Module sed405 (1)


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Module sed405 (1)

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 SPORT – NETBALL LEARNING OUTCOMES When you complete this module will be able to: Explain and describe the basic game of netball Be able know how to play netball Be able to know the rules of the sports 1.0 Introduction Netball is a wonderful game that gives us all a great deal of satisfaction and pleasure. It is a simple game, players throw, they catch and they move. Netball is about doing the simple things well, over and over again, every time. At the end of the match it is the team who makes the least amount of unforced errors who will succeed. Champions are just that because they make fewer errors than their opponents do. They are more consistent in everything they do. They have the ability to consistently play with minimal errors in their game. 1.1 The Game Netball is a game that is based on running, jumping, throwing and catching. The players of the game work very hard on endurance, speed and agility. It is a non-contact sport and no player may come into personal contact with an opponent even if it is accidental. The objective of a netball team is to score more goals than the opposition. A goal is scored through a successful shot into the opponents hoop. The team which scores the most goals wins the match. A game is usually played into four 15 minutes segments called quarters. At the end of each quarter the teams change shooting ends. The game starts with a center pass, and center passes change after each goal is scored. All shots must be taken from within the goal-circle, which is the semi-circular area around the goal post. The game is managed by 2 umpires, whose predominant role is to enforce the rules
  2. 2. of the sport. Umpires use a whistle to gain attention and verbal and hand signals to communicate with the players. 1.2 The Netball Court Netball is played on a court (either hard or soft) which is 30.5 metres in length and 15.25 metres wide. The court is divided into three equal parts - a centre third and two goal thirds, with players only being permitted to enter particular zones depending on their position. The goal circles have a radius of 4.9m.There is a goalpost at either end of the court, with a hoop positioned 3.05 metres off the ground and the metal ring has an internal diameter of 380mm. The ball used in netball is size 5. 1.3 The Position and Responsibilities A netball team is made up of 7 players. Each player has a nominated position and role, and may only be permitted into certain areas of the court. If a player enters a zone which they are restricted from then they are deemed 'offside'. The position and responsibilities of the netballers can be divided into, the attacker and the defender. The
  3. 3. attacker included center, wing attack, goal attack, and goal shooter while the defenders include center, wing defense, goal defense and the goal keeper. Position Description (Responsibilities) Play Against Center (C) Has to be very fit Has the role of attacking and defending The center is the player that starts the game when it's their teams turn to throw the ball. C The center stands in the small circle in the middle of the netball court. Allowed everywhere except the semi circle Goal Shooter The main shooter with the role of to get the (GS) ball into the hoop and score points GK Allowed in attacking third and semi circle Goal Attack (GA) The goal attack goes on attack and either feeds the ball into the goal circle to the shooter, and can also shoot the ball into the hoop. Allowed in center third, attacking third and semi circle GD
  4. 4. Goal Keeper Keep the goal shooter from getting the ball (GK) The main role is to block of shots from the GS other team Allowed in attacking third and semi circle Goal Defense Try to prevent the opposition from getting (GD) the ball into the goal circle Are on the defense, ensuring the opposing GA team's shooters can't get a shot at the goal. Allowed in center third, attacking third and semi circle Wing Attack The wing attack helps with the feeding of the (WA) ball into the goal circle to the shooters WD Allowed in center third and attacking third Wing Defense Main role is to defend the ball from getting (WD) into the opponents semi circle so they can't score. Allowed in center third and defending third. 1.4 Basic Rules of Netball Duration of the Game Netball is played over four 15 minute quarters. WA
  5. 5. There is a 3 minute break between the first and second quarter and the third and fourth quarters. The half time break is 5 minutes. Injury time is up to 2 minutes. Starting the Game The game commences and is restarted after each goal is scored and at the beginning of each quarter by a centre pass taken alternatively by the two centres, irrespective of who scores the goal. The umpires whistle indicates the beginning and end of each quarter. Scoring a Goal A goal is scored when a Goal Shooter or Goal Attack with no contact with the ground outside the circle throws the ball completely through the goal ring. The umpires whistle signals the goal is scored Team Changes and Substitutions - A team may make any number of substitutions at the quarter, half or three quarter time break as well as during a stoppage due to injury or illness. If a substitution or team change is made due to injury or illness the injured or ill player must be involved in the substitution or positional change. Contact A player cannot accidentally or deliberately come into contact with another player in a way which impedes their play. For example, pushing, charging, tripping, throwing the body against an opponent or using the ball to push or contact an opponent. Players must not hold an opponent, nor keep their elbows against another player. Obstruction A player with arms extended cannot defend closer than 0.9 meters (3 feet). This distance is measured from the first landed foot of the attacking player to the nearer foot of the defending player.
  6. 6. A player may stand closer to an opponent provided their arms are not extended. If the attacking player lessons the distance in their throwing or shooting action, then the defending player is not considered to be obstructing because it was the attacking player and not the defending player who shortened the distance. A player must not use intimidating actions against an opponent with or without the ball. Held ball A player must pass the ball or shoot for goal, within three second. Over a Third The ball cannot be thrown over a complete third without being touched by a player in that third. The pass is taken from the third where the player gained possession. It does not matter if they step into an adjacent third to throw. A free pass is taken where the ball crossed the second transverse line. Offside Players must stay within their designated playing areas. A player may reach over and take the ball from an offside area provided that no part of their body touches the ground in that area. When two opposing players go offside but neither touches the ball, there are not penalized If one or both players are in possession of the ball when they go offside, a toss up is given in their area of play. Out of Court When the ball goes out of court it is thrown in by an opponent of the team which was last to touch it.
  7. 7. The player taking the throw in should place one or both feet behind the point where the ball crossed the line and make sure all other players are on the court before throwing the ball. If a player has no contact with the ball they may stand or move out of the court but must make contact with the playing area and have no other contact with anything outside the court before attempting to touch the ball again Footwork One foot landing When a player lands on one foot they may step with the other foot, lift the landing foot, but must throw before re-grounding it. They may use the landing foot as a pivoting foot, stepping in any direction with the other foot as many times as they wish. Once the pivoting foot is lifted they must pass or shoot before re-grounding this foot. A player may jump from the landing foot onto the other foot and jump again, providing they throw the ball before re-grounding either foot. NB. A player cannot: drag or slide the landing foot, hop on either foot. Two foot Landing If a player catches the ball and lands on both feet simultaneously, they may step in any direction with one foot, lift the other foot but must throw or shoot before regrounding this foot. They may pivot on one foot, stepping in any direction with the other foot as often as they wish. Once the pivot foot is lifted they must throw the ball before re-grounding this foot. They may jump from both feet onto either foot, or step and jump but must throw or shoot before re-grounding either foot. Playing the Ball A player who has possession of the ball may not bounce the ball and replay it.
