Agriculture pollution notes BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
1 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM141- Define Eutrophication, 6 stages of Eutrophicationprocess and stages of Eutrophication?DefinitionsEutrophication - "Eutrophication is defined as an increase in the rate of supplyof organic matter in an ecosystem.” - Nixon, 1995Eutrophication - “The process by which a body of water acquires a highconcentration of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates. These typicallypromote excessive growth of algae. As the algae die and decompose, high levelsof organic matter and the decomposing organisms deplete the water of availableoxygen, causing the death of other organisms, such as fish. Eutrophication is anatural, slow-aging process for a water body, but human activity greatly speedsup the process.” - Art, 1993Eutrophication - “The term eutrophic means well-nourished; thus,eutrophication refers to natural or artificial addition of nutrients to bodies ofwater and to the effects of the added nutrients….When the effects areundesirable, eutrophication may be considered a form of pollution.” - NationalAcademy of Sciences, 1969Eutrophication – “The enrichment of bodies of fresh water by inorganic plantnutrients (e.g. nitrate, phosphate). It may occur naturally but can also be theresult of human activity (cultural eutrophication from fertilizer runoff andsewage discharge) and is particularly evident in slow-moving rivers and shallowlakes … Increased sediment deposition can eventually raise the level of the lakeor river bed, allowing land plants to colonize the edges, and eventuallyconverting the area to dry land.” - Lawrence and Jackson, 1998
2 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14Eutrophic – “Waters, soils, or habitats that are high in nutrients; in aquaticsystems, associated with wide swings in dissolved oxygen concentrations andfrequent algal blooms.” - Committee on Environment and Natural Resources,2000
3 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM142 - What is fertilizer?A fertilizer is any material, organic or inorganic, natural or synthetic, thatsupplies plants with the necessary nutrients for plant growth and optimum yield.Organic fertilizers are natural materials of either plant or animal origin, includinglivestock manure, green manures, crop residues, household waste, compost,and woodland litter. Inorganic (or mineral) fertilizers are fertilizers mined frommineral deposits with little processing (e.g., lime, potash, or phosphate rock), orindustrially manufactured through chemical processes (e.g., urea). Inorganicfertilizers vary in appearance depending on the process of manufacture. Theparticles can be of many different sizes and shapes (crystals, pellets, granules,or dust) and the fertilizer grades can include straight fertilizers (containing onenutrient element only), compound fertilizers (containing two or more nutrientsusually combined in a homogeneous mixture by chemical interaction) andfertilizer blends (formed by physically blending mineral fertilizers to obtaindesired nutrient ratios).3 - What are the differences between organic and inorganicfertilizers in terms of their use?Organic fertilizers: Soil fertility on smallholder farms is almost entirelydependant on locally available resources. Cattle manure, cereal and legumestover, and woodland litter are the commonly used organic fertilizers, but theseare rarely applied in sufficient quantities to impact on crop yields. The use ofhigh quality organic fertilizers is rarely practised, although through research andextension activities in Africa, some farmers now include legume green manuresor legume-based fallows in crop sequences. The main advantage of usingorganic fertilizers is that, compared to mineral fertilizers, they are usuallyavailable on or near the farm at very little or no cost other than labor costs ofhandling, transportation, or opportunity costs of land used for their production.
