1) Light distillates (LPG, Gasoline and Naphtha).2) Middle distillates (Kerosene, Diesel)3) Heavy distillates and residuum (Fuel oil, Lubricating oil, wax and Tar).3.1.3 COMMON PROCESS UUNITS FOUND IN NRLSeveral number of process units in oil refineries are involved for making crude oil pure anduseable and removing of undesirable products from it.• Distillation Unit• Visbreaking Unit• Dehydration Unit• Alkyl nation Unit• De saltation Unit• Isomerization Unit• Amine Treating Unit• Catalytic Reformer Unit• Liquefied gas storage unit• Vacuum Distillation Unit• Fluid Catalytic Cracker Unit• Naphtha Hydro-treated Unit• Coking Units
  22. 22. 3.1.4 PRODUCTIONThe refinery complex of the Company comprises of three refineries, consisting of two luberefineries and one fuel refinery.First Lube Refinery commissioned in 1966 with designed capacity of 539,700 tons per annumof Crude Processing and 76,200 tones per annum of Lube Base Oils. Second Lube Refinerycommissioned in 1985 with designed capacity of 100,000 tons per annum of Lube Base Oils.In 1974, a turnkey agreement was signed between NRL and Industrial Export Import (IEI) ofRomania, to design and construct the 1.5 million tones per year of crude oil refining capacity.The Fuel Refinery commissioned in 1977 with designed capacity of 1,500,800 tones per annumof crude processing and after revamp the designed capacity comes to 2,170,800 tones per annumof crude processing.The BTX (Benzene, Toluene and Xylene) unit was commissioned in 1985 with design capacity of25,000 tons per annum of BTX. It was the first petrochemical unit integrated with unit of fuelrefinery.NRL enjoys a competitive edge, as it is the only refinery producing LBO (Lube Base Oil) inPakistan. This was export till 1986.At present the production capacity of LBO is 1, 97,000 tones per year with two Lube Refineries.3.1.5 DEVELOPMENT POLICY• To ensure that business policies and targets are in conformity with the national goals.• To Contribute in meeting the countrys demand of petroleum and petrochemical productsCustomers satisfaction by providing best value and quality products.• Optimization of the value of barrel of crude oil and cost reduction through conservationmeasures• To achieve and maintain a high standard of Occupational Health, Safety and Environment
  23. 23. • Maintain modern management system conforming to international standards needed for anefficient organization.3.1.6 VISIONOur passion is to attain a distinctive leadership amongst the corporate success stories of tomorrowwe at NRL recognize that the realization of this passionless superior professional competencies,continuous value addition an improvising, and development of Human capital and completecommitment to safety, occupational health and Environment.3.1.7 MISSION• To remain the premium and preferred supply source for various petroleum products andpetrochemicals.• Offer products that are not only viable in terms of desirability and price but most• Importantly give true and lasting value to our customers. Deliver strong returns on existingand projected investments of our stakeholders by Use of specialized and high qualitycorporate capabilities.• Business development by adoption of emerging technologies, growth in professionalCompetence, support to innovation. Enrichment of human resource and performancerecognition.• Be a responsible corporate citizen by serving the community through a variety of socio-economic acts and maintaining a high level of safety, occupational health andenvironmental care.• Provide safer and high standers of lives and achieve the goals of NRL development policy
  24. 24. 3.1.8 CORE VALUEFollowing concepts and ideas guide the Management and Staff of National RefineryLimited in conducting its business practices in most ethical ways• Ethical Conduct and Integrity We value lifestyle in our organization where ethics like truth,honesty, integrity and fair play are basic ingredients while interacting within theorganization or dealing with the outside world.• Teamwork and Responsibility We share information and resources and step in to help outother team members. Conflicts are worked out in spite of obstacles and difficulties. Weaccept responsibility with “can do” attitude.• Customer Satisfaction We endeavor to provide quality products to our customers atcompetitive prices. We value their satisfaction essential for continued growth of ourbusiness. Core Values• Continuous Improvement We generates new ideas and creative approaches to upgrade andupdate our refinery to best available technology and processes so that our products are at thelevel of internationally accepted standards.• Profitability we believe in enhancing our profitability to the maximum so that Employees,Shareholders and Government all benefits from it.• Corporate Citizenship As a good Corporate Citizen, we are more than willing and happy tomeet our social responsibilities towards the community around us. We are also committedto meet requirements of health, safety and environment.
  25. 25. 3.1.9 IMORTANCEEnergy conservation is vital for today’s refinery economics to reduce per unit cost of productionand to protect Natural Environment. NRL contributes to sustainable development managementthrough the integration of Environmental, Social and Economic considerations in its work.The recent introduction of 90 RON unleaded motor gasoline is a further evidence of ourenvironment to concern towards good health and preservation of environment.The primary function of the HSE Department is to explore opportunities for environmentimprovement and energy conservation at Refinery Units, prepare and evaluate proposals andimplement them. NRL has an HSEQ policy which is the corner stone in its decision makingprocess to ensure compliance with the Environmental laws (NEQS) and achieve continuousperformance improvement.Refinery consumes enormous quantity of thermal energy, supplied by combustion of fuel oilsand fuel gas at furnaces. Number of energy conservation projects has been implemented atNational Refinery, which has reduced energy consumption per barrel of crude oil. Largequantities of liquid effluents and gaseous emissions are also encountered in petroleumprocessing. Improvement programs are constantly undertaken at NRL to combat pollution inrespect of emissions and effluent waste water.Regular monitoring of pollutants is carried out by testing of effluents and emissions samples tomeasure environmental performance. In recognition to the reality that eventually sulphur willhave to be reduced in HSD to make it environment and health friendly, the management hasalready initiated a preliminary feasibility study to put-up a hydro-desulphurization plant forreduction of sulphur to limits set by the government.
  26. 26. 3.1.10 OBJECTIVES OF HSEThe objectives of HSE are• To establish procedures and implement work instructions sufficient to avoid injury toemployees and others who may be affected by Company operations.• To establish standards and procedures to minimize harm to employees and others throughthe Occupational health hazards and substance abuse.• To provide facilities, plant, and equipment and maintain them in safe condition.• To provide an effective system of communication throughout the management and withworkers to ensure active participation in all aspect of safety management.• Through investigation, follow up, and analysis of incident reports, strive to eliminate theaccidents and incidents within the Company operations3.2 HSE POLICY OF NRL
  27. 27. Figure 3.2 Policy Statement of NRLHSE POLICY OF NRL Energy conservation is vital for today’s refinery economics to reduceper unit cost of production and to protect Environment. NRL contributes to sustainabledevelopment management through the integration of Environmental Social and Economicconsiderations in its work environment. The recent introduction of 90 RON unleaded motorgasoline is a further evidence of our concern towards good health and preservation ofenvironment.The primary function of the HSE Department is to explore opportunities for environmentimprovement and energy conservation at Refinery Units, prepare and evaluate proposals andimplement them. NRL has an HSEQ policy which is the corner stone in its decision making processto ensure compliance with the Environmental laws (NEQS) and achieve continuous performanceimprovement.Refinery consumes enormous quantity of thermal energy, supplied by combustion of fuel oils andfuel gas at furnaces. Number of energy conservation projects has been implemented at NationalRefinery, which has reduced energy consumption per barrel of crude oil. Large quantities of liquideffluents and gaseous emissions are also encountered in petroleum processing. Improvementprograms are constantly undertaken at NRL to combat pollution in respect of emissions andeffluent waste water. Regular monitoring of pollutants is carried out by testing of effluents andemissions samples to measure environmental performance. In recognition to the reality thateventually sulphur will have to be reduced in HSD to make it environment and health friendly, themanagement has already initiated a preliminary feasibility study to put-up a hydro-desulphurizationplant for reduction of sulphur to limits set by the government.3.2.1 ISO 9001, ISO - 14001 & OHSAS – 18001CERTIFICATIONIn order that Quality Standards and Environment practices at NRL are according to worldstandards, certification for Quality ISO 9001 Environment Management System ISO-14001has been acquired. Likewise, for controlling of work related health and safety risks, OHSAS-18001, certification has been acquired. Implementation of ISO 9001, ISO 14001 AND OHSAS18001 has put NRL as the pioneer in the country in areas of Quality, Environment andoccupational health & safety certification.