  8. 8. If a player does not catch the ball cleanly, it may be bounced once to gain possession or batted or bounced to another team mate. After throwing the ball, a player cannot play it again until it is touched by another player, or rebounds off the goal post. Short Pass There must always be room for a third player to move between the hands of the thrower and those of the receiver when passing. Passes that do not have this room are called short passes. A player cannot: o Punch, roll, kick or fall on the ball. o Pass the ball in any way while lying, sitting or kneeling on the ground. o Use the goal post as a way to regain balance or as a support while stopping the ball from going out of court. Toss Up A toss up is used to put the ball into play when: Opposing players simultaneously contact each other Opposing players simultaneously knock the ball out of court Opposing players simultaneously gain possession of the ball The umpire unable to decide who last touched the ball out of court Opposing players simultaneously offside with one in possession of the ball The two players stand 0.9m apart, facing each other and their own goal ends. Their arms should be straight with hands by their sides. Once in position, they must not move until the umpire has tossed it up from just below shoulder height of the shorter player and blown the whistle.
  9. 9. 1.5 Fundamental Skills and Techniques 1.5.1 Passing Netball is a game made up of a variety of passing techniques. The player‟s ability to pass accurate and well timed throws will determine the success of the team. Players need to master the basic skills of each of the throwing techniques as well as balance, timing and control. The player must learn when and where to pass the ball and which pass to use. Shoulder Pass 1 Handed Stand side-onto the intended receiver Feet should be shoulder width apart with knees slightly bent and weight on the back foot The ball can be held with two hands but as the arm is taken back behind the shoulder the ball is held with one hand Elbow should be bent The opposite foot to the throwing arm should be forward Transfer the body weight from the back foot to the front foot as the player steps forward with the front foot The ball is pushed forward with the shoulder, elbow, wrist and fingers Follow through with the hand whilst the fingers should be pointing in line with the throw Shoulder Pass 2 Handed Everything is the same as the one handed shoulder pass but as the arm is taken back behind the shoulder two hands remain on the ball. Chest Pass Two hands behind the ball with thumbs and fingers in a “W” shape Ball held close to chest
  10. 10. Elbows bent and relaxed by side Wrist and fingers direct and control the ball Step forward into the pass Weight is transferred onto the front foot Follow through with arms and fingers in the direction of the pass As the player steps forward ensure feet are in a balanced position Overhead or Lob Pass One or two handed pass The body can be facing or side-on the receiver The ball should be released above the head As the throw is executed the throwing arm or arms moves up and forward towards the receiver The wrist and fingers direct the ball in a high arc into the space ahead of the receiver The highest point of the arc should be when the ball passes over the defender Weight is transferred from the back to the front foot as the step forward is made Bounce Pass A bounce pass can be performed with one or two hands from in front or side of the body Hold the ball the same as for a shoulder pass Ball can be held at either waist or hip level Bent knees and step forward onto the front foot As the ball is pushed forward the hand and fingers should follow the path of the ball When executing the bounce pass the ball should bounce approximately 2/3‟ of the distance between passer and receiver 1.5.3 Catching
  11. 11. Emphasize a two handed catch over a one handed catch Eyes watching the ball into the hands Fingers and thumbs spread in a “W” shape ready to receive Fingers and thumbs relaxed but strong Hands and arms outstretched towards the ball Step forward and reach with hands to catch Snatch the ball with strong fingers and bend arms when receiving the ball to lessen the impact whilst pulling the ball towards the body Keep thumbs behind the ball with fingers spread and relaxed Bring the ball back to the chest ready for the return pass Allow time for a balanced landing position before throwing the ball 1.5.3 Shooting Shooting is all about balance, rhythm and feel for the shot. Shooting for goal should be an automatic well sequenced skill. Shooters should always try to be balanced and in line with the post before they attempt to shoot. Feet, hips, body, shoulders and elbows should all be „square‟ to the post. This will give the ball every opportunity to travel in a straight line to the ring. Shooters should always look at the same aim point every time they shoot. These aim points could be the front of the ring, above the middle of the ring or at the back of the ring. Start at the base and look at what the feet and legs do when shooting for goal. The shooter‟s feet should be parallel approximately shoulder width apart in a comfortable stance. Shooters should try not to step forward as they shoot. The power of the shot comes from the legs. More bend in the knees will give more power on a longer shot for goal. The ball should sit on all finger tips and the thumb on one hand The ball should be placed above the head in the shooting hand. The other hand is placed gently to the side of the ball as a support only to keep it balanced.