4 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14Inorganic (mineral) fertilizers: Mineral fertilizers need to be applied to cropat least two times within a growing season (split application), either basally atplanting or top-dressed during vegetative growth. The amount of inorganicfertilizer used in most smallholder farming systems falls far below standardextension recommendations, due to poor purchasing power, risk aversion due topoor and unreliable rainfall, and lack of significant returns. When available,fertilizer use is not overly labor intensive, thus allowing time for other tasks (orfor earning income elsewhere).4 - What are the differences between organic and inorganicfertilizers in terms of application?The method and timing of fertilizer application is an essential component ofgood farming. For organic materials, decomposition rate and timing ofapplication influence the release of nutrients to the crop. Organic fertilizerapplication methods include broadcasting, banding, and spot application (orside-dressing). Broadcasting requires less labor and helps to evenly cover thefield surface before incorporation into soil through plowing or hand-hoeing.Incorporation generally increases the fertility status of the whole plow layer. Ifthe quantity of organic fertilizer is limited, it may be banded along furrows orspot applied, but the seed needs to be placed away from the fertilizer. Side-dressed organic fertilizers are not likely to have much immediate effect due todelayed nutrient release.Mineral fertilizers can be applied by hand or with application equipment. Whenhand applied, it is essential to distribute the fertilizers uniformly and at therecommended rates to avoid over- or under-fertilization. Application equipmentneeds proper adjustment to ensure uniform spreading. Broadcast fertilizershould be incorporated after application to enhance effectiveness or to avoidevaporation losses of N. With banding or spot application, take care that no
5 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14fertilizer is placed too close to either the seed or the germinating plant, to avoiddamage to the seedling or roots.5 - Discuss the Major limitations of organic and inorganicfertilizersOrganic fertilizers• Generally require large amounts to have desired effects• Extra investment in labor for harvesting (green manures) and preparation(cattle manure)• Unavailability of seed for green manures is one of the major limitations• Quality for most has to be enhanced by combining with expensive mineralfertilizers• Green manures must occupy land at a time when other food crops couldbe grown.Mineral/ inorganic fertilizers• Require high purchasing power• Availability is an obstacle, especially in remote areas• Need to be applied seasonally• High risk in low rainfall and very high rainfall areas6 - What is Crop Residue?The crop residue is the material left after the harvesting of crop and byproductof agriculture based industry.
6 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM147 - Types of Crop Residue?Field residueField residue are materials left in an agricultural field or orchard after thecrop has been harvested. These residue includes stalks and stubble (stems),leaves and seed pods. Good management of field residue can increase efficiency ofirrigation and control of erosione.g. stalks, leaves, and stems etcProcessed residueProcess residue are those materials left after the processing of the cropinto a usable resource. These residue include husks, seeds, bagasse and roots.They can be used as animal fodder and manufacture of organic manure viz.vermicomposte.g. seed, bagasse, and roots etc8 - Where the crop residue can use?Livestock feedCompostMushroom CultureBiomass energy productionProduction of base material for Oyster mushroom productionBedding material for animalsBiogas generationRaw material for industryFuelProduction of vermicompostAs packing material and thatching of houses, compost pit etc.
7 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM149 - Benefits of Nutrient Management PlanNMPs are designed to balance nutrient applications with crop needs inorder to protect water quality and enhance farm profitability.Complex process affected by weather, production objectives, equipmentavailability and economics.Reduced risk of polluting surface waters and groundwater as a result ofimproper nutrient application.Efficient integration of commercial fertilizers and other nutrient sources,such as manure or bio-solids, to reduce fertilizer costs.Improved recommendations that help achieve maximum economic yields.10 - Positive Impacts of Fertilizer use on the EnvironmentReduces soil erosion to maintain soil productivity and decrease pollution ofsurface waters.Is key to producing efficient root systems to help reduce pollution ofground water.Greatly improves land-use efficiency.Assists in the safe disposal of degradable wastes in landredemption/reclamation.Sustains green top growth, essential to gaseous exchange and carbonsequestration associated with energy conservation.11 - IPM (Integrated Pest Management)What is IPM?An effective & environmentally sensitive approach to pest managementRelies on a combination of commonsense practicesMay include the judicious use of pesticides.A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest managementtechniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically
8 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14injurious levels. Each pest management technique must beenvironmentally sound and compatible with producer objectives.12 - What are IPM strategies?u Physical controlsu Habitat modificationu Exclusionu caulking, sealingu putting up screensu air doorsu Mechanical controlsu SanitationCultural controls, for example-To maintain a healthy lawn:u Develop healthy soil.u Choose the right grass type.u Mow high, often.u Water deeply.u Reduce thatch build-up.u Set realistic goals.u Biological controls - Bt, nematodes, parasitic wasps, beneficialinsectsu Least hazardous pesticides used only when absolutely necessary.For example: Baits - gel, tamper-proof containers.
