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2. 2. 3 KINDS OF MATTER Elements Compounds Mixtures
3. 3. Elements All (living and nonliving) of the different kinds of matter in the universe is made from about 100 different substances, called elements. Elements are called the building blocks of matter because all matter is composed of elements. Each element is made up of the same type of atoms.
4. 4. Compounds A compound is a substance made of two or more different kinds of elements chemically combined in a specific ratio. Each compound is represented by a formula that uses symbols to identify which elements are present. A formula shows the ratio of elements in the compound. H2O – ratio of Hydrogen is 2:1 Oxygen
5. 5.  The symbols make up the formula. A formula is just chemical shorthand for the compound. The subscript lets us know how many atoms are present. The coefficient lets us know how many molecules are present.
6. 6. Compounds
7. 7. Molecules A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically. Diatomic molecules are made of two atoms of the same element. Hydrogen – H2 Oxygen – O2
8. 8. What is the difference between acompound and a molecule? A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically. A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements. All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds.
9. 9.  Molecular hydrogen (H2), molecular oxygen (O2) and molecular nitrogen (N2) are not compounds because each is composed of a single element. Water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are compounds because each is made from more than one element.
10. 10. Molecule The smallest bit of each of these substances would be referred to as a molecule. For example, a single molecule of molecular hydrogen is made from two atoms of hydrogen. A single molecule of water is made from two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.
11. 11. Mixtures  Most matter in the universe is found in mixtures.  A mixture is made from two or more substances either elements, compounds or both - that are not chemically combined.
12. 12. Mixtures and compounds differ in two ways…Substances in a mixture keep their individual properties. Parts of a mixture are notnecessarily present in specific ratios.
13. 13. Compound A compound has properties different than the elements that make it up. The parts of a compound are present in specific ratio’s.
14. 14. Compounds and Mixtures Most of the matter around you is in the form of compounds or mixtures. Water, carbon dioxide, salt, vinegar, baking soda, lye, sugar, gasoline, and bleach are all chemical compounds.
15. 15. Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture in which different materials can be easily distinguished. Pizza, dry soup, chex mix, trail mix are all examples.
16. 16. Solutions Homogeneous mixture: is a substance in which two or more substances are uniformly spread out. For example salt water. Solution is another term for homogeneous mixture.
17. 17. Solutions Solute is the substance being dissolved. Solvent is the substance that dissolves a solute. Solubility is the amount of a substance (solute) that will dissolve in a solvent.
18. 18. Example Salt water: The water is the solvent NaCl is the solute
19. 19. Colloids and Suspensions A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture that like a solution never settles. Milk and smoke are examples. One way to tell a colloid from a solution is because milk is appears white because its particles scatter light. Called the Tyndall Effect.
20. 20. Colloids 100 80 60 E ast 40 20 West 0 N orth 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. The particles are relatively large and are kept permanently suspended.
21. 21. Colloids  A colloid will not separate upon standing.  The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy.
22. 22. suspension A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which visible particles settle. River water
23. 23. Kinetic theory of matter The idea that all matter is made up of constantly moving tiny particles.
24. 24. THANK YOU!