  28. 28. 3.2.2 NRL SAFETY BOARDNRL Safety Board is updated by second week of every month. Safety Board shows the number ofSafe Man-hours worked by NRL MPT and Non MPT Staffs. By the Grace of Al Mighty Allah andjoint efforts by all of us, we have achieved 16.07 millions safe man-hours with out Lost TimeInjury as on October 31, 2011. Let us all give top priority towards safety, as there is no job, whichcannot be done in a safer way.3.2.3 QUALITY CONTROL, RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT AT NRLEvery product leaving the refinery has to conform to stringent international or nationalspecification requirements. In order to achieve the fine degree of control, extensive monitoring ofcrude oil feed stock, intermediates and final products is conducted with the aid of modernsophisticated analytical equipment in our Quality Control Laboratory. Usage of NRL producedbase oils by numerous national and international lubricating oil companies for producing worldclass lubricants authenticates the supreme quality of our lube base oils. NRL strives to satisfy thecustomers by providing best products within specifications.The role of NRL Quality Control Laboratory is, however, not limited to Quality Control alone.Research and Development work is carried out to give a basis for innovation in processes andproducts.NRL Quality Control Department, which was certified to ISO 9002 Quality Management System inthe year 2000. Currently entire Refinery is ISO 9001:2000 certified under Integrated ManagementSystem (IMS), which include ISO 14001 and OHSAS 180013.2.4 HOT WORK PERMIT AT NRLBy the Grace of Al Mighty Allah and joint efforts of all concerned, all naked flame hot workpermits were performed safely.During working days in the morning 6 to 7 Nos. of naked flame hot work permits were audited forvarious jobs at different locations inside Refinery. Sr. Engineer & Engineer HSE / Fire Protection
  29. 29. Officers along with respective area custodians audit these permits before issuance. Total numbersof naked flame hot work permits carried out during the month of October 2011 were 155 No inKorangi Refinery.3.2.5 PPE’S AT NRLIn NRL personal protective equipments are use for safety and to reduce the intensity of accidents.There is number of PPE’s are available in NRL and latest equipments are present at NRL safetydepartment.3.2.6 FIRE FIGHTING AT NRLAt NRL Korangi Refinery every Thursday at 1000 hrs sharp, fire drill is carried out at fire drillground. This drill helps in checking the fitness of fire fighting equipments & imparting training toFire Protection staffs and Auxiliary Staffs that come from Production, Security, Quality Controland Oil movement departments to gain experience in fire fighting on live fires. HSE departmentobserves the response time during fire drill. The average response time of fire drill was about 4:20to 7:37* minutes. This time includes reaching the fire tender at site, lying of water hoses / foamhoses and the time when water showering starts. During the month of October 2011 04 No of livefire drills were carried out at Korangi Refinery. Where as 04 Nos. of weekly fire drills were carriedout at K.T during the month of October 2011.* Fire Tender # 3 & 5 participated in Fire Drill. Water Hose not fully unrolled, however it waspressurized by Tender operator, which resulted in attainment of Response Time beyond benchmark.3.3 IMS (HSEQ) Management System at NRLThis document defines the scope of NRLs Occupational Health & Safety, Environmental andQuality Management Systems IMS (HSEQ) and provides linkages of system documents to theelements of the ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and OH&SMS18001:2007 Standards.NRL Integrated Management System IMS (HSEQ) provides a mechanism for Occupational Health& Safety, Environment and Quality Management Systems throughout all areas, units anddepartments of NRL Korangi Refinery, Kea Mari Terminal and Korangi- Kea Mari Pipeline.
  30. 30. • Determine the processes needed for the IMS (HSEQ) Management System and theirapplications throughout the organization,• Determine the sequence and interaction of these processes,• Determine criteria and methods required to ensure the effective operations and controls ofthese processes,• Ensure the availability of resources and informations necessary to support the operationsand monitoring of these processes,• Monitor measure where applicable and analyzed these processes,• Implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and continual improvement ofthese processes.3.3.1 IMS (HSEQ) POLICYNRL has established its policy for Health, Safety, and Environment & Quality ensures that it:• Is appropriate to the purpose, nature and scale of the organization,• Includes a commitment to prevention of injury and ill health and continual improvement inIMS (HSEQ) Management and performance.• Provides a framework for setting and reviewing IMS (HSEQ) objectives and targets.• Includes a commitment for prevention of pollution requirements.• Is communicated to all persons working under the control of the organization.• Is available to interested parties.• Is periodically reviewed for continuing suitability at appropriate level of the organization.The IMS (HSEQ) Policy is communicated and enforced through management reviews, training,displayed at appropriate locations.