9 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM1413 - Define agriculture bio diversity?• The variety of life on Earth at all its levels, from genes toecosystems, and the ecological and evolutionary processes thatsustain it.• The variability among living organisms and the ecologicalcomplexes of which they are part, including the diversity withinspecies, between species and of ecosystems.’The variety and variability of animals, plants and micro-organisms useddirectly or indirectly for food and agriculture (including, in the FAOdefinition, crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries). It comprises thediversity of genetic resources (varieties, breeds, etc.) and species usedfor food, fodder, fibre, fuel and pharmaceuticals. It also includes thediversity of non-harvested species that support production (e.g. soilmicro-organisms, predators, pollinators and so on) and those in thewider environment that support agro-ecosystems (agricultural,pastoral, forest and aquatic), as well as the diversity of the agro-ecosystems themselves.It has also been defined as:Agricultural biodiversity encompasses the variety and variability ofanimals, plants and micro-organisms which are necessary to sustainkey functions of the agro-ecosystem, its structure and processes for,and in support of, food production and food security. (FAO, 1999)14 - WHAT IS HAPPENING TO AGRICULTURAL BIODIVERSITY?These locally diverse food production systems are under threat and,with them, the accompanying local knowledge, culture and skills of thefood producers. With this decline, agricultural biodiversity isdisappearing and the scale of loss is extensive and with thedisappearance of harvested species, varieties and breeds goes a widerange of unharvested species.
10 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14• More than 90 per cent of crop varieties have disappeared fromfarmers fields;• Half of the breeds of many domestic animals have been lost.• In fisheries, all the worlds 17 main fishing grounds are now beingfished at or above their sustainable limits, with many fishpopulations effectively becoming extinct.The genetic erosion of agricultural biodiversity is also exacerbated bythe loss of forest cover, coastal wetlands and other wild uncultivatedareas, and the destruction of the aquatic environment. This leads tolosses of wild relatives, important for the development of biodiversity,and losses of wild foods essential for food provision, particularly intimes of crisis.15 - WHAT ARE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF THE LOSSES OFAGRICULTURAL BIODIVERSITY?There are many causes of this decline, which has been acceleratingthroughout the 20th century in parallel with the demands of anincreasing population and greater competition for natural resources.The principal underlying causes include:• The rapid expansion of industrial and Green Revolutionagriculture, intensive livestock production, industrial fisheries andaquaculture (some production systems using genetically modifiedvarieties and breeds) that cultivate relatively few crop varieties inmonocultures, rear a limited number of domestic animal breeds,or fish for, or cultivate, few aquatic species.• Globalisation of the food system and marketing, and the extensionof industrial patenting and other intellectual property systems toliving organisms, which have led to the widespread cultivation andrearing of fewer varieties and breeds for a more uniform, lessdiverse but more competitive global market.As a consequence there has been:
11 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14• Marginalisation of small-scale, diverse food production systemsthat conserve farmers varieties of crops and breeds of domesticanimals, which form the genetic pool for food and agriculture inthe future.• Reduced integration of livestock in arable production, whichreduces the diversity of uses for which livestock are needed.• Reduced use of nurture fisheries techniques, that conserve anddevelop aquatic biodiversity.Genetic erosion is the loss of genetic diversity, including the loss ofindividual genes,102 and the loss of particular combinations of genes(i.e. of gene-complexes ) such as those manifested in locallyadapted landraces. The term “genetic erosion” is sometimes used ina narrow sense, i.e. the loss of genes or alleles, as well as morebroadly, referring to the loss of varieties. The main cause of geneticerosion in crops, as reported by almost all countries, is thereplacement of local varieties by improved or exotic varieties andspecies. As old varieties in farmers’ fields are replaced by newerones, genetic erosion frequently occurs because the genes and genecomplexes found in the diverse farmers’ varieties are not containedin toto in the modern variety. In addition, the sheer number ofvarieties is often reduced