  12. 12. Because shooting is all about rhythm the knees and elbows bend at the same time. As the body straightens in sequence the ball is not released until the arm is at full extension The ball is released in a smooth fluid action following right through to the finger tips The index and middle fingers direct the ball to the post and must be strong. The wrist and fingers should flick the ball in a gentle back spin motion to the ring. Fingers should follow the arc of the ball to the post. 1.5.4 Attacking Skills Effective attacking play comes from the player‟s ability to catch and throw whilst moving combined with changes of speed and timing of movement. Explosive speed, agility, strength and endurance are necessary components of a good attacking player. Before moving the attacking player must take into consideration: The spaces that are available Their starting position in relation to the defender and their team mates The timing of the movement Any limitations of space that may require a preliminary movement to create space A good attacking player needs to be able to execute the following movements: Straight and Diagonal Leads Straight Lead - A simple movement but a very effective one. When timed to perfection it can be extremely difficult to defend. The attacker initiates the movement whilst the defender can only guess in what direction the attacker will run. The attacker must decide the exact moment to move then begin with strong,
  13. 13. explosive steps towards the thrower either running directly forward or diagonally to the free side. Diagonal Lead – When leading to the right or left it is important the player lands on their outside foot when catching the ball. For example if the attacker is leading diagonally to the right the land should be on the right foot when the ball is caught. When leading to the left the land should be on the left foot when the ball is caught. Practice taking off using the outside foot. This will drive the attacker out on the angle quickly and away from the defender. Dodge Dodging is a short, sharp movement often executed from a stationary beginning. It can be used to quickly change direction to create space for themselves or team mates. It also allows the attacker to wrong foot or takes the defending player away from the space where the ball is to be caught. Change of Direction The change of direction is executed from a longer run. The same technique is used as for the dodge but the player changes direction after making a longer run. Change of Pace Changing the pace of the attacking movement is used to upset the rhythm and timing of the defender. The attacker can create a clear movement towards the ball. A change of pace can sometimes is a very effective attacking strategy. Attacking is not always about sprinting. It is a subtle blend of walking, jogging, running and sprinting. The skill is to know when to change the speed of the movement. The ability to read the cues of the defender e.g. when the defender has committed to the initial movement a sudden change of speed will cause the
  14. 14. defender to re-adjust their speed. At this point the attacker should accelerate away from the defender. Timing There are many contributing factors as to why players miss-times their movements. Factors such as placement of the pass. Correct placement of the ball enables the receiver to catch the ball in the appropriate position then turn quickly to identify the intended target. The thrower must decide on the exact moment to release the pass otherwise even a well-timed movement will not link with the ball. One slight error in any of these elements will result in the breakdown of play. On the physical side of things it comes back to the execution of the basic skills that enables all movements to link together with the flight of the ball. The player‟s ability to read the play and read the cues also plays a substantial part in the entire process. 1.5.5 Defending Skills Defense work includes the following: Pressurizing a player: One-on-One Defending The defender tries to prevent her opponent from receiving the ball by tight one-on-one marking. Their aim is to dictate to the attacker the spaces they can go into and force a turnover ball. The team is trying to force the opposition into errors or into a held ball situation. The disadvantage of this type of defense work is that it is reactive rather than creative. You are simply following and trying to anticipate the movements of your opponent. A visual awareness of your opponent, the ball and other players is a key element of successful one-on-one defending. This is probably the most physically difficult way to defend and players will need very good fitness levels to successfully defend in a one-on-one manner. Semi-loose Defending
  15. 15. Still a one-on-one situation but the defender is standing slightly off the player giving the attacking player a false sense of security. The thrower assumes the attacker is free to receive a pass but the defender is ready to move and intercept. Timing is vital in order to take the interception. If the defender has committed too soon she may be easily beaten, the pass may not be thrown or a different pass is given in order to beat the defender. Marking or Defending Space When space marking peripheral vision is vital. The defending team sets up intercept situations for individual members of the team. Intercepts are generally taken after the opposition has been lured into a false sense of security in assuming some attacking players are free to receive the pass or after the opposition has made a mistake. With this style of defense players are able to create situations and opportunities for an interception rather than simply reacting to the movements of the opposing team. All players must be working together or the effectiveness of this form of defense will be diminished. Part Court/Full Court Zoning Players have specific areas of the court to defend. They stand in relation to where the ball is at any one time. This type of defense is reliant on total team work because if any player is out of position the ball will be passed with ease leaving many of the defending players behind play. The aim is to encourage the opposition to throw a long clearing pass to one of their team mates that can then be easily intercepted. Players close to the ball stand a little higher so that spaces are left further down the court to encourage the longer pass being made. Defending Player with the Ball Aims: To force opponents to pass in a particular direction
  16. 16. To force opponents to make a particular pass To tip or intercept ball as it is being passed After the pass is made to direct oppositions next movement i.e. towards or away from the pass just thrown. Rather than simply defending 0.9m in front of a player with the ball defend the player on their favorite attacking side. Defend left/right handed players on their preferred throwing side. The position of the player marking the thrower can dictate the play to come (e.g. mark player towards the sideline or mark player to path of the ball) thereby making it possible for a team mate to have an attempt for the ball at the receiver‟s end of the pass. Defense of a shot Lean 0.9m from first grounded foot of the shooter. The defender stretches out to pressure the point of release of the shot. Either: 1. Opposite foot forward to arm outstretched over ball 2. Same arm/foot forward 3. Balance on both feet with both arms outstretched over ball 4. Balance on both feet with one arm outstretched over ball. The other arm is used for balance and used to cover a possible pass to the other shooter. The 0.9m stance can be taken from in front, to the side or behind the shooter. The choice of position dependent on shooting style and distance away from the goal. Jump Timing is involved and if successfully executed will result in a deflection of the shot. Player is at 0.9m away from first grounded foot of the shooter. Time a powerful leap in the air towards the ball to attempt to tip the ball at its point of release or above. Try not to jump straight up and down. As you jump make sure you jump towards the ball after it has left the shooters fingers. Combination
  17. 17. Lean over the shot standing at 0.9m from the first grounded foot of the shooter then bring back foot forward to jump on release of the shot. Rebounding The defender should aim to stand approximately one meter from the post in the front position. This is the ideal position. The defender should work to establish the rebounding position before the shot is being taken. The defender who leans or jumps the shot at goal then needs to screen out that shooter so that both defenders will have the more favorable rebounding positions. 1.6 Conclusion Netball is a simple, basic game. It‟s about doing the simple things well over and over again every time. Coaches do not need the fancy, complicated activities if the players could not catch and throw well. Besides, coaches need to keep their mind open and find new and better ways of doing the same things. Coaches need to keep challenge their athletes and themselves. SELF-TEST 1 1. What is the equipment that needed to play netball? 2. What are the skills the player needs to play netball?
  18. 18. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: Draw a diagram of the netball court showing the position of each player and explain their use.