  31. 31. 3.3.2 MONITORING AT NRLNRL applies suitable methods for monitoring and, where applicable, measurement of the IMS(HSEQ) management system processes. These methods demonstrate the ability of the processes toachieving planned results. When planned results are not achieved, correction and corrective actionsare taken, as appropriate.Note: When determining suitable methods, it is advisable to consider the type and extent ofmonitoring or measurement appropriate to each of its processes in relation to their impact on theconformity to product unless otherwise approved by a relevant authority and, where applicable, bythe customer.3.3.3 Waste Monitoring & ManagementDuring Normal / Turnaround / Shutdown operations, Steering Committee identifying wastegenerates causing Environmental Load with respect to the aspect like (Air emissions, Effluentdischarge, and solid waste). Environmental Load identification for normal / turnaround operation iscarried out on format (NRL-FAF-AIA-001). On the basis of the Environmental Load Summary forNormal operation developed on (NRL-FAF-AIA-002) and Turnaround Operation (NRL-FAF-AIA-003). Total Environmental load at NRL on the basis of above mentioned summaries is developedby concerned department’s e.g.• Hot Air• API-I Effluent• Spent Caustic• Cotton Waste• Plastics3.3.4 Drinking Water Monitoring
  32. 32. Three-Stage filter elements are installed at each drinking water cooler placed inside Refinery andKea Mari Terminal. Filter elements are changed by Maintenance-II department as per schedule.HSE coordinates with Administration and Maintenance-II departments to send samples of drinkingwater to laboratory for testing. Result of drinking water samples are found satisfactory for drinkingpurpose.3.3.5 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Initial Environmental Examination(IEE) for New ProjectsThe framework for identifying and evaluating the environment and occupational health and safetyissues of new projects at NRL to ensure the appropriate consideration is given to Health, Safety,Environment and Quality (HSEQ) issues prior to project approval and funding, to ensure aspectsand hazards generated by projects are identified & their significance evaluated, to secure approvalfrom regulatory agencies are well defined in the documented procedures (NRL-SPR-RIP-012) &(NRL-SPR-RIP-019).3.3.6 Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) Lube Refinery Revamp ProjectAn IEE of the proposed unit was carried out as part of the project to ascertain that said project willnot cause any possible adverse impact on the environment. The purpose of this IEE was to identifypotential source of impact due to operation of MEK-II and recommended measures for impactmitigation and management.3.4 RISK ASSESSMENTRisk assessment is the process where you:• Identify hazards.• Analyze or evaluate the risk associated with that hazard.• Determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard.In practical terms, a risk assessment is a thorough look at your workplace to identify those things,situations, processes, etc that may cause harm, particularly to people. After identification is made,you evaluate how likely and severe the risk is, and then decides what measures should be in placeto effectively prevent or control the harm from happening.
  33. 33. For definitions and more information about what hazards and risks are, please see the OSHAnswers document Hazard and Risk.Risk assessments are very important as they form an integral part of a good occupational health andsafety management plan. They help to:• Create awareness of hazards and risks.• Identify who may be at risk (employees, cleaners, visitors, contractors, the public,• Determine if existing control measures are adequate or if more should be done.• Prevent injuries or illnesses when done at the design or planning stage.• Prioritize hazards and control measures.3.4.1 Hazards, Evaluation and Risk Assessment Frame Work at NRL• OH&S hazards of Normal Operation• OH&S Turnaround / Shutdown Operation• Routine activities• Non Routine activities• Access to the work place• Facilities at work place• Absence of control measures3.4.2 Hazards Categories• Ergonomics Hazards• Mechanical hazards• Electrical hazards• Pressure hazards• Pneumatic hazards
  34. 34. • Falling hazards• Biological hazards• Noise hazards• Vibration hazards• Toxic hazards• Radiation hazards• Explosion hazards• Chemical hazards• Fire hazards3.4.3 OH&S Hazards Impacts Categories• Injury / Illness• Disability / Death• Production delays and interruption• Asset Loss• Property damage• Tools and equipment damage• Product and material damage• Evaluation of Risks Assessment for3.4.4 Identified Hazard• Legislative and regulatory requirements• Identification of the OH&S Risks face by NRL• Review OH&S practices, process and procedures• Evaluation of feed back from the investigation
  35. 35. • Audit results & Recommendations• Direct inspection and measurement3.4.5 Risks ControlResidential hazard identified, even after current control measures, will be assessed for risk andclassified under tolerable risks and un-tolerable risks.Measure taken with the principal of ERIC-PE-EliminateR-Reduce,I-Improve,C-Control,P-ProtectIf risk can not be converted into tolerable risk than PPEs used to reduce the impact3.4.6 Emergency Preparedness & Response Planning and Risk ManagementThe Fire Protection Manager and HSE Manager are responsible for developing and implementingan emergency prevention, mitigation and response plan.Emergency situation may be of any one or combination of two or more included Flood / TerritorialRains / Typhoons or Cyclone, Terrorist Attacks, Fire, Earth Quake, Oil Leakage / Spills, ChemicalLeakage / Spills, LPG Emergencies, Flammable / toxic gas release, Explosion, Loss of utilityservices, Epidemic, Failure of Fire Alarm and monitoring devices, Serious injuries & TrafficAccidentsRoles and responsibilities for communications with-in the facility and for obtaining outside supportservices established, maintained and addressed in the departmental emergency preparedness andresponse procedures.Environmental, health and safety emergency methods and communications tested at leastbiannually basis if practicable or whenever required and maintain records of these drills.
  36. 36. 3.4.7 Environmental ObjectivesNRL has established, implemented and maintained a system procedure (NRL-SPR-EOT-016) forenvironmental objectives and targets at relevant function and level.The Environmental objective consistent with the IMS (HSEQ) Policy, including commitment toprevention of pollution, shall be measurable (where practicable) to compliance with applicablelegal and other requirements, which organization subscribes for continual improvement.SAFETY LABELLINGFor the attention and prevention of workers for any unwanted events different safety labeling aremention at different places like near machinery “NO SMOKING” label is mentioned.Some safety labels are shownSafety sign at the entrance gate of NRLSafety sign at different exit areas
  37. 37. Safety sign near oil StorageSafety sign near StorageSafety board at different placesCHAPTER NO 4OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY4.1 Health and SafetyHealth and Safety are the two vital factors that can immensely contribute towards your performanceat different situations like workplace, sports, and so on. Often, people neglect issues pertaining tohealth & safety, eventually landing in trouble. So, what is it that drives these two factors? Why arethey essential? The answers to these recurrent questions lie ahead.Especially in workplaces, employee productivity is of core essence to build on the companies aswell as the employees’ prospect. This prospect highly rests on the performance delivery, whichfurther is supported by accurate health and safety. For instance, a sales officer can neither travel