when commercial varieties are introducedinto traditional farming systems. While some indicators of geneticerosion have been developed, according to FAO (1996, 1998) therehave been few systematic studies of the genetic erosion of cropgenetic diversity which have provided quantifiable estimates of theactual rates of genotypic or allelic extinction in PGRFA. Nearly allcountries say, in Country Reports to FAO in 1996, that geneticerosion is taking place and that it is a serious problem.Variety replacement is the main cause of losses. The replacement oflocal varieties or landraces by improved and/or exotic varieties andspecies is reported to be the major cause of genetic erosion around theworld. It is also cited as the major cause of genetic erosion in all
12 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14regions except Africa. Examples are mentioned in 81 Country Reports,of which a number are highlighted below. • A survey of farmhouseholds in the Republic of Korea showed that of 14 crops cultivatedin home gardens, an average of only 26% of the landraces cultivatedthere in 1985 were still present in 1993. The retention rate did notexceed 50% for any crop, and for two crops it was zero. These resultsare disturbing as such home gardens have traditionally been importantconservation sites, especially for vegetable crops.103 • In China, in1949, nearly 10,000 wheat varieties were used in production. By the1970s, only about 1,000 varieties remained in use. Statistics from the1950s show that local varieties accounted for 81% of production,locally produced improved varieties made up 15% and introducedvarieties 4%. By the 1970s, these figures had changed drastically;locally produced improved varieties accounted for 91% of production,introduced varieties 4% and local varieties only 5%. (FAO 1996, 1998)16 - Describe the soil conservation practices?Soil conservation is maintaining good soil health, by various practices.The aim of soil conservation is to prevent soil erosion, prevent soilsoveruse and prevent soil contamination from chemicals. There arevarious measures that are used to maintain soil health, and prevent theabove harms to soil.Soil Conservation StrategiesThere are many ways to conserve soil, some are suited to those areaswhere farming is done, and some are according to the soil needs. Hereare the various soil conservation practices.Planting VegetationThis is one of the most effective and cost saving strategies. Thismeasure is among soil conservation technique used by farmers. Byplanting trees, grass, plants, soil erosion can be greatly prevented.Plants help to stabilize the properties of soil, and trees act as a windbarrier and prevent soil from being blown away.This is also among strategies used for soil conservation in urban areas,one can plant trees and plants in the landscape areas of the residential
13 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14places. The best choices for vegetation are herbs, small trees, plantswith wild flowers, and creepers which provide a ground cover.Contour PlowingContour farming or plowing is used by farmers, wherein they plowacross a slope and follow the elevation contour lines. This methodprevents water run-off, and thus prevents soil erosion by allowingwater to slowly penetrate the soil.Maintaining the Soil pHThe measurement of soils acidity or alkalinity is done by measuring thesoil pH levels. Soil gets polluted due to the addition of basic or acidicpollutants which can be countered by maintaining the desirable pH ofsoil.Soil OrganismsWithout the activities performed by soil organisms, the organic materialrequired by plants will litter and wont be available for plant growth.Using beneficial soil organisms like earthworms, helps in aeration of soiland makes the macro-nutrients available for the plants. Thus, the soilbecomes more fertile and porous.Crop Rotation PracticeCrop rotation is the soil conservation method where a series of differentcrops are planted one after the other in the same soil area. Thismethod is used greatly in organic farming. It is done to prevent theaccumulation of pathogens, which occur if the same plants are grown inthe soil, and also depletion of nutrients.Watering the SoilWe water plants and trees, but it is equally important to water soil tomaintain its health. Soil erosion occurs if the soil is blown away bywind. By watering and settling the soil, one can prevent soil erosionfrom the blowing away of soil by wind. One of the effective soilconservation ways in India is the drip irrigation system which provideswater to the soil without the water running-off.Salinity ManagementExcessive collection of salts in the soil has harmful effects on themetabolism of plants. Salinity can lead to death of the vegetation andthus cause soil erosion, which is why salinity management is important.
