Industrial hazards BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
Industrial hazards…? BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14“An accident often causing serious injury thatis job related in that it usually happened on awork site such as a factory floor orconstruction sites.”
an industry SO2 waste VOCs CO2 odourHg Raw water materials noise energy BOD
Main Compounds Carbon monoxide: CO Carbon dioxide: CO2 Nitrogen oxides: NOx/NO2 Sulphur oxides: SOx/SO2 Particulate Matter: PM10 Trace compounds Heavy metals such as Hg, Cd. Dioxins
More than 3,000 people die every day because of the work they do for a living 2 million global work related fatalities every year (estimated for year 2000)* 250 million accidents per year worldwide 160 million diseases are caused by people’s jobs World economic losses are equal to 4% of world wideR.Sangwan
Pan American HealthOrganization Impact of Occupational Injuries and Diseases• 36 Injuries/minute• 5 Million/year• 90,000 Fatal injuries/year• 300 Deaths/day• 9%-12% of GDP in LAC
The problem of industrial safety 8/11 BP accident in Texas City 15 workers killed 170 people injured Extensive damage to the plant and nearby townDailly Telegraph 2007 02 12, “Funds turn screw”A group of 39 UK public sector pension funds are turning thescrew on BP over the oil major’s safety failures. The LocalAuthority Person Fund Forum whose members have over 70* Richard Gowland (ETPIS Chairman), 1st ETPIS Mirror Group Meeting, EuropeanCouncil, March 2007, BrusselsE. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 6
Risk at Fertiliser Units… Chemicals Involved Ammonia Urea – Strong oxidizer, promotes explosive reaction with organic materials. Ammonium Nitrate – Strong oxidant that reacts with combustible and reducing7 material.
Risk at Fertiliser Units Criticalities Ammonia - Methamphetamines (Illegal Drug) Urea – As explosive Ammonium Nitrate – A typical Explosive Ammonia alone is used in about 1/3rd of all Risk Management Program8 chemical Process
Risk in Fertilizer Units Chemicals Handled in Ammonia-Urea Plants Natural Gas Naphtha Ammonia Other highly flammable gases viz. Carbon mono- oxide, Methane and Hydrogen9
Fundamentals of Electrical Hazards Have You Ever Been Shocked? THE BASICSBasic Electrical Safety
Fundamentals of Electrical Hazards √ More than 3 ma painful shock √ More than 10 ma muscle contraction “no-let-go” danger √ More than 30 ma lung paralysis- usually temporary √ More than 50 ma possible ventricular fib. (heart dysfunction, usually fatal) √ 100 ma to 4 amps certain ventricular fibrillation, fatal √ Over 4 amps heart paralysis; severe burns. Usually caused by >600 voltsBasic Electrical Safety
“ Present activities has outpaced the nature’s capacity to purify itand sustain its intrinsic strength”.
The Bhopal disaster or Bhopal gas tragedy was an industrialdisaster that took place at a Union Carbide pesticide plant in theIndian city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. At midnight on 3December 1984, the plant released an estimated 42 tonnes oftoxic methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, exposing more than 500,000people to MIC and other chemicals. The first official immediatedeath toll was 2,259. The government of Madhya Pradesh hasconfirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.Others estimate 8,000-10,000 died within 72 hours and 25,000have since died from gas-related diseases.
Safety Accidents Industrial Reason Impact Accidents Terra Inadequate Release of Ammonia.Industries Inc. indication of More then 20 employees Port Neal, Process condition affected Iowa Chernobyl Inadequate $ 200 BillionNuclear Plant, knowledge of More then 1 Lakh Ukraine process as well as people affected safety parameters Bhopal Gas Negligence in $ 500 MillionTragedy, India safety More then 20,000 people Operator Performance plays a crucial role in Safe plant operation affected14
Unsafe Condition Insufficient workspace lighting. Excessive noise. Slippery or unsafe floor. Extreme temperature exposer. Inadequate protection when working with hazardous material. Unstable structure. Electrical problem. Machine malfunctioning or failure.R.Sangwan 17
Unsafe Acts Actions or failure to act which result in injury. Employee negligence. Organizational Error. “Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.”R.Sangwan 18
Safety in Industry Safety in Industry Safety means protection of Humans Plants & Machinery Surrounding Environment Gains obtained by ignoring safety aspects are for short terms and not sustainable. “Developing and providing Sustainable Technologies results in Sustainable Development and improvedR.Sangwan Profits.
Prevention Works management should control major hazard installations by sound engineering and management practices. good plant design, fabrication and installation, including the use of high-standard components. regular plant maintenance; good plant operation; good management of safety on site; regular inspection of the installation, with repair and replacement of components where necessary.R.Sangwan 20