  38. 38. comfortably nor perform effectively in an unhealthy and unsafe condition. This would only lead toa lackluster performance, further causing a stoop in sales.Health and Safety also have a solid impact on your personality. A charming personality can workfor you tremendously not only at work, but also in general lifestyle. While health reflects yourpersonality, safety acts as the solution to obtaining a perfect heath. Saying so, safety has a lot to dowith the application of appropriate techniques at the right time.The positive characteristic of Health & Safety is its widespread practice. Even if you are unable torecognize the adequate and exact techniques, there are scores of health and safety trainingconsultants, available all over the world, to provide assistance. A health & safety consultantspecializes in sophisticated related equipments, and provides exclusive training programs, in aprofessional manner. With certified skills, he provides an ideal opportunity to get things right foryou within a span of just few days.Besides a health & safety consultant, you too can work towards attaining enhanced health & safety.Maintaining cleanliness and hygiene, intake of suitable diet, regular exercising, etc. are some of themost prominent techniques in achieving health and safety. In this case, consistency is the key.These activities have to be done persistently for lifetime, in order to ensure better longevity.There are other intangible factors as well that can influence your health. For example, severalpeople go through stress and depression regarding their work-life and relationships. These factorscan hamper your health to a great extent, forcing you to live a miserable life. Hence, to overcomethese barriers, a health and safety consultant offers special yoga and stress management practices,as safety techniques. However, it all depends on the individual how he follows them. If one ishonest to himself, he is bound to achieve quicker results and lead an improved life.4.1.2 Aims of the HSEThe main aims of the HSE are to:• Protect the health, safety and welfare of people at work• Safeguard others, including members of the public, who may be exposed to risks from theway work is carried out• Carry out enforcement of health & safety law to promote a thriving local economy & a fairand safe trading environment• As a minimum, adhere to all requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act(2000) and OHS Regulation (2001),
  39. 39. • Increase the awareness of its staff of the provisions and requirements of OccupationalHealth and Safety Act,• Develop and maintain regular workplace inspections and reporting procedures,• Assess and control risks as they are identified,• Encourage staff and students to take an active role in the development of safe workingpractices,• Implement appropriate drills for evacuation of the workplace in the event of a dangeroussituation,• Continue the consultative process between staff, and management,• Train appropriate staff to assist in the implementation of occupational health and safetypolicies of the organization• Provide adequate occupational health and first aid services.4.1.3 Occupational Health & Protecting employees from Occupational Hazards• The work-related accidents accounted for:• 103,000 deaths in the USA,• 122,000 in the European Union,• 90,500 in China and
  40. 40. • 40,000 in India during 2005.• In case of developing countries, where the rate of such deaths is higher, the relevant data iseither unavailable or unreliable.4.1.4 Pakistan, Conditions of OHSAS• Most of the 47.57 million employed workforces, including females and children, are poor,illiterate and semi-trained.• Thus exposed to various occupational hazards.• The working conditions and environment in most of the workplaces are sub-standard.• There is no concept of taking preventive and control measures to safeguarding the health ofworkers.• There is no record keeping and data collection of accidents and incidents that also go mostlyunreported.• The range and scope of occupational safety and health covers all the industrial, commercial,agricultural and service sectors, utilities, manufacturing, transport/ communications,hotels/restaurants, mining/quarrying, and construction, the SMEs etc.• There is no Proper reporting of accidents• At local level or in small industries there is lake of skilled persons• Shortage of Personal Protective Equipments no proper equipments are available in manyindustries.• Textile is our single largest industry. It uses a variety of chemicals for various processesparticularly spinning, weaving, knitting, scouring, printing, dyeing and finishing, whichgenerate noise, dust and emissions of toxic chemicals which--- all injurious to health.4.1.5 Safety and Act
  41. 41. Under the provision of the labour 2002, national occupational safety and health council was to beestablished to provide safety at work place, ensure compensation to the employees, and frame,review and update regularly the requisite standards. Five years thereon there is no headway eventowards formation of the proposed triparite councilThe list of legislation includes:• Factories Act of 1934,• Factories Rules 1975,• Mines Act of 1923,• Consolidated Mining Rules 1952,• Oil & Gas (Safety in Drilling and Production) Rules 1974,• Dock Laborers Act 1934,• Punjab Factories Rules 1978,• Sindh Factories Rules 1975,• Coal Mines Regulations 1926 (NWFP),• Hazardous Occupational Rules 1978,• Explosives Act 1884,• Boilers & Pressure Vessels Act 2002, to name only a few.Safety is the state of being safeS Spot the hazardA Assess the riskF Fined a safe wayE Every momentFor safety of the workers and to mitigate the industrial accidents there are many safety equipmentsare used for safety like safety glasses, gloves, and ear muff etc4.2 Personal Protective EquipmentDefinition: Devices used to protect an employee from injury or illness resulting from contact withchemical, biological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other workplace hazard.The need for PPE and the type of PPE used is based on hazard present.
  42. 42. These equipments are widely used in industries to save the life of a workers and minimized healthhazards. Personal protective equipment, or PPE, is designed to protect workers from seriousWorkplace injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with workplace hazard.There are different types of personal protective equipments are used according to the nature ofwork. Some of these are discuss below which are generally used in oil refineries like• Eye and Face protection• Hearing protection• Head protection• Arm and Hand protection• Protective Clothing• Foot and Leg protectionFigure 4.1 Personal Protective Equipments and their Use4.2.1 Eye and Face protectionThese equipments are used to protect eyes and face from dust and harmful particles flying at thework place. Sometimes these small particles cause hazardous for worker and as well as workplace.To protect unwanted and danger worker should use these Protection Equipments
  43. 43. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA)-certified safety glasses have plastic polycarbonatelenses. They are stronger than regular lenses, are impact-resistant, and come in prescription andnon-prescription (Plano or zero-power lens) forms• Lenses and Frames:Safety frames are stronger than street-wear frames and are often heat resistant. They are alsodesigned to prevent lenses from being pushed into the eyes. Ensure your safety glasses fit properly.Eye size, bridge size and temple length all vary. Safety glasses should be individually assigned andfitted. Wear safety glasses so that the temples fit comfortably over the ears. The frame should be asclose to the face as possible and adequately supported by the bridge of the nose. Clean your safetyglasses daily. Follow the manufacturers instructions. Avoid rough handling that can scratch lenses.Scratches impair vision and can weaken lenses.Figure 4.2 Eye Protector Safety Glass4.2.2 Hearing protection:In any industry there should be noise pollution because heavy machinery produces heavy noise thatis harmful for human ears and also causing fatigue and problems for worker.