14 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14TerracingTerracing is among one of the best soil conservation method, wherecultivation is done on a terrace leveled section of land. In terracing,farming is done on a unique step like structure and the possibility ofwater running off is slowed down.Bordering from Indigenous CropsIt is preferable to native plants, but when native plants are not plantedthen bordering the crops with indigenous crops is necessary. This helpsto prevent soil erosion, and this measure is greatly opted in poor ruralareas.No-tilling Farming MethodThe process of soil being plowed for farming is called tilling, whereinthe fertilizers is mixed and the rows for plantation are created.However, this method leads to death of beneficial soil organisms, lossof organic matter and compaction of soil. Due to these side effects, theno-tilling strategy is used to conserve soil health.These were the 10 ways to conserve soil used across the world. Soil isa very important constituent, and is developed by a long process ofweathering and disintegration of rocks which turn into sand or clay. Theclay like fertile soil provides home to organisms like earthworms,beetles, ants which live in it. Soil provides anchorage to plants andtrees. The plants and trees provide home to birds and animals. Thecrops growing on the soil provide us food and clothes. Thus, soildefines the quality of life around it, which is why it is important to usethese methods. Branches of environmental science like Earth scienceare constantly trying to find new methods, for maintaining theecological balance. In different parts of world people studying soilscience, are coming up with different new beneficial soil conservationtechniques.Water conservation Strategy17 - Water Conservation Strategy of Pakistan?
15 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14To work out a sound and cogent water conservation strategy is theneed of the time, as demand for water continues to rise because ofincreasing use of water in agriculture and industry for the purpose ofeconomic development and due to rapid growth of population, whereasthere is limited supply of water. Water management is the biggestchallenge of 21st century confronted by the country, as irrigatedagriculture is 24 percent of GDP, the livelihood for the majority ofcountry and input of agrobased industry/exports. It has been madeknown that a considerable amount of water is lost during its 14conveyance for the seepage in the lengthy canals. Proper lining of thecanal system could reduce these losses. According to a WAPDA Reportmore than 5 MAF of irrigation could be saved by lining of minor canalsand addition 3.6 MAF could be saved by improvement of water courses.It is heartening to note that Government of the Punjab has introducedmodern telemetery system to check and control water theft by thefarmers. In order to overcome the menacing challenge of watershortage and its losses, it has become imperative to work on the linesof “Blue Revolution” which is threshold of the strategy meant formaking use of more effective techniques and obtaining optimum resultsfor reduction in water losses. The definition of “Blue Revolution” hasbeen coined as a system of drip irrigation that delivers water directly tothe roots of crops by cutting use of water by 30 to 70 percent andraising crop yield on the average by 20 to 90 percent.The Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-10 proposesa water conservation strategy with the aim to improve the performanceand utilization of water supply and sanitation system and reducingfinancial dependence on the Federal and Provincial Governmentspertains to i) adoption of integrated approach, rational resource use,and the introduction of water efficient techniques, (ii) containment ofenvironment degradation, (iii) institutional strengthening, capacitybuilding and human resource development (HRD), (iv) improvingperformance and utilization of local systems through better planning,management and community participation; (v) improving quality of lifeand easy access to water supply, especially for women, (vi) improvingsanitation through sewerage and drainage schemes, (vii) promotingincreased take up of household sanitation, and (viii) improving theunderstanding of the linkages between hygiene and health throughcommunity education campaigns, especially among the women and
16 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14children. Apart from MTDF strategy following recommendations areproposed in the contest of water conservation and management;• Crash programme for cleaning of water channels includingcanals/water courses and distributaries.• Participatory water management at secondary tertiary level incollaboration with provincial irrigation departments.• Regulating ground water pumpage by issuance of licenses to checkoverdraft of aquifer.• Better water management for increasing cropping intensity withriver line area.• Technical land leveling, surge irrigation, high irrigation efficiencytechnology including drip and sprinkler.• Strengthening of institutional capacity building improving financialsustainability.• Better and more efficient use of funds.• To harness the uncultivated lands for irrigation purpose, storage offlood water during Monsoon season by construction of a series ofsmall dams/reservoirs on the barren lands and Barani areas ofNorthern Punjab, NWFP and Balochistan.• Attracting more foreign investment by making an enrollmentlucrative to it.• Launching of incentive based public campaign emphasizingconservation of water at all levels.18 - What is Agro meteorology?Agro meteorology is the study and use of weather and climateinformation to enhance or expand agricultural crops and/or to increasecrop production. Agro meteorology mainly involves the interaction ofmeteorological and hydrological factors, on one hand and agriculture,which encompasses horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry.19- Site selection for Agro meteorology?• The site of an agro meteorological station should be fairly leveland free from obstructions.
