Emergency Lighting- David Wright


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David is Managing Director of Jor¬dan UK and ELP Ltd and is a member of LIF Council, Chairman of ICEL and represents the emergency lighting industry on several British and Euro¬pean Standards Committees.
His presentation will cover the standards and legal requirements driving emergency lighting applica¬tions.

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Emergency Lighting- David Wright

  1. 1. Emergency Lighting<br />Background, legislation and relevant standards<br />
  2. 2. DRIVERS<br /><ul><li>LEGISLATION -Work Place Directive (89/654) -Building Regulations -Construction Products Directive (89/106) -Fire Safety in Hotels (86/666)</li></ul> -Signs Directive (90/664) <br />etc.<br />
  3. 3. WORK PLACE DIRECTIVE (89/654)<br /><ul><li>4.5 Specific emergency routes and exits must be indicated by signs in accordance with the national regulations.
  4. 4. 4.7 Emergency routes and exits requiring illumination must be provided with emergency lighting of adequate intensity in case the lighting fails</li></li></ul><li>CPD (89/106) Construction Products Directive<br /><ul><li>Section - Emergency Lighting Installation (anti panic lighting, escape lighting)</li></ul> The purpose of the installation is to ensure that lighting is provided promptly, automatically and for a suitable time in a specific area when normal power supply to the lighting fails. The purpose of the installation is to ensure that:-<br /> - the means of escape can be safely and effectively used;<br /> - activities in particularly hazardous workplaces can be safely terminated;<br /> - emergency actions can be effectively carried out at appropriate locations in the workplace<br />
  5. 5. REGULATORY REFORM ORDER<br /><ul><li>New Legislation came into force in the Autumn of 2006 making the key Owners / Directors of business legally responsible for providing adequate fire safety including emergency lighting</li></li></ul><li>REGULATORY REFORM ORDER<br /><ul><li>Who is responsible?
  6. 6. Possibly you</li></li></ul><li>REGULATORY REFORM ORDER<br /><ul><li>Basically puts the responsibility for Fire Precautions on the senior Directors of businesses occupying buildings
  7. 7. Fire Certificates previously issued by the local fire authority replaced by formal risk assessments (routinely updated)
  8. 8. Risk assessment must ensure that ‘adequate’ emergency lighting is provided and that the emergency lighting installation is routinely tested and maintained.
  9. 9. All tests and maintenance work carried out must be recorded and records must be available for inspection by any duly authorised person.
  10. 10. Failure to comply may result in the prosecution of individuals within a business </li></ul>NB: BS5266 now includes a model Completion Certificate to assist in conducting risk assessments<br />
  11. 11. MAIN CHANGES<br />
  12. 12. THE LEGAL POSITION (SUMMARY)<br /><ul><li>‘Adequate’ emergency lighting must be provided in all places of work, sleeping accommodation, schools etc.
  13. 13. A Competent Person must carry out a risk assessment to determine what type of emergency lighting is required in each area
  14. 14. Premises with sleeping accommodation must have 3hour duration emergency lighting
  15. 15. Emergency Lighting equipment must comply with the CE Marking Directive (LVD, EMC etc.)</li></li></ul><li>RELEVANT STANDARDSfor Emergency Lighting<br /><ul><li>BS5266- Design and planning
  16. 16. EN1838 (BS5266 Part 7 )- Luminaire positions, light levels, installation
  17. 17. EN50171- Central Power Systems
  18. 18. EN50172(BS5266 Part8)- Applications, testing etc. </li></li></ul><li>BS5266 Part 7 (EN1838) Emergency Lighting<br />
  19. 19. ESCAPE ROUTE LIGHTING<br /><ul><li>Lighting of defined escape routes; corridors, stairways, fire stairs etc.