  44. 44. Noise induced hearing loss can occur with exposures >90 dBAServation program becomes a requirement at exposures >85dBATo control the level of noise and to prevent the noise pollution ear protection equipment are usedlike Ear muff, Ear plugs etc• Ear plugs:These are less expensive, disposable, good ones sometimes difficult to tell if employees arewearing them and these are inserted to block the ear canal. They may be remolded (preformed) ormoldable (foam ear plugs). Ear plugs are sold as disposable products or reusable plugs. Custommolded ear plugs are also available.• Ear muffs:These are more expensive, more durable, and more obvious that Can be used together in very highnoise areas consist of sound-attenuating material and soft ear cushions that fit around the ear andhard outer cups. They are held together by a head band.Figure 4.3 Ear Protector or Ear Plugs4.2.3 Head protection
  45. 45. In many industries numbers of people die because of falling of metallic equipments on the head ofthe workers. Head is very sensitive part of the body. To protect head from injuries same hard cap orhelmet are use which consist of hard substance and these safety helmets and head protector areuseful and safer.Figure 4.4 Multipurpose Head and Ear Protector4.2.4 Arm and Hand protectionFor the safety of hand from harmful chemicals, electric current, oil and other biological diseasessafety gloves are use. Generally they are made up of plastic for physical and chemical injury but forthe prevention of biological diseases disposable gloves are use.Figure 4.5 Arms and Hand Protector Safety Gloves4.2.5 Protective Clothing
  46. 46. Protective clothing is used to protect dress from oil and grease these are used to protect streetclothes from hazards in the workplace often hazard specific protective clothing can be consideredeffective, protective clothing must prevent the contaminant from reaching the clothing or skin ofthe wearer High-visibility safety apparel (HVSA) is clothing that workers can wear to improve howwell other people "see" them (their visibility). Most often, high-visibility clothing is worn to alertdrivers and other vehicle operators of a workers presence, especially in low light and darkconditions.Figure 4.6 Protective Clothes and High Visible Safety Apparel4.2.6 Foot and Leg protection
  47. 47. As the old saying goes, "When your feet hurt, you hurt all over."There are two major categories ofwork-related foot injuries. The first category includes foot injuries from punctures, crushing,sprains, and lacerations.They account for 10 percent of all reported disabling injuries. The second group of injuries includesthose resulting from slips, trips and falls. They account for 15 percent of all reported disablinginjuries.Slips and falls do not always result in a foot injury but lack of attention to foot safety plays animportant role in their occurrence. Steel-toed footwear, preferably with metatarsal guards, is used toprotect feet from crushing injuries caused by heavy objects Rubber boots are often used to protectfeet from exposure to liquids.Figure 4.7 Foot Protector or Safety Shoes4.3 FIRE FIGHTING AND TECHNIQUES
  48. 48. Fire is considered as uncontrollable and rapidly expanded cause of accident and, the biggest loss ofraw material and other valuable product are because of fire, accident in any industry always loss ofInfrastructure.4.3.1 Fire and Causes of Firing:Fire is considering as most dangerous and uncontrolled accident in every industry and especially inoil refineries. A fire usually has a well-defined edge and can burn very slowly or very fastdepending on conditions. Industrial fires result not only in economic lost but in much humansuffering as well. Damage to Infrastructure and Loss of valuable things4.3.2 The factors that cause fire• Fuel: Paper, wood, oil, solvents, gas, etc.• Heat: The degree necessary to vaporize, fuel according to its nature.• Oxygen: Normally at least 15% of oxygen in the air is required to sustain a fire. Thegreater the concentration of oxygen, the brighter the blaze and the more rapid thecombustion4.3.3 Types of FiresFires are classified into four types:Class A: Fires generally combustible e.g. wood, paper, cloth or rubbish is usually controlled bycooling e.g. using water to cool the material.Class B: Fires generally liquids e.g. gasoline, oil, grease, paint are usually smothered by oxygencontrol – using foam, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical.Class C: Fires due to gases such as Methane, Ethane, LPG, Acetylene, are usually smothered bydry powder & CO2.Class D: Fires erupt due to combustible elements such as magnesium, lithium or sodium andrequire special extinguishers and techniques.
  49. 49. 4.3.4 How to Prevent Fire• Know where fire extinguishers are kept?• What each is for and how to use them?• Maintain a neat, clean work area and prevent accumulation of rubbish?• Put oil-soaked and paint-soaked rags in covered metal containers.• Observe all “no-smoking” signs.• Keep fire doors, exits, stairs, aisles, fire lanes and fire fighting equipment clear ofobstruction.• Keep all flammable materials away from furnaces and other sources of ignition.• Report any fire hazards that are beyond your control, especially electrical hazards, which isthe source of many fires.• Store combustible materials in safe area.• Remove combustible materials and fumes from paint, solvents and other flammables.• If you should have to burn waste paper, make sure it doesn’t contain explosive materialssuch as aerosol or paint cans.• Proper maintenance procedures are important to fire safety.• Keep mechanical equipment properly lubricated to avoid excessive friction.• Ensure heater used in the workplace is away from flammable materials and cannot be tippedover.Figure 4.8 Fire brigade vehicle uses during firing for water showering
  50. 50. 4.3.5 Leading Causes of Industrial Fires• Electrical failure• Friction• Foreign substances• Open flames• Smoking Matches4.3.6 How to React the Fires• Set off the alarm• Leave the area if the fire is too big to handle• Deal with a small fire• Know your fire exits• When leaving, crawl on your hands and knees to the exits• Fire fighter specialist person• Proper use of fire fighting equipments• Proper use of safety equipments• Use non combust able clothes and face protection sheetsFigure 4.9 Fire fighters during operation
  51. 51. 4.3.7 FIREFIGHTING TECHNIQUESGenerally we use water which has the primary effect of cooling the fuel.This describes techniques used when water is scarce, and use of water is not possible.Track crews also work on the other two sides of the fire triangle, removing air (smother) or fuel(clearing) to control fire.Effectiveness depends greatly on hard work, diligence and experience.4.3.8 Fire fighting toolsEquipments that are use in fire fighting techniques are:• Shovel: Beating, Digging, Scraping, Throwing soil.• Slasher: Cutting light fuels for tracks.• Fire rake: Scraping tools with serrated cutting edge used for removing surface fuels.• Safe Handling of Tools: Carry tools at waist level, blade forward Keep 3 meters apartwhen carrying or using pass tools handle first• Water showering pump: Use to control the intensity of fire by water• Fire brigade vehicle: for transfer of water quickly to the affected area
  52. 52. Figure 4.10 Fire Controlling equipments like nozzles to increase the velocity of water4.4 WORK PERMITWork Permit Analyzing of work place and possible hazards during work and taking safetymeasures and to describe procedures and guidelines on work permit system to carry out jobs ofinspection, testing, maintenance, alternation, repair, construction in safest possible manner. Theimplementation of this system will help in bring down the risks at work sites to acceptable level,thereby reducing possibility of any accident, fire, explosion, property damage and adverse effect onenvironment.4.4.1 Work That Requires Permit:Normally all maintenance, repair, construction work shall be carried out with a proper work permit.Jobs where work permit is required include but not limited to followings:• Major and minor maintenance work• Inspection• Construction• Any hot work (including use of normal battery driven equipment in operating areas)• Cleaning activities of process equipment• Entry into confined space• Excavation• Vehicle entry into process areas• Work at height• Handling of materials using mechanized means in operating areas • Isolation of electricequipment/ facilities.4.4.2 Types of work permitThere are so many types of work require Permit some of them are describing below: Hot Work:An activity that can produce a spark or flame or other source of ignition having sufficient energy tocause ignition, where the potential for flammable vapors, gases, or dust exists This includes all
  53. 53. works, which produces spark, running of IC engine, breaking of concrete, use of ordinary torches,use of battery operated devices etc are considered as hot work permit4.4.2.2 Confined Space:It is an enclosure with known potential hazards and restricted means of entrance and exit. It is notmeant for normal occupancy of people and is usually not well ventilated such as vessels, boilers,storage tanks, large diameter piping etc. The excavation more than 1.2 m deep, entry into floatingroof tanks, when roof is more than 3m down from the top, space located below ground level such aspits, drain channels etc shall also be considered as confined space. Proper ventilation and lightingprovided: Where natural ventilation is not available, fans / air educators are provided. These arealso required for speedy dispersal of fumes generated by welding job. Only approved reducedvoltage extension lights (not exceeding 24 volts) are to be allowed for work inside confined spacefrom consideration of personal safety.Figure 4.11 Workers work in Confined Space
  54. 54. Hot work / Entry in to Confined Space Permit and clearances:Hot Work Permit is required for carrying out any activity, which produces sufficient heat to causefire in a inflammable air- vapor mixture. Entry to Confined Space Permit is required for entry intoany confined space.Shield against sparks provided: Hot works like welding, grinding etc generates sparks, which canprovide source of ignition to the surroundings. In order to protect operating area from the hazardsof sparks generated, shields are to be provided to contain the sparks generated. The shield materialshall be non-flammable and should be kept wet with water.Proper means of exit provided: Proper means of exit is required in case of emergencies developedon account of the work or otherwise. Availability of an alternate route of escape should beconsidered. r. Area cordoned off and caution boards provided: To prevent any unwarranted entry inthe work area and also to caution other personnel taking actions which may endanger peopleworking on the permit job, precautionary tags / boards are to be provided to display like "No Entry"sign on roads or "Caution - Men at Work Inside" on the manhole of a vessel, "Danger -Radiography in progress" etc.