17 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14• Grass cover and weeds should be removed and grass in andaround the enclosure should be frequently mown to keep ituniformly short.• Site should not be concrete, asphalt or crushed stone.• Obstructions such as trees, buildings and nearby shrubs shouldnot be closer to the instruments than eight to ten times theirheight.• No obstructions should cast shadows during the greater part ofthe day.• Ideally, the weather station should be located in a place trulyrepresentative of the natural conditions in the agricultural regionconcerned.• Accessibility to the weather station - taking observations andmaintenance.• Fencing - to minimize tampering by animals and people.20 -Discuss the Forecasting Techniques in Crop Production1 - Yield forecast using weather parametersWeather affects crop differently during different stages of crop growth.Thus extent of weather influence on crop yield depends not only on themagnitude of weather variables but also on the distribution pattern ofweather over the crop season which, as such, calls for the necessity ofdividing the whole crop season into fine intervals. This will increasenumber of variables in the model and in turn a large number ofparameters will have to be evaluated from the data. This will require along series of data for precise estimation of the parameters which maynot be available in practice. Thus, a technique based on relativelysmaller number of manageable parameters and at the same timetaking care of entire weather distribution may solve the problem.2 - Yield forecast based on plant characters
18 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14Effects of weather and inputs are manifested through crop stand,number of tillers, leaf area, number of ear heads etc. which ultimatelydetermine crop yield. As such, plant characters can be taken as theintegrated effects of various weather parameters and crop inputs. Thusthe other approach to forecast crop yield is to use plant characters.3 - Models using spectral dataSince the approach using plant characters requires collection of datafrom farmers fields, the data can be used on characters which can bemeasured easily without involving much expertise, cost andsophisticated instruments. Some characters contributing significantlytowards yield may not find place in the model due to these limitations.This calls for the necessity of including some other variables in themodel along with biometrical characters which could take care of suchvariables indirectly.4 - Models using spectral dataSince the approach using plant characters requires collection of datafrom farmers fields, the data can be used on characters which can bemeasured easily without involving much expertise, cost andsophisticated instruments. Some characters contributing significantlytowards yield may not find place in the model due to these limitations.This calls for the necessity of including some other variables in themodel along with biometrical characters which could take care of suchvariables indirectly.5 - Models using Farmers AppraisalAppraisal in the forecast model for sugarcane. (Agrawal and Jain,1996). The results revealed that a reliable forecast could be obtainedusing plant population and farmers’ appraisal.6 - Integrated approachForecasting Techniques in Crops Models using data on plant charactersalongwith agricultural inputs were found to be better than models
19 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14based on plant characters alone in jowar and apple (Jain et al. 1985;Chandrahas and Narain, 1992). Often it is not possible to include allthe variables in a single model. In such situations composite forecastcan be obtained as a suitable combination of forecasts obtained fromdifferent models. Various strategies for combining forecasts have beensuggested under different situations. (S.C.Mehta, 2000 ).21 - Chemical characteristics of pesticidesSolubility The ability of a pesticide to dissolve in a solvent, usually water Soluble pesticides are more likely to move with water in surfacerunoff or through the soil to groundwaterAdsorption Higher with oil-soluble pesticides Clay and organic matter increase binding Decreases the potential for a pesticide to move throughsoil.Persistence Ability of a pesticide to remain present and active for along time Provides for long-term pest control, but may harmsensitive plants and animals May lead to illegal residues on rotational cropsVolatility
20 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14 Fumigants volatilize and move gas through soil, structuresor stored commodities Several herbicides are quite volatile and pose harm whenthe vapor moves off target Labels may state cut-off temperatures for application Labels may require pesticide to be incorporated into soil22 - How we save groundwater from pesticide Use IPM Consider the geology Where is the water table? Are there sinkholes nearby? Consider soil characteristics Is it susceptible to leaching? Select pesticides carefully Is it susceptible to leaching?Follow label directions
21 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14 Identify vulnerable areas Sandy soils Sinkholes Wells Streams Ponds Shallow groundwater Handle pesticides to ensure pesticide or wastes do notcontaminate soils Calibrate accurately and check for leaks! Measure accurately and do not over apply Mix Location Do not mix and loadnear water or drains;consider a mix/load pad Don’t mix at the samelocation each time;unless you have a mix/load pad Air gap: keep the water supply above the level of themixture Install a back-siphon valve (check valve) Clean up and avoid spills Dispose of wastes properly Triple rinse containers; use the rinse water in spraytank
22 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14 Store pesticides away from water sources DO NOT apply pesticides if heavy rain is in the forecast!