  19. 19. CHAPTER 2 SPORT – SOCCER LEARNING OUTCOMES 2.1 When you complete this module will be able to: Explain and describe the basic game of soccer Be able know how to play soccer Be able to know the rules of the sports Introduction Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, and it is also one of the most demanding. It is a challenging sport because it requires cardiovascular fitness, cognitive, competitive and psychomotor qualities. Soccer can be played in industrial and less developed nations, by young and old, boys and girls, by elite and physically or mental challenged. All that is needed is a ball and willing participants. 2.2 The game, ball and players Players Soccer is played by two teams consist of 11 players for each team (with an appropriate number of substitutes), including goalkeeper. Objectives of the Game The objective of the game is to score the ball across the goal line and within the confines of the 8 x 24 foot goalposts and crossbar. Once the whistle blow, each team attempts to gain possession, and through planned and creative combinations of the fundamental skills (passing, shooting, heading,
  20. 20. trapping, dribbling, tackling, marking, and goalkeeping) attempts to place the ball in the back of the opponent‟s net. Player Game Overtime Age Length Periods Adults Ball Goal Size Field Size Weight Circumference Two 45- Two 15- minute minute 400 g halves Two 40minute halves Under Two 30- Two 10- 12 minute minute - halves halves 2.13mx6.40m 64mx46m minute halves 64cm –66 cm Two 15- 16 2.44mx7.32m 110mx64m 457 g Under 69cm – 71cm - halves 2.3 Ball 371 g 314 g Field of Play 2.3.1 Goals Placed at the center of each goal line and consists of: Two upright posts (2.44m) high and 7.32m apart made of wood, tubular metal, or plastic
  21. 21. Horizontal crossbar (7.32m) Nets (made of hemp, jute, or nylon) and attached to the back of the crossbar and goalposts) 2.3.2 Technical Area Also known as coaching box that is marked at least 1.53m from the parallel to the touchline and extending 18.29m in both directions from the halfway line. This technical area can be helpful in the management of the game. Coaches and players should remain inside the technical area, except when the players are warming up in preparation to substitute. 2.4 Equipment The most economical sport which requires: A ball Appropriate footwear (flats or spikes) Shin guards, Shorts, shirt and socks Field equipment, goals, nets, and corner flags. 2.5 Officials A soccer matches are presided over by: A referee and o The center referee who makes all the final decision regarding fouls and technical infringements Two assistant referees o Run on the touchlines and signal when a ball is completely crossed the touch line, goal line, or goal o Indicate fouls and offside infractions o Serve as “advisors”
  22. 22. The objectives of having the officials is to allow play to be free-flowing and within the spirit of the game while maintaining optimal safety for the participating players. 2.6 Out-of-Bounds (Restarts) Restart is awarded once the ball is completely crosses (either in the air or rolling) the touchline or the goal line or a violation is whistled. Depending on the situation, any number of restarts may occur. A restart can be a direct restart or indirect restart. 2.6.1 Direct restarts Direct restart is when the goal can be scored without touching another player. Direct restarts included the following: Penalty Kick A penalty kick is awarded when players of the defending team: Handling the ball Holding Charging occurs inside the penalty area Tripping Pushing Striking Any players of the offended team may take the penalty kick except the substitute brought in to take the penalty kick. A penalty kick is taken from the penalty kick mark, 10.97m from the goalpost. Only penalty kicker and goalkeeper would be in the penalty area, while all other player should be outside until the ball is struck forward. The goalkeeper is only allowed to move on the goal line with his feet until the ball is kicked. The ball remains in play if it rebounds off the
  23. 23. goalpost or the goalkeeper. The penalty kicker may legally play the ball again if it bounces off the goalkeeper; however, the penalty kicker may not play the rebound off the goalpost or crossbar until the ball has been touched by another player. Corner Kick A corner kick is awarded when the ball crosses the defender‟s goal line and is last played by a defender. Corner kick must be taken within the 0.9m arc of the corner of the field closest to where the ball crossed the goal line. As the players defending the corner kick must be 9.14m from the corner kick arc when it is taken. Direct kick A direct kick is awarded when players of the defending team: Handling the ball Holding Charging occurs outside the penalty area Tripping Pushing Striking Defending players must always be 9.14m from the ball before it is played, or a retake may be awarded. 2.6.2 Indirect restarts An indirect restart when the ball must be touched by another player, even the opposition, before a goal is awarded. The indirect restarts are as follows: Goal Kick A goal kick is awarded to the defending team when the ball crosses the defensive goal line and is last touched by the attacking side. The goal kick must
  24. 24. be taken from the goal area and must clear the penalty area before being touched by either team. Throw-In A throw in is a two handed overhead movement that must be taken with both feet on the ground. It is awarded to the team that last touched the ball when the ball crosses completely over the sideline. If the throw-in handed improperly or fails to enter the field of play, the ball is awarded to the opposing team. Indirect Free Kick As a technical infraction occur; offsides, obstruction, dangerous play, or delay of game, an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team. While the indirect free kick is taken the opposing players must be 9.14m from the ball. A goal from the shot can only be awarded if another player touches the ball. Offsides An offside is usually occurs when a player receive the ball from a teammate without having two defensive players between him and the goal, or he is nearer to the opponent‟s goal line. An offside is not committed when: The player is in his own half of the field There are two opponents nearer to their own goal line than the attacking player The ball was last played by the attacker The attacking player receives the ball directly from a goal kick, corner kick, throw-in, or drop ball An offensive player even with the second-to-last defender is on-side. Drop Ball A drop ball is held waist high and dropped by a referee in a nonthreatening or neutral territory and must hit the ground before being played. A drop ball is
  25. 25. called for after the referee stops play due to an injury or emergency or when a call is unclear or in doubt. 2.6.3 Fouls and Misconduct When a foul or some other form of misconduct or illegal behavior is committed by a player, the opposing team will be awarded with a direct or indirect free kick. Intentionally fouling are as follow: Kicking or attempting to kick an opponent Tripping Jumping at an opponent 2.7 Fundamental Skills and Techniques Soccer is a game of movement, speed, physical and mental control, space, timing, flow, creativity, improvisation, and imagination. A soccer player needs to employ a basic fundamental skills and techniques as follow: 2.7.1 Passing Types of Descriptions Passing Short Passes Made with the inside of the foot Longer Passes Chipped, by placing the foot under the ball Struck with force, while leaning the body backward to
  26. 26. create the desired loft Square Pass Made at a right angle to the attacker in the hope that the passer will continue the momentum and receive a return pass Through Pass Direct forward pass, the ball is thrust behind the opponents into their defensive space as your teammate runs onto the ball 2.7.2 Shooting The basic technique of shooting can be described as a powerful instep blast with any surface of the foot or body can be employed. The technique of shooting includes accuracy, deception, discipline, and optimal concentration; and practice in all game situations is paramount. 2.7.3 Heading Heading is a technique when the player plays the ball with the head. Heading technique includes concentration, awareness of players around you, proper body posture and positioning, including the use of the arms as a protective shield, and keeping your eyes on the ball as it is directed is necessary as heading usually harm the player with injury. Heading technique is used in soccer to pass or to shoot the ball. The ball should be attacked by the header with the frontal bone of the forehead near the hairline and directed to a teammate or space that will permit a teammate to collect the ball or afford to reorganize, especially in the defensive third of the field.