  55. 55. Figure 4.12 Hot work is doing in a Confined Space4.4.2.4 Cold Work:Cold Work is an activity that does not produce sufficient heat to ignite a flammable air-hydrocarbon mixture or a flammable substance. Or cold work permit is an activity of doing workon non combust able materials like wood work cleaning activities. Working at Height:Any activity that is carried out at 2.meters & above on temporary structure, scaffolds or on astructure not meant to do particular job safely. The erection of any tubular scaffold shall not beginbefore the checking of scaffold material at site (w.r.t quality and quantity), preparations at site,availability of PPE, and availability of trained personnel for erection etc. in prescribed format on“Pre Erection Checklist for Scaffold”. The requirements of checklist must be complied before startof erection of scaffold at site. This check-list shall be filled up in duplicate. The original shall beretained by executer and 1st copy with issuer (area in-charge).All scaffolds after erection must be checked and certified in prescribed form by scaffoldsupervisor and Officer of executing Dept.Precautions during work at height• All roof-work operations should be pre-planned and properly supervised.• Roof work shall only be undertaken by workers who are physically and psychologically fitand have the necessary knowledge and experience for such work.• Work on roofs shall not be carried on in weather conditions that threaten the safety ofworkers. .• Where it is necessary for a person to kneel or crouch near the edge of the roof, necessaryprecautions shall be taken.• On a large roof where works have to be carried out at or near the edge, a simple barrierconsisting of crossed scaffold tubes supporting a tubing guardrail may be provided. Fordetail refer Standard on “Working at Height”.
  56. 56. • All covers for openings in roofs shall be of substantial construction and be secured in4.4.2.6 CONDITIONS FOR HOT AND COLD WORKYES• Ensure the availability of valid work permit before start of work.• Ensure that work permit conditions are fully complied at site.• Ensure that walkways and passages are free from all slip/ trip and fall hazard.• Ensure proper illumination of work place while working in dark.• Executor should ensure the quality of hand tools and their health.• Always first wedge open the flanges.• Use of proper PPE must be ensured duringNO• Never stand or work under suspended loads.• Never enter work area without safety helmet and shoe.• Do not wear loose/ synthetic cloths while on work• Do not use short cuts on work• Do not use lamp of more than 24 V while working in confined space.• Do not run a machine without putting back the guard on its exposed moving part.• Do not use short cuts on work• Do not give any other responsibility to stand by person, which may cause his absence atmany ways
  57. 57. 4.5 INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTSIndustrial accidents are an accident which appears suddenly during working in industries and causeUnexpected & unwanted event and Occurrence of incident causing bodily injury to a personmaking unfit for further work4.5.1 Nature of Accidents:• Nature of accidents vary from industry to industry• An employee may be caught by machine• An employee may fall against a machine• An employee may fall from height• An employee may expose to an explosive• All these may lead to Disablement or DeathDisablement• Loss of Ability to work or move• This situation may be temporary or permanent• Temporary disablement is of temporary nature• Permanent Disablement is of permanent nature• Certain accidents may result in permanent disablement like:• Loss of both hands• Loss of a hand and a foot
  58. 58. • Loss of Eyes• Very severe face disfigurement• Absolute deafness4.5.2 OCCUPATIONAL HAZARD:Occupational hazards are Source or situation with a potential for harm in terms of injury or illhealth, damage to property, damage to the workplace environment, or a combination of these allunwanted events are known as occupational hazards.4.5.3 TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS1. Physical2. Chemical3. Biological4. Mechanical5. Psychosocial4.5.3.1 PHYSICAL HAZARDSPhysical hazards Are accurse because of physical disturbance Surrounding conditions like:• Heat: Heat Exhaustion, Heat Cramps, burns, Prickly heat.• Cold: Frost bite,• Light: Occupational Cataract, High intensity of light can damage the eyes• Noise: Occupational deafness,• Radiation: Cancer, Leukemia, anemia, Electricity - Burns, Shocks, CHEMICAL HAZARDSChemical hazards are those hazards which accurse due to Chemicals and Environmental pollutionthe main source of chemical hazard are Routes of entry Inhalation, Ingestion, skin absorption.(Inhalation is the main route of entry)Chemical agents can be classified into:• Metals: Lead, TEL, As, Hg, Cd, Ni, Co etc.• Aromatic: Hydrocarbons - Benzene, Toluene, phenol etc.
  59. 59. • Gases: N2, CH4, CO2, CO, H2S, HCN• Dust: Inorganic Dust: Coal, Dust, Silica, AsbestosOrganic Dusts: Cane Fiber, Cotton dust (In Textile industries),Tobacco and Grain Dust4.5.3.3 BIOLOGICAL HAZARDSBiological hazard are those types of hazards which cause by the inhalation of poisonous air or bythe affect of biological bacteria or viruses.• Bacteria• Virus• Protozoa & Parasitic• Fungi4.5.3.4 MECHANICAL HAZARDSMechanical hazards are those types of hazards which cause due to mechanical injuries or falling,striking like• Injuries: Falls, cuts, abrasions, concussions, contusions, etc.• Ergonomic: Disorders-Musculo-skeletal, disorders (MSDs), Cumulative-trauma-Disorders (CTDs) Ergonomics: ``Adjustment of Man & Machine``Application of human biological sciences with engineering science to achieve optimummutual adjustment of man & his work, the benefit being measured in terms of humanefficiency and well being• Back Injuries due to Manual Handling:All forces which come down the spine compresses discs and as a result of Continuoussqueezing they can rupture and bulge causing severe pain. Most back injuries are built overalong period of time by repetitive pounding on discs caused by improper methods. Aftersometime some minor lift can produce such rupture4.5.3.5 PSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDS• Lack of job satisfaction
  60. 60. • Insecurity• Poor interpersonal relations• Work pressure• behavioral changes (aggressiveness, depression)• Psychosomatic disorders (Hypertension, headache, body-ache )4.6 SAFELY WORK WITH FALAMMABLEAND COMBUSTIBLEIn oil refineries there is maximum chance combustion because oil is very combustible material.This topic describes general safe work practices to use where flammable and combustible liquidsare used or stored. The document "Flammable and Combustible Liquids and their Hazards"describes the hazards of these liquids more fully. Another document deals with safety issues relatedto static electricity, bonding and grounding containers.4.6.1 Ignition SourcesFor a flammable or combustible liquid fire to start, a mixture of vapors and air must be ignited.There are many possible ignition sources:• Sparks from electrical tools and equipment.• Sparks, arcs and hot metal surfaces from welding and cutting.• Tobacco smoking.• Sparks from grinding and crushing operations.• Sparks caused by static electricity from rotating belts, mixing operations or impropertransfer of flammable or hot combustible liquids.4.6.2 Eliminate Ignition source• You can eliminate many of these ignition sources by:• Removing open flames and spark-producing equipment.• Not smoking around these liquids.