  20. 20. 1 Lux minimum on the centre line and the central band (not less than half total width) to be illuminated to at least 0.5 Lux.</li></li></ul><li>ESCAPE ROUTES<br />0.5 Lux<br />+<br />0.5 Lux<br />1 Lux to Wall<br />1 Lux min. on<br />Centre Line of<br />Escape Route<br />Trans.<br />Spacing<br />to Wall<br />Transverse Spacing<br />Between Luminaires<br />
  21. 21. OPEN AREA LIGHTING(ANTI PANIC LIGHTING)<br /><ul><li>Large areas (generally greater than 60 square metres) through which escape may be hazardous (or generate panic).
  22. 22. 0.5 Lux minimum anywhere in the area except the 0.5 metre band around the perimeter.</li></li></ul><li>OPEN AREAS<br />Axial to<br />wall<br />Axial Spacing<br />0.3<br />0.3<br />Transverse<br />to wall<br />2<br />2<br />Transverse<br />spacing<br />0.5 Lux<br />Isolux Covering<br />Core Area<br />0.5m<br />border<br />2<br />2<br />0.3<br />0.3<br />
  23. 23. HIGH RISK TASK LIGHTING<br /><ul><li>Tasks that may require a shut down procedure before evacuation (rotating machines, acid baths etc.)
  24. 24. The task area must be lit to 10% of the normal illuminance for as long as the risk exists.
  25. 25. Illuminance must be achieve in 0.5seconds.</li></li></ul><li>SITING OF LUMINAIRES<br />
  26. 26. SITING OF LUMINAIRES<br /><ul><li>over Exit doors
  27. 27. near stairs so that each flight receives direct light
  28. 28. near any change of level</li></li></ul><li>STAIRS & CHANGES OF LEVEL<br />Near stairs<br />Near changes of level<br />
  29. 29. SITING OF LUMINAIRES<br /><ul><li>over Exit doors
  30. 30. near stairs so that each flight receives direct light
  31. 31. near any change of level
  32. 32. adjacent to mandatory signs (unless the sign is internally lit)
  33. 33. near a change of direction or intersection</li></li></ul><li>CHANGES OF DIRECTION<br />
  34. 34. SITING OF LUMINAIRES<br /><ul><li>over Exit doors
  35. 35. near stairs so that each flight receives direct light
  36. 36. near any change of level
  37. 37. adjacent to mandatory signs (unless the sign is internally lit)
  38. 38. near a change of direction or intersection
  39. 39. outside final exits
  40. 40. at each first aid point*
  41. 41. at each fire fighting / call point* -Near means within 2m -* 5 Lux required adjacent to the equipment.</li></li></ul><li>SAFETY EQUIPMENT<br />
  42. 42. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS<br /><ul><li>Diversity of illuminance better than 40:1
  43. 43. Disability glare should be avoided
  44. 44. Colour rendering Ra40
  45. 45. Duration should be at least 1 hour
  46. 46. Response times generally should provide 50% of the illuminance within 5seconds and full illuminance within 60seconds</li></li></ul><li>SAFETY SIGNS<br /><ul><li>Format must comply with the Safety Signs & Signals Directive
  47. 47. The intention of the Directive is to avoid dependence on language</li></li></ul><li>SAFETY SIGNS<br />
  48. 48. SAFETY SIGNS<br /><ul><li>Format must comply with the Safety Signs & Signals Directive
  49. 49. The intention of the Directive is to avoid dependence on language</li></ul>and to ensure the correct route is understood <br />
  50. 50. SAFETY SIGNS<br />
  51. 51. SAFETY SIGNS<br /><ul><li>Format must comply with the Safety Signs & Signals Directive</li></ul> TEXT ONLY<br />(NOT ALLOWED)<br />SIGNS DIRECTIVE<br />(CORRECT)<br />BS5499 FORMAT<br /> (ALSO ALLOWED)<br />
