Introduction •Below is a description of the basic principles and procedures of the most recognized methods for teaching a second or foreign language.• Each approach or method has a designed strategies, and leaning activities to achieve a specific goals and leaning outcomes of teaching and learning processes.
The Grammar – Translation Approach• This approach used in teaching Greek and Latin in the past. The approach was generalized to teaching modern languages.• In this approach student’s native language are used in the class with a little use of the target language.• Vocabulary is taught separately in a form of word lists.• This approach put emphasis on grammar explanation and instruction which focus on forms and infliction of words.• Reading began early in the course of study , and focused on reading difficult texts.• The content of texts are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis and it did not get that much attention.• No attention was giving to pronunciations.• Translating disconnected sentences from the native language to the target language was the only exercise .
The direct approach• This approach was developed to increase the use of the target language in instruction.• In this approach lesson start with conversation in the target language, by presenting the material orally with pictures or actions.• During the class native language NEVER used, or translation.• The type of the exercise used is questions in the target language and the answer also in the target language.• Grammar and culture related to the target language are taught inductively.• Verbs are conjugated after some oral mastery of the target language.• Reading literature is for comprehension and pleasure and for the advanced students.• Literary texts are not analyzed grammatically.• Culture is considered an important aspect of learning the language.
The reading approach• This approach is for the use of the language in graduate or scientific studies, and for people who do not travel abroad for whom reading is the one usable skill in a foreign language.• In this approach, studying the target language depends on reading ability, and knowledge(current and/or historically) about the country where the target language is spoken.• Grammar is taught for reading comprehension and fluency.• Pronunciation or gaining conversational skills in the target language are given little attention.• In and outside the class, great amount of reading is done in the second language.• In the beginning, vocabulary of the early reading passages and texts is easy, then it expanded as quickly as possible.• Translation reappears as a respectable classroom procedure related to comprehension of the written text..
The audio-lingual method• This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology.• Learning the target language in this method depend on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over- learning, and material used is in the form of dialog.• Structures are taught in sequences and one at a time, then repetitive drills is used to teach Structural patterns.• Grammar is taught inductively.• Listening, speaking, reading and writing skills are developed in order.• Vocabulary is limited, and learned in context..• Great attention is given to pronunciation.• Teacher is permitted to use the native language, but students are not allow to use it among themselves.
Community language learning• In this approach counseling techniques and the personal and language problems a person encounters in the learning of foreign languages are used to teach second language.• In this case, the leaner is taught as a client, and the native instructors act as language counselors.• The purpose of the language counselors skill is to make the client feels comfortable and to help him/her linguistically. Then teacher – counselor helps clients slowly reach the state of independent language adequacy.• This process is fostered by the ability of language counselor establish a warm, understanding, and accepting relationship, thus becoming an "other-language self" for the client.• The process involve five stages of adaption:
Continuation of Community language learning• STAGE 1:• 1- The client will express in English to the counselor what he wish to say to the group.• 2- The counselor will tell the client how to say what he wish to say in the target language in a warm, accepting tone, in simple language in phrases of five or six words.• 3- the client turns to the group and start saying his idea in the foreign language, and counselor will help him if he mispronounce a word or a phrase.• STAGE 2:• 1- same as above.• 2- The client turns and begins to speak the foreign language directly to the group.• 3. The counselor only help if the client hesitates or turns for help.
Continuation for Community language learning• STAGE 3:• 1. The client speaks directly to the group in the foreign language. This mean that the group start to understand his simple phrases.• 2. Same as 3 above. In this step the client gained great confidence, and become independent, and can see the relationship of phrases, grammar, and ideas.• Translation is given when group member ask for it.• STAGE 4:• 1- the client now can speak very well in the foreign language, and group understand.• 2- The counselor corrects the grammar error, mispronunciation, or where aid in complex expression is needed.
Continuation for Community language learning• STAGE 5:• 1. Same as stage 4.• 2. The counselor intervenes not only to offer correction but to add idioms and more elegant constructions.• 3. At this stage the client can become counselor to the group in stages 1, 2, and 3
Theasilent way• The Silent Way is language-teaching method created by Caleb Cattegno that makes extensive use of silence as a teaching technique.• The method emphasizes the autonomy of the learner; the teachers role is to monitor the students efforts, and the students are encouraged to have an active role in learning the language. Pronunciation is seen as fundamental; beginning students start their study with pronunciation, and much time is spent practicing it each lesson. The Silent Way uses a structural syllabus, and structures are constantly reviewed and recycled. The choice of vocabulary is important, with functional and versatile words seen as the best. Translation and rote repetition are avoided and the language is usually practiced in meaningful contexts. Evaluation is carried out by observation, and the teacher may never set a formal test.
Continuation of the silent way• The teacher uses silence for multiple purposes in the Silent Way. It is used to focus students attention, to elicit student responses, and to encourage them to correct their own errors. Even though teachers are often silent, they are still active; they will commonly use techniques such as mouthing words and using hand gestures to help the students with their pronunciation. Teachers will also encourage students to help their peers.• Silent Way teachers use specialized teaching materials. One of the hallmarks of the method is the use of Cuisenaire rods, which can be used for anything from introducing simple commands to representing abstract objects such as clocks and floor plans. The method also makes use of color association to help teach pronunciation; there is a sound-color chart which is used to teach the language sounds, colored word charts which are used to teach sentences, and colored Fidel charts which are used to teach spelling.
Bibliography• Mora, J. K. (2012, September 28). Second-language Teaching Methods | Mora Modules. Mora Modules |. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://moramodules.com/ALMMethods.htm• Silent Way - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2012, December 11). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_Way