Natural rresources conservation by Muhammad Fahad Ansari12IEEM14
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCESMuhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
Natural R esources - Introduction Natural resources are the materials that are needed to sustain life and livelihood on earth. A natural resource is anything people can use which comes from nature. People do not make natural resources, but gather them from the earth. They include AIR to breathe; WATER to drink; LAND to live on, walk on and grow food on; FOREST for timber, paper, wood, products and medicinal plants and MINERALS for metals, fuel, energy, etc.
Natural R esources Energy resources Mineral resources Forest resources Water resources Food resources Land resources
Classification of Natural R esources We often say there are two sorts of natural resource: renewable resources and non- renewable resources. A renewable resource grows again or comes back again after we use it. For example, sunlight, water, and trees are renewable resources. A non-renewable resource is a resource that does not grow or come back, or a resource that would take a very long time to come back. For example, coal is a non-renewable resource.
Classification of Natural R esources Renewable Non-Renewable Fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) Renewable energy Metallic minerals (copper, (solar, wind, biomass, hydropower, ocean aluminum, iron, gold etc) energy, geothermal Non-metallic minerals energy) (nitrate, sulfur, salts, coal, Water petroleum etc) Air Soil Plants and animals
Classification of Natural Resources **Forever/Everlasting/occurring continually
Conservation of Natural R esources When we use coal, there is less coal afterward. One day, there will be no more of it to make goods. The non-renewable resource can be used directly (for example, burning oil to cook), or we can find a renewable resource to use (for example, using wind energy to make electricity to cook). It is important to conserve (save) non- renewable resources, because if we use them too quickly there will not be enough.
Conservation of Natural R esources Every thing that human beings use is drawn from the natural resources. Hence, the human population is making an increasing demand over the natural resources. The increasing demand is attributed to the increased standards of living and excessive consumption of natural resources. Due to these factors the natural resources are depleting at a faster rate both quantitatively and qualitatively, which draws serious attention for conservation.
Conservation of Natural Resources The wise use of the earths resources by humanity. The term conservation came into use in the late 19th century and referred to the management, mainly for economic reasons, of such valuable natural resources as timber, fish, topsoil, pastureland, and minerals, and also to the preservation of forests, wildlife, parkland, wilderness, and watershed areas.
Conservation of Natural Resources In recent years the science of ecology has clarified the workings of the biosphere; i.e., the complex interrelationships among humans, other animals, plants, and the physical environment. At the same time burgeoning population and industry and the ensuing pollution have demonstrated how easily delicately balanced ecological relationships can be disrupted.
Conservation of Natural Resources Conservation of natural resources is now usually embraced in the broader conception of conserving the earth itself by protecting its capacity for self-renewal. Particularly complex are the problems of nonrenewable resources such as oil and coal and other minerals in great demand. Current thinking also favors the protection of entire ecological regions by the creation of "biosphere reserves“.
ENERGY RESOURCES Conventional/Commercial: sources used for mass generation of power/energy – Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas), hydropower and nuclear energy Non conventional/Non-commercial: sources used for generating power/energy in lesser magnitude – Biomass, solar, wind, geothermal, ocean energy.
ENERGY RESOURCES Renewable/Non-Exhaustable: sources which are continuously restored by nature – Water, solar, wind, biomass, geothermal etc. Non-renewable/Exhaustable: sources which once accumulated in nature, have practically ceased to form under new geologic conditions – Fossil and atomic fuels.
Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Sources NonrenewableRenewable
Fossil FuelsFossil fuels take millions ofyears to form. They are theproduct of the fossilizedremains of dead plants andanimals that have beenexposed to the heat andpressure deep within theearth’s crust. There are manytypes of fossil fuels, such aspetroleum (gasoline), naturalgas, and coal.
Fossil FuelsFossil fuels are arguablyone of the most valuablenatural resources inmodern times. It isestimated that 86 percent ofthe world’s energy comesdirectly from burning fossilfuels. Fossil fuels are thesource of energy for almostevery machine, includingthe generators that produceelectric energy.
Fossil FuelsBecause fossil fuels take solong to form, they are beingconsumed faster than theycan be produced. Fossilfuels are a major contributorto air pollution becausewhen they are burned theyrelease many dangerousgases such as nitrogendioxide, methane, andcarbon dioxide.
Questions About Fossil Fuels1. What creates or causes fossil fuels?2. Where can fossil fuels be found?3. Are fossil fuels a renewable resource?4. How can fossil fuels be used as an energy source?5. In what ways are fossil fuels a good source of energy?6. What are the disadvantages to using fossil fuels as a source of energy?
Answer s to Fossil Fuels 1. What creates or causes fossil fuels? Fossil fuels are the product of the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals that have been exposed to the heat and pressure. 2. Where can fossil fuels be found? They are found deep within the earth’s crust. 3. Are fossil fuels a renewable resource? No. Theoretically they are, but as they take so long to form they cannot possibly be replaced at the rate they are consumed.
Answers about Fossil Fuels 4. How can fossil fuels be used as an energy source? They are burned to create energy. 5. In what ways are fossil fuels a good source of energy? They are currently producing 86% of the world’s energy. 6. What are the disadvantages to using fossil fuels as a source of energy? They pollute, they are not renewable.
Solar EnergyThe sun is the closeststar to Earth. It bringsheat and light to theworld. Some areas ofthe world, such asthose closest to theequator, have moresun than others.