23 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14Water Logging and Salinity causes and effects
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29 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14Wastewater reuse in agricultureIntroductionThe very rapid urban growth of the last few decades has produced increasing demandsfor potable water. As a result of this growth and the associated industrialisation, near-urban surface water resources typically become either fully utilised or of poor qualityunless the city is located on a major river system.The improved sanitation coverage in large cities with water-borne sewerage systemsproduces enormous volumes of wastewater for disposal. With the increasing scarcity offreshwater resources in arid and semi-arid regions, but ever-growing demand for moreefficient food production for the expanding populations, much wider recognition isbeing given to wastewater as an important resource. Wastewater reuse is likely tobecome more widely practised, and it is already becoming incorporated into somenational water resources management plans, and therefore will need to be takenaccount of in groundwater protection strategies.The expanding demand for groundwater for potable supply and the desire to utilisewastewater to conserve scarce freshwater often occur together, and wastewater reusecan have major impacts on groundwater. In some situations, the substantial volumes ofadditional recharge may completely alter the local hydrogeology. The impacts may beboth positive for water conservation and negative in relation to groundwater quality.Improper disposal of untreated wastewater directly into aquifers or use for irrigation atthe ground surface above important aquifers can cause serious pollution problems. Onthe other hand, properly controlled and managed reuse can provide significantadditional resources of good quality nutrient-rich water for arable agriculturalpurposes.
30 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14APPROACHES TO WASTEWATER REUSE AND IRRIGATIONThe methods employed to reuse wastewater for irrigation vary considerably, dependingon the volumes of water and areas of land available, the level of treatment employed,the types of crops to be irrigated, the level of technical capacity and investment of thefarmers and environmental considerations. The typical, but probably not exhaustiverange is shown in the table below.Thus, the scale ranges from localised, peri-urban, often informal irrigation of smallgardens by collected but untreated wastewater, with simple irrigation methods and fewcontrols, to the large, canal commanded irrigation schemes of thousands of hectares,but still using untreated wastewater, to highly sophisticated, heavily controlled andmanaged soil aquifer treatment in which the re-abstracted, fully treated effluent can beused to grow any type of crop using sophisticated and efficient irrigation techniques.
31 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14PROTECTING GROUNDWATER QUALITY FROM WASTEWATERIRRIGATION-LESSONS FROM MEXICOWastewater irrigation can pose direct health risks to the farmers and to the consumersof the crops grown, and can cause various quality deteriorations over time to theirrigated soils and to surface water and groundwater resources. The WHO Guidelinesfor Wastewater Reuse are intended primarily to help reduce the risks to workers andconsumers from microbiological contaminants, rather than to protect the receivingsurface waters or groundwater from deterioration in chemical quality. From the generalcharacteristics of urban wastewater summarised in chapter 5, elevated concentrationsof salinity, nutrients, organic carbon, pathogens and suspended solids can be expected.Where a significant industrial component of wastewater exists, this will provide addedpollutant concentrations that reflect the proportion of industrial effluents and the typeof industries, such as heavy metals and specific industrial organic compounds such asthe halogenated solvents.Agricultural Waste Management and controlWhat is Waste Management?The proper management of waste from agricultural operations can contribute in asignificant way to farm operations. Waste management helps maintain a healthyenvironment for farm animals and can reduce the need for commercial fertilizers whileproviding other nutrients needed for crop production. Agricultural waste typicallyassociated with animals includes but is not limited to manure, bedding and litter,wasted feed, runoff from feedlots and holding areas, and wastewater from buildingslike dairy parlors.Best management practices (BMPs) such as rotational grazing and pasture renovationto maintain adequate vegetative cover, riparian buffers, and structures built to trap or