  52. 52. SAFETY SIGNS<br /><ul><li>Format must comply with the Safety Signs & Signals Directive
  53. 53. Sign legend must comply to Luminance requirements</li></ul>Colours to conform with ISO3864<br />Minimum Luminance anywhere on the face of the sign shall be 2cd/m2<br />
  54. 54. SAFETY SIGNS<br /><ul><li>Format must comply with the Safety Signs & Signals Directive
  55. 55. Sign legend must comply to Luminance requirements
  56. 56. Size of signs (H) relates to the viewing distance (D): D=H x 100 (externally lit) D=H x 200 (internally lit) </li></li></ul><li>BS5266 – Part 8EN50172 Emergency Escape Lighting Systems<br />Additional Recommendations<br />
  57. 57. SITING OF LUMINAIRES<br /><ul><li>External areas leading away from final exits
  58. 58. Lift cars
  59. 59. Moving stairways and walkways
  60. 60. Toilets, lobbies and tiled areas greater than 8 square metres
  61. 61. Motor generator, control, plant and battery rooms
  62. 62. Covered car parks</li></li></ul><li>PLANNING<br /><ul><li>Recommends procedures for planning Emergency Lighting installations, equipment standards, system integrity and routine testing requirements.</li></li></ul><li>SYSTEM INTEGRITY<br /><ul><li>Luminaires should comply with EN60 598 Part 2-22 (conversions of mains luminaires for emergency lighting should be carried out by an ICEL1004 registered company)
  63. 63. Each compartment within an escape route should have at least two luminaires (illuminance from illuminated signs should be ignored)</li></li></ul><li>TESTING<br /><ul><li>The following minimum testing should be carried out and results recorded for inspection: -Monthly: Function check, operate fittings for no longer than 25% of rated duration -Annually: Full duration test
  64. 64. NB: Tests to be carried out at times of low risk (building un-occupied)</li></li></ul><li>INSTALLATION OVERVIEW<br />Open Area Lighting BS5266 Pt 7: 1999 (EN1838)<br />Escape Route Lighting<br />Fire Points BS5266 Pt 7: 1999 (EN 1838)<br />Emergency Lighting<br />Product Standard<br />EN60598-2-22: 1999<br />Wiring<br />HD384-5 <br />BS 5266<br />Other Areas (eg Lifts)<br />BS 5266 Part 8<br />Central System<br />EN 50171 2001<br />Signage<br />Signs Directive<br />HSE Guide<br />Maintained or non-maintained<br />BS 5266<br />
  67. 67. ICEL1004<br /><ul><li>The manufacture of low volume specials or conversion of mains luminaires for emergency use
  68. 68. Completed luminaires should comply with CE Marking Directive (i.e. meet LVD requirements for electrical and thermal safety plus comply with EMC limits)</li></li></ul><li>THERMAL REQUIREMENTS<br />NiCd Battery- Limited to 57OC<br />Power Factor correction capacitor- Limited to 90OC<br />Supply cables- Limited to 90OC<br />Charge transformer- Operating at 90OC<br />Switch start ballast/choke- Operating at 120OC<br />
  69. 69. MAIN REQUIREMENTS OF 1CEL1004<br /><ul><li>Check if the design has been prepared to ICEL1004 previously
  70. 70. If yes then follow details given in Product Design file
  71. 71. If no then prepare a first-off for testing and technical approval
  72. 72. Check that plastic parts of the enclosure comply with 850oC glow wire test (polycarbonate, ABS, PVC etc.)