  27. 27. 2.7.4 Trapping and Collecting Trapping and collecting is the necessary techniques to bring the ball under complete control from teammate‟s pass or opponent‟s miscue. Trapping is a technique used to gain possession and control of the ball. Collecting is a technique of receiving and gaining control of the ball. Trapping and collecting may used various parts of the body depending on the ball‟s position upon arrival. Key for a successful trapping and collecting: Knowing and using your immediate space to gain possession of the ball Utilize muscular control and bodily momentum-absorption techniques Concentration and knowing the opponents‟ whereabouts Ball Position upon Body Part Use Arrival In Flight Ball Chest Thigh Instep Ground Ball The sole of the foot The inside or outside of the foot trap 2.7.5 Dribbling
  28. 28. Dribbling is a succession of forward pushes or touches in which the player keeps the ball under control. Effective dribbling acquire both feet employing feints, or fakes; changes of pace; and rapid, deceptive moves. Dribbling technique also requires proper body position because the ball needs to be shielded, screened, and protected from a defender or marker. The used of dribbling are as follows: To advance the ball, Move into position to get off a quick shot, Delay the game To take the ball into open space 2.7.6 Tackling and Marking Tackling is a defensive technique that is used to dispossess an opponent from the ball so that you or your teammate can gain the ball possession. Tackling involves marking, playing the opponent with the ball until optimal time (usually just after the opponent has touched the ball) to make your tackling move. Tackling technique requires sound judgment, assertive play, mental toughness, and teamwork. It is accomplished by blocking, poking, or sliding in a calculated effort to win the ball. 2.7.7 Goal Keeping The goalkeeper roles are to stop, control, and catch a ball within the penalty area if it is not intentionally passed to him by a teammate. The goalkeeper may legally use the hands. Upon collection of the ball, the goalie is also permitted to clear the ball or initiate “instant offense” by throwing, drop kicking, or punting the ball. The goalkeeper must know when and how to challenge, come off the line, and cut down the attacker‟s angle and effectively smother and deflect shots. Sound judgment, common sense, mental ability as well as physical skill are an important quality in selecting a good goalie. 2.8 Systems of Play
  29. 29. A system, or style, of play describes the organization and configuration of the players on the field, as well as their responsibilities within the team structure. The team‟s players and the skill and style of the opponent determine how a coach chooses to implement a particular style of play. The Systems Formation (Defense-MidfieldForward) Original English 2–3–5 Arsenal Football Club‟s WU System 3–2–5 Italy‟s more defense –minded 4–2–4 Catenaccio System to “total futbol” 5–4–1 Offensive Principles Moving An attacking player must be able to move without the ball, not only to create space but also to receive a pass from a teammate. These moves or runs are in the form of: Near and far-post runs Corner flag runs
  30. 30. Runs away and off the ball Overlapping runs (usually from the midfield position, runs forward past the ball being held by a teammate and into open space behind the defense) Support and Penetration The effectiveness of offensive principles is the need of supporting system from teammate (at least two should always be 10-15 yards from the teammate with the ball). With proper support and communication, combination play, such as wall passing and “give and goes”, can be initiated and space can be created and exploited for penetration (via passing and dribbling) behind the defense. Finishing Once the scoring opportunity has been created, the principles of finishing, or scoring, must be effectively applied. This finishing principle is the critical shooting skills, the only way to score. Defensive Principles Chase and Delay As the ball is lost to the opposition, defensive play begins. Immediate chase and pressure is applied to the player who has taken control of the ball. These chasing and pressure effort is to delay the player with the ball and force him to the nearest touchline, thereby preventing a quick penetration toward the goal. Support The chasing and delay gives opportunity to the defensive team to retreat, organize (find, mark, and track) or regroup to support the defender playing the ball. This support involves balance, depth, and cover in order to restrict the amount of space that the opponent has to exploit. Balance and Concentration
  31. 31. Defensive team concentration is needed to force the attacking team to its least desirable offensive option (usually away from the center of the field, where the shooting angle is most favorable). Challenge Once proper defensive support and cover are implemented, the defender playing the ball can challenge, or tackle (the act of taking the ball away from an opposing player), the ball. Usually the ball is challenged by the primary defender and won by the cover person. Counterattack A counterattack or deliberate offensive buildup is constructed (depending on where the ball is won) after the ball is won. 2.9 Teaching Considerations It is important to note that teaching/coaching responsibilities needs some considerations as follows: The health and safety of the players Fitness level Learning environment Practice can be manipulated by an instructor depending on the: Age Fitness and skills level Season The particular goals to be accomplished daily or long range
  32. 32. 2.10 Conclusion Since it is the most popular sport in world soccer is the most played sport of school children. Some play for their own satisfaction, enjoyment and some to challenge them to empower their talent. As for these children, teacher or coaches need to help in monitoring and developing their skill and ability. With a proper guidance this young children might become a good soccer player in the future. Thus, teacher or coaches need to commit and play their responsibility to the younger. SELF-TEST 1 1. How many position player in soccer game and explain? 2. What are the fundamentals skills the player needs in soccer? DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: Give examples of various drills that could be employed to practice soccer skills.
  33. 33. CHAPTER 3 ATHLETICS - TRACK AND FIELD LEARNING OUTCOMES When you complete this module will be able to: Explain and describe the basic athletics game Be able know how to play the game Be able to know the rules of each track and field game 3.0 Introduction Athletics is defined in five disciplines; track and field, road running, race walking, cross country running, and mountain running. All forms of athletics are individual sports with the exception of relays races. Athletics or specifically the track and field is the core and the most common in school. The track and field competitions emerged in the late 19th century. Each school has their annual sport day that especially for track and field event. 3.1 Track and Field Event The track and field events involve running, jumping, and throwing activities where running activities make up the track event while jumping and throwing activities make up the field events. 3.1.1 Running Events Running events can be divided into 5 main categories; sprints, hurdles, relays, middle distances and long distances.