The sun shines naturally but it is not affected by human activity. It cannot be used up. However, its intensity varies with the seasons, and it is not available at night. SolarEnergy
Solar EnergyThe sun’s rays are usedfor energy by organismsthat undergophotosynthesis. Nearlyevery organism on theplanet gets energythrough photosynthesis,directly or indirectly.There are also ways thatpeople can utilize theenergy that the sunprovides.
Solar EnergyWe can use solarpower in simple(facing the sun to getwarm, usinggreenhouses to growfood, etc.) and morecomplex (solar panelsfor heating) ways.
Questions About Solar Energy1. What creates or causes solar energy?2. Where can solar energy be found?3. Is solar energy a renewable resource?4. How can solar energy be used as an energy source?5. In what ways is solar energy a good source of energy?6. What are the disadvantages to using solar energy as a source of energy?7. How do you use the resource of solar energy in your life, if at all?
Answers to Solar Energy1. What creates or causes solar energy? Solar energy comes from the sun.2. Where can solar energy be found? It can be found anywhere on Earth, in greater concentration closer to the equator.3. Is solar energy a renewable resource? Yes, it cannot be used up.4. How can solar energy be used as an energy source? It can be used for warmth, for light, and via solar panels to generate electricity.
Answers on Solar Energy5. In what ways is solar energy a good source of energy? It is renewable, it doesn’t cause pollution.6. What are the disadvantages to using solar power as a source of energy? It doesn’t work at night.7. How do you use the resource of solar energy in your life, if at all? Answers will vary.
WindWind is caused bythe uneven heatingof the atmosphere.Some areas of theworld, such as costalregions, have morewind than othersbecause the terrainof the area isrelatively flat andhas few obstacles toblock the wind fromblowing.
WindThe wind blows naturally – it is notcaused by human activity, and itcannot be used up. The power of the wind drives sailboats. It has been used to power windmills that grind grain. Windmills can also use the circular movement of the blades to turn a turbine. This is increasingly used as a means of generating electricity.
WindWind power does not makegreenhouse gas emissions.It does not directly causepollution. However, criticsof wind power say a largenumber of windmills couldcause problems foranimals, especiallymigratory birds. Somepeople think the windmillsare unattractive.
Questions About Wind1. What creates or causes wind?2. Where can wind be found?3. Is wind a renewable resource?4. How can wind be used as an energy source?5. In what ways is wind a good source of energy?6. What are the disadvantages to using wind as a source of energy?7. How do you use the resource of wind in your life, if at all?
Answers to Wind1. What creates or causes wind? Wind is caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere.2. Where can wind be found? It can be found everywhere, though it is greater in coastal regions and other relatively flat terrains.3. Is wind a renewable resource? Yes, because it cannot be used up.4. How can wind be used as an energy source? Wind can power windmills to power turbines to make electricity.
Answers to Wind (cont.)5. In what ways is wind a good source of energy? It doesn’t cause pollution and it is renewable.6. What are disadvantages to using wind as a source of energy? It could hurt some animals and some people think the windmills are ugly.7. How do you use the resource of wind in your life, if at all? Answers will vary.
Forests• A forest is a natural ecosystem having diversified species of plants, shrubs, small and large tress in different stages of lifespan.• There are forests all over the world. Forest cover about 1/3rd of the earth’s land surface, of which about 50% is occupied by tropical forest.
ForestsForests serve as home tomany of the organismsthat live on the land.Forests are also veryimportant because theyare major contributors torecycling and cleaningthe world supply ofoxygen. Forests alsoprovide wood, which isuseful both as aconstruction materialand as a fuel source.
ForestsForests occur naturally, but theycan be affected positively andnegatively by human behavior. Ifa forest is carefully replantedand allowed to grow, it can existin balance. If the forest is cutdown faster than it can growback, then it will be used upquickly.
The Importance of Trees• wind barriers• filtration• biodiversity• shade• erosion control• decreases noise pollution
Benefits of Trees in the Rural Environment• Wind protection for crops• Erosion control• Creates diverse plant and animal habitats• Purifies the air absorbing carbon monoxide, sulfurdioxide and nitrogen dioxide
Benefits of Trees in Suburban Environments• Shade canopy• Building Ecology• Noise Buffers• Habitat for suburban wildlife
Benefits of Trees in Urban Environments• Tree muffle urban noise.• A mature leafy tree produces asmuch oxygen in a season as 10people inhale in a year.• Trees help cleanse the air.• Trees can be cool!• Energy savers and windbreakers.
Questions About Forests1. What is a forest?2. Where can forests be found?3. Are forests a renewable resource?4. How can forests be used as an energy source?5. In what ways are forests a good source of energy?6. What are the disadvantages to using forests as a source of energy?7. How do you use the resource of forests in your life, if at all?
Answers to Forests1. What is a forest? A forest is an area with a lot of trees.2. Where can forests be found? Forests can be found all over the world.3. Are forests a renewable resource? Yes, if they are carefully replanted and allowed to grow. If it is cut down faster than it can grow, then it is not renewable.4. How can forests be used as an energy source? The wood can be burned for fuel.
Answers to Forests5. In what ways are forests a good source of energy? It can be renewable.6. What are the disadvantages to using forests as a source of energy? It pollutes; cutting down trees takes away animal homes and affects the oxygen in the world.7. How do you use the resource of forests in your life, if at all? Answers will vary.