  73. 73. Check specified emergency conversion equipment. For ICEL1004 Registration the inverter module must comply with EN60924, EN60925 (EN61347-2-7)
  74. 74. Remove or cover any existing approval/certification marks
  75. 75. Layout internal components keeping the battery and the inverter module away from the direct heat generated by ballasts & lamp cathodes
  76. 76. Keep the lamp wiring as short as possible and segregated from all mains wiring</li></li></ul><li>MAIN REQUIREMENTS OF 1CEL1004<br /><ul><li>Mark the emergency lamp circuit by fitting a green dot adjacent to one of the appropriate emergency lampholders
  77. 77. Fit additional supply terminal for incoming un-switched live supply. Follow the customers’ specification for fusing. If there are no other instructions fuse the incoming un-switched supply
  78. 78. Position the charge healthy indicator (red or green to customers spec.) in a position that will be visible during normal use
  79. 79. Carry out functional tests and routine end of line tests
  80. 80. Fit appropriate luminaire classification label in the most practical position to be seen during routine maintenance
  81. 81. Fit CE mark and any other appropriate labels</li></li></ul><li>EMERGENCY LIGHTING TESTING<br />Why is Testing Important?<br />
  82. 82. Reasons for Testing<br /><ul><li>Check charge function
  83. 83. Check lamp operation
  84. 84. Check battery capacity
  85. 85. Check duration
  86. 86. Comply with standards and legislation
  87. 87. SAVE LIVES</li></li></ul><li>Available Systems<br /><ul><li>Operator initiated manual test
  88. 88. Operator initiated auto timed manual test
  89. 89. Automatic self test
  90. 90. Automatic central test
  91. 91. Programmed central test</li></li></ul><li>Manual testing<br /><ul><li>Keyswitch or similar puts luminaires into emergency operation ; visual inspection of all luminaires with any faults being noted ; reset keyswitch ; all luminaires re-examined for charge indicators.
  92. 92. Auto timed versions return luminaires to normal mains operation after pre-determined test duration</li></li></ul><li>MANUAL TESTINGAdvantages / Disadvantages<br /><ul><li>Labour intensive
  93. 93. Has to be carried out at times that the building will not be occupied until the batteries can be fully re-charged.
  94. 94. Manual reporting
  95. 95. Expensive
  96. 96. Historically ineffective
  97. 97. Low initial cost</li></li></ul><li>Self test<br /><ul><li>A test circuit carries out basic checks automatically before returning the fittings to normal operation. Any faults are indicated by local LED’s (some systems provide indication of type of fault).
  98. 98. Auto-initiated versions carry out tests at intervals set by an internal counter/timer circuit. </li></li></ul><li>SELF TESTAdvantages / Disadvantages<br /><ul><li>Guaranteed to take place (due diligence).
  99. 99. Faults indicated locally to luminaire.
  100. 100. Less time consuming than manual testing
  101. 101. Initial cost
  102. 102. Still requires personnel to note LED fault indicators.
  103. 103. Automatic systems may initiate tests while building is occupied.
  104. 104. Records must be kept manually.</li></li></ul><li>Central testing<br /><ul><li>All luminaires are connected to a central control panel that has the facility to initiate tests and to communicate with the luminaires and register failures. Faults may be identified by simple LED indicators on the panel or fairly complex information may be provided including location and type of failure.</li></li></ul><li>SchematicCentral test systemcommunication<br />
  105. 105. Central System added features<br />Central test systems utilise microprocessors and bespoke software. Although most systems require their own data cables the actual test panel can be linked to maintenance computers and building management systems etc. Remote reporting is also possible using modems or GSM signals.<br />
  106. 106. CENTRAL TESTAdvantages / Disadvantages<br /><ul><li>Control and fault indication available at one central position.
  107. 107. Does not require personnel to inspect luminaires.
  108. 108. Records may be automatically generated by the system
  109. 109. Will probably require expensive installation of communication cables.