  61. 61. • Using approved explosion-proof equipment in hazardous areas.4.6.3 What is spontaneous combustion?Spontaneous combustion occurs when a material in contact with air can heat up sufficiently(without an outside heat source) to burn. The oils in some wastes and rubbish can slowly react withoxygen in the air. This reaction creates heat that can build up over time if the wastes are leftundisturbed.When the heat level in a "self-heating material" is high enough when the temperature reaches theauto ignition temperature a fire may start.4.6.4 Why Is Good Ventilation Important?Well-designed and maintained ventilation systems remove flammable vapors’ from the workplaceand reduce the risk of fire and health problems.The amount and type of ventilation needed to minimize the hazards of flammable and combustibleliquid vapors’ depend on such things as the kind of job, the kind and amount of materials used, andthe size and layout of the work area.4.6.5 Flammable and Combustible Liquid Containers StorageStore flammable and combustible liquids according to the laws, including building, fire, andelectrical codes, that apply to your particular workplace. These laws specify the kinds of storageareas, such as storage rooms and cabinets, allowed for these liquids. They also specify how toconstruct these storage areas and the amounts of flammable and combustible liquids in differenttypes of containers that you can store in each kind of storage area. There may also be restrictionsabout the volume (how much) of product that can be stored. Never use plastic or glass containersfor storing flammable liquids unless storage in metal containers would affect the required liquidpurity or if the liquid would cause excessive corrosion of the metal container.In all cases, allow only trained, authorized people into storage areas. Before storing, inspect allincoming containers to ensure that they are not damaged and are properly labeled. Do not acceptdelivery of defective containers. Keep containers closed when not in use.4.6.6 Good Storage Area
  62. 62. Storage of flammable and combustible liquids can be stores in specific areas that are:• Well ventilated to reduce vapors concentrations.• Free of ignition sources.• Cool (temperature controlled) and dry.• Supplied with adequate firefighting and spill clean-up equipment.• Away from elevators, building and room exits, or main aisles leading to exits.• Accessible by firefighters.• Labeled with suitable warning signs. For example: "No Smoking".4.6.7 Proper Deal with Combustible FuelAvoid storing flammable and combustible liquids in basements. Ground floor storage is usuallypreferred as it provides easier access for emergency situations. Inspect storage areas regularly forany deficiencies such as damaged or leaking containers, poor ventilation or non-approvedequipment. Unapproved modifications or damage to approve or explosion-proof equipment orsystems could result in unintended hazardous conditions. Correct all deficiencies as soon aspossible.Many workplaces receive flammable liquids in large metal drums or barrels, and then fill smallercontainers from them. Moving full drums weighing hundreds of pounds by hand can be difficultand hazardous. Specially designed drum cradles are available for moving drums around and canalso be used as individual drum storage racks. Check all containers used for flammable andcombustible liquids regularly to make sure that they are not damaged, that spring-operatedmechanisms are working properly and that flame arresters are not broken. Safety containermanufacturers will provide detailed ways to inspect their equipment for safe operationFollowing these basic safe practices will help protect you from the hazards of flammable andcombustible liquids:• Obtain and read the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) for all of the materials you workwith.• Be aware of all of the hazards (fire/explosion, health, chemical reactivity) of the materials youwork with.
  63. 63. • Know which of the materials that you work with flammable or combustible liquids are.• Eliminate ignition sources (sparks, smoking, flames, hot surfaces) when working withflammable and combustible liquids.• Use the smallest amount of flammable liquid necessary in the work area.• Keep storage areas cool and dry.• Store flammable and combustible liquids away from incompatible materialsCHAPTER NO 5EXPERIMENTAL WORK AND DISDUSSION ON REDULTS5.1 SURVEY OF NATIONAL OIL REFINERIESBefore conducting experimental analyzing program our group of students visit at National OilRefineries with our field supervisor Engr: Hafiz Waseem Sahib. During survey we observe thatNRL is very clean and less pollutant than other plants like Thermal power station Jamshoro. Theirsecurity management is very active, In NRL workers and Engineers are well qualified andresponsible person. Engr Majid Chemical engineer and Mr.Rasheed sahib Fire fighter specialistgave brief lecture about their specific field. We observe that there are many Safety Signs andsymbols are displayed on every where for the awareness of common peoples. Good alarm systemand proper maintained Personal protective equipment shows that there is a proper management ofOccupational health and safety system.5.1.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYIn NRL we went through the various methods, which were beneficial for us in sense of maintainingthe data in the proper manners, by conducting surveys interviews and question answers.We have observe various types of activities which were happening in NRL for the betterment of theemployees as well as for proper working and maintains of the machineries and we also conduct the
  64. 64. interview of HSE department person named Mr. Rasheed, who have gives us knowledge about theHSE department and how they over come on the accidents cause due the operations.During the survey of the environment of the HSE department of NRL we discuss about thedifferent quires of the operations, which help us to compile the data. We observe the different typesof barications in different colors, about which we ask quires from the employees of HSEdepartment. We also get information from about the different PPE being used according to thenature of work.5.1.2 RESEARCH PLANESix-month work was planed for this study in which our respectable teacher support us from the coreof heart and work trough out the half our year our occupational health and safety. Monday wasdeclared as the thesis day and enhance the work this option was the great opportunity the all themembers of group get together and discuss regarding to the academic as well as the assigned thesistopic. Digital lab was specially kept maintain for the final year students that they can sort outproblems and then reserve them after regular classes and at Monday from 9am to 3pm.5.1.3 LIMITATIONIn order to compile these case studies we have faced no of stages during those days where weengaged to analyze the situation regarding to occupational health and safety and were maintainingthe data, we find the concerned peoples frank, intellectual and technically sound. The time assignedus by NRL was not the bed of roses because at that time thee was the worst law and order conditionin Karachi, which become the headache for us and we were considering us safe and séance.Sometime it happens that we have to sacrifice our previous day that was fixed for the visit/surveyand the auditing in those days was cause interruption and barriers for us but we try our level best tothe make the most of our time and finally get the fruit of efforts.5.1.4 Instruments Used to Analyzing HSE ParametersFor the quantification and measurement, various types of instrument used to get HSE data. Whichwere reliable, durable and easy to operate. Instruments play vital role in HSE in expects of reducingthe over all ratio of the accidents. By using instruments over all efficiency of the plant is improvedand any type of the query which comes in the way of operations will be control through by usinginstruments. If any type of big accidence occur it will definitely directly effects on the people aswell as on industry and also effect on the over all production of the functions.