  34. 34. Types of Event Events Description 100 meter 80 – 100 percent anaerobic energy 200 meter expenditure 400 meter Maximum intensity Middle 800 meter Require approximately 50% aerobic Distances 1500 meter and 50% anaerobic (speed and Sprints endurance) Long distances 3000 meter Endurance event 5000 meter Aerobic in nature 10000 meter Marathon Hurdles The heights of hurdles, the distance 100 meter between them, and the total distance (Women) run, vary among men, women, youth, 400 meter Relays 110 meter (Men) master, and senior athletes 4x100 meter Consist of four members 4x400 meter Each runner carries a baton a specific distance, passing it to the next runner within a marked zone until the last runner carries it across the finish line
  35. 35. Steeplechase 28 hurdle jumps and 7 water jumps 5 jumps per lap Water jump in fourth Hurdles height vary by category (men and women) Water jump hurdle should be 3.66m in width, 3.06m in length The water should be 70cm in depth immediately in front of the hurdle and slope to the level of the field at the farther end The hurdle should be firmly fixed in front of the water 3.1.2 Jumping Events Jumping events consists of four types of jump; long jump, triple jump, high jump and the pole vault. Types of Event Long Jump Description The runway varies from 36.6m – 48.8m (men) and 27.4m – 42.7m (women) The takeoff board, made of wood or other rigid material – wide 19.8 – 20.32cm; long 1.22m, thick 10cm The landing area must not be less than 2.74m in width and identical in elevation with the takeoff board
  36. 36. Filled with sand Jumping styles: Sail Hitch kick Hang Triple Jump Has three phases Hop – landing on the takeoff foot Step – landing on the non-takeoff foot Jump – into the landing pit High Jump Two primary styles of jumping Straddle Fosbury Flop – used back layout technique with a curve approach that allowing the athlete to use more speed in the approach and provided for a very efficient bar clearance Pole Vault The combination of speed, strength, coordination and agility make up this event Runways vary 38.1 – 42.7m in length The poles made up of fiberglass and have 14 – 16 feet in length 3.1.3 Throwing Events
  37. 37. The throwing events include four types of throw; shot put, discus throw, hammers throw and the javelin. Types of Event Shot Put Description The shots are made of a cast iron, bronze, or brass shell with a lead center The weight are vary: Men – 7.26kg High school boy – 5.45kg Women – 4kg The shot are thrown from a circle 2.13m in diameter with a stop board in front Discus Throw Usually made of wood with a metal rim The weight are vary Men – minimum weight 2kg with 219-221mm in diameter High school boy – 1.62kg in weight with 209-211mm in diameter Women – 1kg in weight with 180-182mm in diameter Discus throw from a circle 2.5m in diameter Hammer The hammer consists of a round weight attached to a Throw triangular handle by a wire The weight and length are vary: Men – 7.27kg not exceed 1.22m High school boy – 5.45kg in length
  38. 38. Women – 4kg and length may not exceed 1.195m The hammer is thrown from a circle 2.13m in diameter Javelin The javelin consists of three parts: Head – metal head terminating in a sharp point Shaft – constructed of metal and fixed to head Cord grip – should be about the center of mass and shall not exceed the diameter of the shaft by more than 8mm with uniform thickness The length and weight are vary: Men – 2.7m in length and weight of 800g with a cord grip of 16cm Women – 2.3m in length and weight of 600g with a cord grip of 15cm 3.1.4 Other Track-and-Field Events Events Race Walking Description Through a progression of steps so taken that 3 km-10 km unbroken contact with the ground is maintained track The advancing leg must be straightened (not bent at 10km-50km the knee) from the moment of first contact with the road ground until the leg is in the vertical upright position Failure to adhere to this rule lead to warning and disqualification
  39. 39. Decathlon and The tests of all-around skill and ability Heptathlon Decathlon - 10 events run over 2 days in the following order: Day 1 – 100m, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400m Day 2 – 100m hurdle, discus, pole vault, javelin, 1500m Heptathlon – 7 events scheduled in 2 days as follow: Day 1 – 100m hurdles, high jump, shot put, 200m Day 2 – long jump, javelin, 800m 3.2 Basic Techniques 3.2.1 Sprinting Start Incorporates reaction time, block clearance time, and velocity out of the blocks The use of starting blocks is essential because it provide a solid base from which to push off and prevent slipping or injury to the runner Starting fundamentals o “On your mark”  The runner moves in front of the blocks and backs into position and place the feet in the blocks one at a time  Feet straight, toes in contact with the surface of the track
  40. 40.  The hands are placed directly under the shoulders, with the fingers and thumbs bridged just behind the starting line about shoulder – width apart  The arms are fully extended, with the weight evenly distributed between the hands, rear knee, and foot  The front knee relaxed, extending just inside the forearm  The head in natural alignment with the trunk, the eyes are focused about a yard in front of the starting line o “Set”  The runners raise the hips to the desired level and extends the knee joints to the appropriate angle  Shoulders move slightly forward in front of the hands in order to provide a horizontal component o “Go” Acceleration Usually sprinters reach their maximum velocity between 60-70 meters The main objective of sprinting is to accelerate over the longest possible distance in the shortest time possible The acceleration pattern is sets up by the clearance of the blocks with a maximum force in a balanced positions Speed is the product of stride length (distance between the touchdown of the toes for each stride) and stride frequency The average of stride length, 2.20-2.38m Stride length vary because of individual muscle strength, leg length, flexibility, speed of running, and any injuries Velocity Maintenance Once maximum velocity reached (50-70 meters), the runner can only maintain maximum velocity for a few strides (about 15-25 meters) before fatigue cause of gradual deceleration
  41. 41. Deceleration can be minimized by relaxation, conditioning, and concentration on proper technique Mental and Psychological Aspects 3.2.2 200 Meters Runner must be able to run the curve efficiently and carry the speed for an additional 100 meters In order to cut down the distance run, the runner must run close to the lane line as possible on the curve This technically can maintain balance and fight the centrifugal force that tends to push the athlete outward, the athlete should look inside, lean inside, and drive outside arm across the body to help maintain balance 3.2.3 400 Meters The runner must develop the ability to distribute his or her speed and energy over the total racing distance in the most efficient manner Need pace judgment and effort distribution skills For the first 150 meters should be run in a relaxed and smooth manner while trying to maintain rhythm and velocity with the least effort Gradually increase the arm drive and stride frequency at the 200-meter mark For the final 100 meters, the runner must stay as relaxed as possible and try to maintain form and concentration Success of this event requires maximum development of the anaerobic endurance energy system 3.2.4 Relays Relays require team work and timing Employ two types of baton passes: o Non-visual pass  not seen by the receiver, and it is used in sprint relays