  110. 110. High initial cost.</li></li></ul><li>RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>It is a legal requirement that adequate emergency lighting is provided and routinely tested. By specifying high quality emergency lighting equipment and including a Central Test system or Self-Test luminaires the client can show due diligence and will benefit from reduced labour costs while complying with the requirements for routine testing.</li></li></ul><li>QUESTIONS<br />
  111. 111. QUESTIONS<br /><ul><li>New technologies – LED’s </li></li></ul><li>LED Technology<br />Use of LED’s for emergency lighting applications<br />
  112. 112. LED Products<br /><ul><li>The initial recognition of Light Emitting Diodes was achieved by a Russian; Oleg Losev in 1926. Similar work was also undertaken by Henry Round at the Marconi labs. However, it wasn’t until the 1960’s that LED’s first went into production.</li></li></ul><li>LED Products<br /><ul><li>White LED’s required advances in blue and ultra-violet LED’s so that the radiation could be modified with Phosphors to provide white visible light. Currently the most efficient white LED’s still have colour temperatures at the blue end (5000 - 6000K) and warm white versions produce around 30% less lumens</li></li></ul><li>LED Products<br />
  113. 113. LED Products<br />
  114. 114. LED benefits<br /><ul><li>Very robust
  115. 115. Long life (provide light for 50,000+ hours)
  116. 116. Low energy (typical loads of 1 & 3Watt)
  117. 117. Low voltage
  118. 118. Choice of beam angles
  119. 119. Colour (available in cool white, warm white and many other colours)</li></li></ul><li>LED myths<br />Indestructible!<br />Very long life (100,000+ hours)<br />High efficiency <br />Do not need special control<br />Do not need lenses / optical control<br />
  120. 120. Myths exploded<br />Indestructible!<br /><ul><li>Over voltage or over current conditions will quickly ‘kill’ an LED
  121. 121. Although physically very strong, impact damage can occur
  122. 122. The life of an LED is very temperature dependant</li></li></ul><li>Myths exploded (Temperature)<br />
  123. 123. Myths exploded<br />Very long life<br /><ul><li>The life of an LED is quoted at a low junction temperature and refers to a reduction of lumen output over time. ‘End of life’ is normally rated at 70% of rated lumen output.
  124. 124. If the LED is not correctly operated from a constant current driver circuit and/or does not have very good thermal management the lumen output and colour will deteriorate very quickly (a few thousand hours)
  125. 125. Even in optimum operating conditions the white LED’s can suffer colour shift (normally starting to appear green/blue)</li></li></ul><li>Myths exploded<br />High efficiency<br /><ul><li>Although some White LED designs can now offer an efficacy of around 80Lumens per watt these need to be operated from very precise driver circuits and require excellent thermal management. A more typical efficacy is 30Lumens per Watt. This does not compare well with the 60 – 70Lumens per Watt provided by Compact Fluorescent lamps.
  126. 126. The high efficiency White LED’s are all ‘coolwhite’ i.e. around 6600K. The efficacy of ‘warmwhite’ LED’s (e.g.4000K) can be as little as 15Lumens per Watt.</li></li></ul><li>Myths exploded<br />Do not need special control<br /><ul><li>The high power LED’s are constant current devices requiring a current regulator to drive them. The typical ratings are the so-called 1Watt LED’s which require a constant current of 350mA and the ‘3Watt’ LED’s which require a constant current of 700mA</li></li></ul><li>Myths exploded<br />Do not need lenses / optical control<br /><ul><li>For most high power LED’s the ‘chip’ is constructed in a reflective dish and covered by a resin lens providing a uniform ‘pool’ of fairly low intensity light distributed at very wide angles. The addition of optical lenses provides intensity levels typically 3 times higher suited to providing useful illuminance on the working plane.</li></li></ul><li>LED Emergency Lighting<br />Why LED’s are good for emergency lighting applications<br />
  127. 127. LED benefits for emergency lighting<br /><ul><li>Long life – 50,000 hour life will provide many years emergency lighting operation even for maintained versions.
  128. 128. Low energy – due to the need to provide battery back-up during mains failure the low energy LED’s are ideally suited
  129. 129. Low voltage – LED’s only require low voltage operation, again ideally suited to battery back-up
  130. 130. Choice of beam angles – with the use of simple lenses the LED’s can be designed to achieve the required 1Lux or 0.5Lux illuminance at good spacings </li></li></ul><li>LED Products<br />Exit signs Bulkheads<br /> Downlights<br />