32 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14retain waste should be utilized in order to prevent contamination of both surface watersand groundwater. When this waste is carried in overland flow from rain events, it iscategorized as a nonpoint source pollutant, or one that originates from diffuse areas ofland. Nonpoint source pollutants are one of the primary water quality problems in theUnited States. Furthermore, runoff and waste that does not pass through a vegetatedbuffer zone along the waterbody is likely to result in bank erosion and subsequentproperty loss.Why be concerned about waste management?If not managed properly, agricultural waste from farm operations can pollute theenvironment resulting in impacts to water quality and a general loss of aesthetics. Thedegradation of water quality can impact adjacent waterways and groundwater bothonsite and offsite. This degradation reduces the ability of these resources to supportaquatic life and water for human and animal consumption. Nitrates, which arecommonly associated with fertilizers and agricultural waste runoff, can seep intogroundwater. Well water contaminated with nitrates is hazardous to humans,particularly for infants, as it results in oxygen depletion in the blood. As alluded toabove, proper waste management can reduce operating costs associated with fertilizerapplication if managed properly.What are the benefits of waste management?Like most other aspects of agricultural production, there are requirements for theapplication and management of agricultural waste on farms. However, the primaryreasons behind managing agricultural waste make good sense both environmentallyand economically. Where feasible, the reuse of animal waste in farming operations canreduce the quantity and hauling costs of commercial fertilizer. The contribution ofanimal waste increases the organic matter content of soils, which not only increases
33 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14nutrient availability for crops but also improves the water holding capacity and tilth ofthe soil. Good waste management reduces the instances of well water contaminationand minimizes surface water pollution.How would one implement waste management?Fortunately, there are planning documents and BMP options available to farmers formanaging agricultural waste. Waste management is commonly part of an overallnutrient management plan developed for a farm. These plans play an integral role inthe comprehensive waste management planning process and are used to spell out howfarmers intend to maximize the benefit of nutrients available from farm waste productsto benefit crop production and minimize environmental impact. Although State andFederal governments are demanding more accountability in agricultural wastemanagement, many such plans are developed voluntarily as an important aspect of thebusiness. Developing a plan for how waste is managed on your farm not only aids inthe tracking of operational costs and the making of better management decisions; it canalso be used to leverage State and Federal funding assistance. Self-regulation protectsprivate property rights and reduces the need for governmental control and regulations.Site-specific waste management strategies should be developed and adhered to inorder to maximize the cost efficiency and adequately protect local environmentalresources. This will require that routine soil and waste testing take place to match thecrop needs to the nutrients available. By tracking the timing and application rates(quantity) of agricultural waste required, the space required to store operational wastecan be determined.Waste can be stored as a solid in building structures, or as a liquid in holding ponds oranaerobic lagoons. Being able to store waste in an acceptable form until it is needed isa critical component of a waste management strategy. If waste is not handled properlyor is not applied at the right time, valuable nutrients are lost and environmental andhuman and animal health problems are created. Besides the management practices
34 | P a g e BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14noted above, the BMPs listed below can be used to improve waste handling andapplication:Avoid over-application by only applying manure to crops that can benefit from thenutrients;Do not apply waste to fields when heavy rain is expected and runoff potential ishigh;Exclude livestock from sensitive areas such as riparian buffers and wetlands;Locate winter feeding areas in a relatively flat upland area;Do not spread waste near waterways;Employ other conservation practices that minimize runoff and erosion to fieldswhere waste is applied;Avoid spillage or overflow of lagoons, ponds and structures used to house waste;Regularly check waste application equipment and make sure it is calibrated;Where possible, divert runoff from land above livestock areas and away fromnearby surface waters and wells;If an alternative water supply source is unavailable for livestock, create dedicated,limited access points to streams for drinking; andConsider adding flush gutters to livestock confinement systems to confine waste forfuture application.Other ways to improve waste management on farms is to routinely check areas wherefuel and chemicals are stored for spills and leaks and to be sure your farm is incompliance with applicable storage and handling regulations. Keeping up-to-date ontechnologies designed to improve waste management such as composters for disposingof livestock mortalities and integrating them into your waste management strategy isalso good practice.