  42. 42.  Baton must be passed in a 20-meter zone  The outgoing runner has an additional 10-meter zone in which to accelerate  Alternate hands, first and third runners carrying baton in the right hand and the second and forth runners carrying the baton in the left hand  Outgoing runner accelerate maximally into and through the passing zone as the incoming runner hits the go mark  Visual or vocal cues can be used to initiate the pass  The more efficient technique – extended arm position with openpalm, thumb down hand position because it provides a bigger target, a natural hand-baton fit, better control and a longer free distance between runner  The incoming runner uses an upsweep push into target hand of the outgoing runner  The main objective is to keep the baton moving through the passing zone at top speed o Visual pass  A pass that is seen by the receiver and it is primarily used in long relay  The outgoing runner should turn and go as the incoming runner hits the go mark  The outgoing runner accelerates into 3-5 strides and turns about 10 meters into the zone and reaches back with the left hand, chest facing the curb  The hand should reach high into the face of the incoming runner as it provides a good target with the fingers extended and the thumb open in the natural reaching position  The incoming runner places the baton into the target hand of the outgoing runner and as he/she turns, he/she must judge the strength and speed of the incoming runner
  43. 43.  The outgoing runner has about 10 meter to slow down or speed up to complete the pass  As it is completed and the runner is clear of traffic, the baton should be switched to the right hand, and the runner should sprint hard through the first turn and establish position 3.2.5 Hurdles Requires outstanding sprinting ability, rhythm, flexibility, coordination, balance, and efficient technique The start is basically the same as for sprinting with an adjustment to achieve the correct stride number to the first hurdle, 8 strides is the most common pattern The lead leg should be placed in the rear block in preparation for 8 strides to the first hurdle The takeoff distance from the hurdle is important to establish an efficient flight path over the hurdle as the hurler‟s size, speed of approach, and lead leg action determine the proper takeoff distance for each hurdler Hurdle clearance o Depends on proper takeoff and lead-leg action o Takeoff – high on the balls of the feet, highly flexed lead knee and large split between legs as this lifts the center of gravity high into efficient flight path over the hurdle while minimizing vertical forces o Lead leg should not swing up with straight or locked leg, and should not swing inside or outside o Lead leg should be directly in front of the hip, with the toe straight up o The take off leg is driven up and around to the side of the body in a tightly folded position o The toe of the takeoff leg is turned out Arm action o Most efficient technique – single arm action as it stimulates the running action
  44. 44. o The lead arm is driven forward about shoulder level, with a bent elbow o The takeoff arm swings backward for balance and rhythm o The hurdler leans forward with the shoulders square Landing o Land on the ball of the foot with the center of mass (hips) over or slightly in front of the landing foot o Takeoff leg comes through with a high knee action and flows into a full sprint stride o The hurdler takes 3 sprint strides between hurdles, with the last stride being shorter Hurler should sprint through the first hurdle out of the blocks, between the hurdles, and off the last hurdle through the finish line 3.2.6 Endurance Events The main emphasis of the endurance training is on the development of the aerobic metabolic oxygen transport system (the lungs, heart, and vascular systems). There is a strong correlation between a high aerobic capacity and success in endurance events. Long Continuous Runs The major part of endurance runners‟ training programs where they build a strong aerobic base first The runs range from 3 to 10 miles for middle distance runner, and 10 to 20 miles for longer distance runners These runs may average a pace of 5 to 7 minutes per mile for men and 6 to 9 minutes per mile for women depending on the level of competition and fitness Interval Training Precise measurement of each phase of work is essential to get the specific training effect to produce the developmental heart stimulus
  45. 45. The basic elements: o The distance run – groups of 100, 200, or 400 m o The recovery interval – 30, 60, 90 seconds. Heart-rate recovery of 120 beats/minute have also been used o The pace of the run – how fast each interval is run depends on the fitness of the athlete and the race pace desired o The number of repetition – the number of times the run is repeated depends on the planned workload Fartlek Fartlek alternates hard and easy running over varied and interesting terrains It takes the athlete away from the confines of a track to a more natural setting Fartlek means “speed play” The runner can develop speed and endurance at the same time in a fun and stimulating environment It is a flexible and wide ranging system 3.2.7 Jumping Events Long Jump Approach The distance of the run-up is determined by strength, skill, conditioning, and the acceleration pattern of the jumper The main objective of the approach is to develop maximum controllable speed at takeoff Techniques that have been used to achieve this goal: gradual buildup, an explosive buildup, or a two-to four-step walk-in to the first check mark The key factors are a fast, relaxed, consistent stride pattern Takeoff
  46. 46. An efficient take off action is one that allows the jumper to get lift at the appropriate angle with a minimum loss of horizontal velocity. The position of the takeoff foot and the center of mass at takeoff are the most important technical considerations for successful jumps A long/short stride pattern in the last two strides should be used as it can lowers the center of mass on the next-to-last stride and catches the hips on the rise in the final stride. The takeoff action should be fast, with a short duration on the board Flight in the air Three types of in-the-air styles: the sail, the hang, and the hitch kick have been used effectively, and each has its strengths and weaknesses. All styles are basically used to counter forward rotation created at takeoff. They allow the athlete to maintain balance and prepare the legs for an efficient landing. Landing The most effective landing position is with the feet as far as possible in front of the center of mass (hips) without falling backward into the pit. The landing action is initiated by extending the legs parallel to the pit or slightly above parallel, with the toes up The head, chest, and arms are thrust forward The arms sweep down and back, then forward, as the heels contact the sand At this point, the knees flex and allow the hips to move forward The athlete can fall forward into a tight tuck position or execute a sit out technique that employs a pivot to the side with a hip thrust that strikes the sand with the buttocks near or past the feet Triple Jump
  47. 47. Triple jump require the lower takeoff angle and three jumps of an even distribution of effort and conservation of horizontal velocity on each jump Te triple jumper must takeoff and land on the same foot in the first jump; on the second jump the jumper must land on the opposite foot; and on the third jump the jumper may land in any manner The triple jumper may also posses good balance and a high level of legs strength and power Approach The takeoff in the first phase is characterized by a single or double arm action The single arm action is recommended as it is more natural extension of the run The stronger leg should be used for this phase First Jump The jumper runs off the board with a single arm action and pulls the takeoff leg tightly through under the buttocks to a thigh-thigh position in front of the hips The fore leg is extended slightly forward, and the ankle is cocked The arms are simultaneously extended backward into a double arm position The jumper is now prepared to execute the second phase Second Jump Initiated by a forward swinging of the arms, an explosive firing and pawing action by the extended takeoff leg and flexed ankle into the ground