  65. 65. Following are the main instruments use in the HSE department of NRL.• Flow gas analyzer• COD meter• BOD meter• PH meter• Leak detector• Lux meter, Etc.5.1.5 TESTING PARAMETERSDuring testing we analyze different parameters at NRL that are• NOISE LEVEL• STACKS GASOUS EMISSION• WASTE WATER EFFLUENT• VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS• AMBIENT AIR• ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS IN
  66. 66. 5.2.1 NOISE LEVELIn National Oil Refineries we determine the noise level from different places like lube 1 refinery,Lube 2 refinery, fuel refinery, near to boiler R.O plant and open area of NRL by using Noise meterand observe that noise level varies from place to place. The highest level of noise is in turbine hall,where due to rotation of moving parts of turbine high level of noise is produced that shown in table4.1, it is also observe that the open area of NRL is less noisy than the area near to machine.According to NEQS standers the noise level does not exceed from 85 d BA and near the machinesthe noise level is greater than 85 dBA and open area and workshops are less noisy the level of noiseis less then 85 dBA. The noise can be reduced by proper covering of machines and properlubrication of machine. We classified table of noise level into two categories one is high noise leveland other is less noise level table. The noise level is shown in table 4.1 and 4.2.Table 5.1 High Noise Level of working area near the MachinesS.NO Area and Equipments Noise Level01 LUBE 1 REFINERY 88.9 to 98.302 FUEL REFINERY 80.1 to 98.503 LUBE 2 REFINERY 90.4 to 93.504 BOILER IV 89.605 BOILER VNOT IN OPERATION06 BOILER VI 90.307 BOILER VII 92.108 TUBBINE HALL 102.209 182 WHITE PRODUCT PUMP 90.3
  67. 67. Table 5.2 Low Noise Level in open area and working places away from heavy machinesS.NO Area and Equipments Noise Level01 R.O PLANT 77.502 FABRICATION YARD 69.203 WORK SHOP HALL 78.504 MAIN OPEN AREA 61.405 OPEN AREA LUBE 2 63.606 LAB HALL 76.407 FLASH ROOM 65.108 DISTILLATION ROOM 68.309 MAIN GATE NRL 76.110 GATE C, NRL 79.411 SHIPPING II OFFICE Time Duration and Noise LevelThe time duration of work depend on the noise level if the noise level is increase than the timeexposure will decrease and we know that ear protectors or noise level reduction equipments are notable to control 100% noise, they just reduce the noise level according to their capability so at highlynoisy working place the time duration of work must be lesser than normal working place. Noiselevel with time duration table is shown below:Table 5.3 Time duration with Noise LevelSound Level (dBA) Exposure (hours)90 892 695 4100 2105 1110 0.5115 0.25
  68. 68. Figure 5.1 Graphical representation of Noise Variation and compared with NEQs5.2.2 STACKS GASOUS EMISSIONIn National Oil Refinery we observe there is good control mechanism of flu gas emission becausethe Level of stack gases are not exceed the NEQs standers that shown in table 4.4 and 4.5 Theamounts of Particulate matters are less and under NEQs limits. The overall environment of NRL issafer and clean we can observe in observation table. In NRL the amount of stacks gaseous emissionis lower then the NEQs limits that show that the environment of the working area of NRL is nonpollutant safe. In figure 4.2 the difference between NEQs limits and stacks particulates emissions isclearly show the amount of PM is controllable. The results of gaseous emission and stacksparticulate matters are as under:Table 5.4 Determination of Stacks gaseous emission in National Oil Refineries
  69. 69. S NO. Reference PointSO2mg / nm²COmg / nm²NOxmg / nm²H2Smg / nm²
  70. 70. NEQS Limits 1700 800 400 1001 BOILER IV 0 14 230 002 BOILER V NOT IN OPERATION03 BOILER VI 0 11 264 004 BOILER VII 0 26 39 005 POWER GENERATION 0 713 314 006 FUEL REFINERY 0 02 127 007 103F -05 0 03 199 008 LUBE 1 108 220 111 709 LUBE 2 0 91 65 0Table 5.6 Determination of Stacks Particulate matters emission in NRLS NO. Reference PointPMmg / nm²NEQS Limitsmg / nm²01 BOILER IV 0330002 BOILER V 0503 BOILER VI 0504 BOILER VII 0905 POWER GENERATION 4306 FUEL REFINERY 0307 103F -05 0208 LUBE 1 0809 LUBE 2 06Figure 5.2 Graphical comparison of stacks Particulate matters emission with NEQs
  71. 71. Table 5.7 Ambient Air Quality of different area of National Oil RefineriesS. No REFERENCE POINTCOmg /Nm3SO2mg / Nm3NOxmg / Nm3H2Omg /N m301BETWEEN TURBINE ANDOFFICE- 0.5 1.3 002 NEAR WARE HOUSE - 0.2 4.3 003 RECYCLE MEMBRANE - - 3.1 004 INSIDE THE PLANT - - 3.9 005 NEAR MAIN GATE - - 4.2 0Table 5.8 Ambient Particulates Matters Monitoring in National Oil RefineriesS. No REFERENCE POINT P Mmg /N m301 BETWEEN TURBINE AND OFFICE 17.702 NEAR WARE HOUSE 22.103 RECYCLE MEMBRANE 24.804 INSIDE THE PLANT 18.205 NEAR MAIN GATE WASTE WATER EFFLUENT
  72. 72. All analytical or experimental work was done in National Oil Refineries lab and sample of wastewater was taken from waste effluent from National oil Refineries. In waste water effluent theamount of pH is under NEQs standers Total dissolved solids are also in limited amount, otherparameters like COD, BOD, and TSS are also less than the amount/value that is given by NEQs.The proper values of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)and other parameters are determined and shown in table 4.8 that table shoes that the quality ofwaste water is under control and that is not too much pollutant and harmful for workers as well asenvironment. The result of waste water effluent shows that the amount of impurities is under thelimits of NEQs.Table 5.9 Determination of amount of particles in waste effluentS.No. ParameterLab TestResultNEQS LimitingValue1 TEMPRETURE℃32≤ 3℃2 PH@ 258.1 6-93 Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) mg/l2725 35004 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) mg/l 322.7 4005 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) mg/l 88.4 2006 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)mg/l 54 2007 Lead mg/l 0 0.58 Oil & Grease mg/l 8.5 109 Phenolic Compounds as Phenol mg/l 0.05 0.3Figure 5.3 Temperature value of NRL with compared with NEQs
  73. 73. Figure 5.4 Amount of Total Dissolved solids of NRL compared with NEQsFigure 5.5 Values of COD, BOD and TDS in NRL compared with NEQs
  74. 74. Figure 5.6 Value of Grease and Oil in NRL compared with NEQs5.2.4 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
  75. 75. Volatile organic compounds are toxic in nature and harmful for human being, the amount ofhydrogen sulphide and volatile organic compounds, they are found in negligible amount in NRL atone or two places but overall condition of Volatile Organic Compounds are sustainable and do notcreate pollution. In NRL the amount of VOCs are not in abundant that cause illness or nay beharmful for human beings. The amount of VOCs and the area where they are present are shown intable 4.9Table 5.10 Determination of VOCs and H2S inside the refinery5.2.5 ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS IN NRL