  48. 48. under the body, and a forward drive of the opposite knee into a high-thigh position The jumper must hold this position as long as possible to achieve the greatest distance possible in this phase The jumper must again extend both arms backward, and the foreleg of the lead leg extends forward, with the ankle cocked Third Jump Begins with the forward swing of the arms, the driving, pawing action of the lead leg under the body, and the forward and upward drive of the opposite knee. The flight path and landing of the third phase is similar to the long jump Usually used a sit-out landing technique because lack of momentum to carry them over the legs in the traditional tuck position High Jump Two basic styles of high jumping that have produced the highest jumps are the flop and the dive straddle. Plant and takeoff The jumper should plant the outside foot almost parallel to the bar, 0.9 to 1.2 m directly in front of the near standard The jumper plants with the heel and rotates to the toe The ankle and the knee extend fully to the toe for maximum drive The inside knee is driven up and across the body at takeoff as it rotates the body into a back-to-the-bar position To ensure maximal takeoff force with the most efficient takeoff angle to clear the bar, the lead knee must be driven away from the bar, and the body must be perpendicular to the ground at the takeoff Bar clearance
  49. 49. The jumper prepares to clear the bar as soon as he or she leaves the ground From the back-to-the-bar position, the jumper drops the head back and lifts the hips to clear the bar Spreading the knees with the heels kept close together facilitates flowing into this position The arms and hands rest on the thighs Once the hips clear the bar, the jumper drops the hips and lifts the arms and legs to clear the feet (action-reaction) The jumper lands on the shoulder and back in the pit Pole Vaulting The five phase of pole vaulting are as follow: Approach Approach that allows the greatest buildup of controlled speed should be used. The handhold should be slightly wider than shoulder width Pole plant The pole should be plant early and out in front of the body The upper arm is extended as straight as possible overhead or slightly in front of the head The plant foot should be directly under or behind the upper hand at takeoff Swing The lower arm should be locked after the takeoff as it aids in the transfer of linear velocity to angular velocity The knee opposite the plant foot should be driven up, whereas the plant foot is left hanging until the next phase
  50. 50. Rollback The hips should be brought higher than the head and the knees flexed into the chest The vaulter should remain in the rollback position until the pole is well into its recoil Pull-up/push-up/push-off This final phase start with a pull-up which should be done when the pole is almost straight for maximum efficiency and greatest height potential The push-up is done much like the handstand push-up As the vaulter reach maximum height, the vaulter push-off, dropping the legs and rotating around the bar 3.2.8 Throwing Events Shot Put The technique for throwing the shot is a putting action (elbow and forearm extension). Two basic techniques are: the glide and the spin. The glide The thrower starts at the back of the circle facing the opposite direction of the sector The knees should be flexed and the trunk leaning forward over the right leg The throw is started by driving the left leg in the direction of the throw At the same time the right leg should begin a driving action The landing and throw o The right foot lands near the center of the circle, and the left foot makes contact with the inside edge of the toe board o The hips and the body begin to rotate in the direction of the throw o The forearm and elbow of the right arm should remain directly behind the shot
  51. 51. o The throwing arm extends explosively and chases after the shot, and the wrist is snapped o During the follow-through and reverse, the thrower should lower the center of mass and extend the arms and legs to maintain balance and stay in the circle The spin The thrower starts at the back of the circle and rotates into the power position like the discus thrower instead of gliding The remaining movements are the same as the glide so as the foot movements Discus Throw The hand is placed on the discus with the fingers slightly separated and the first joint of each finger curled slightly over the rim The thumb rests on top of the discus and the wrist is slightly cocked toward the little finger to lose contact with the discus The thrower starts in the extreme back position of the circle and will eventually complete one-and-three-quarters turns before the release The beginning of the spin is usually preceded by a few preliminary swings of the discus back and forth to establish a rhythm The beginning position of the spin should be with the feet slightly wider than shoulder width and the top part of the body rotated more than 180 degrees to the right The spin is initiated by the legs and the hips as the weight is shifted to the left The upper body remains relaxed, and the throwing arm trails behind with the discus at shoulder height The right foot will be lifted off the ground and driven forward toward the center of the ring to establish a new support as the weight continues to the left
  52. 52. Before the right foot contacts the ground, the thrower will face the front of the ring, pass through this position, and again face the back of the ring Once the right foot contact with the ground, the performer pivots on this foot The left foot comes off the ground to eventually be placed at the front of the circle a little pass the centerline Once the left foot makes contact, the thrower enters the explosive part of the throw With the right foot now planted at the center of the circle and the left foot planted at the front of the circle, the thrower explodes and accelerates the turning of the upper body against the firmly anchored lower body The discus at the beginning of this explosion should be about shoulder height, then it is dropped to hip height, and release at shoulder height Javelin The most important aspect in javelin throw is the velocity of the release that developed in the run-up, the torque created by the thrower‟s body and the transfer of these forces over the thrower‟s plant leg. The angle of release is dependent on the ability of the thrower. Approach The approach covers 33.5 to 40 m, with crossover steps in the final 5 or 6 strides The crossover steps allow the thrower to place the body in a strong throwing position Plant The thrower plants the leg opposite the throwing arm in front of the body with a long last stride The javelin is pulled back, and the shoulders are rotated back to create torque in the body
  53. 53. Throw The throw initiated by an explosive push by the rear leg that drives the body over the plant leg The shoulders and the arms follow the leg drive as they rotate into the throw The final wrist flick and body follow-through further accelerate the javelin at release Grip Varieties of grip are used, but for all of them the hand must be in contact with the cord grip The palm should face upward, and the thrower should pull straight through the shaft to the tip into the proper release angle and direction The final wrist and finger drive should be against the cord grip and through the tip, to impart spin of the javelin and stabilize its flight Hammer Throw Hammer throw require a high degree of skill as well as balance, strength, power, speed, and very specific motor patterns. The hammer is a rhythm event thus it require many hours of drills to coordinate the balanced movements of the body. The basic parts of the throw are preliminary swings, entry, turns, low and high points of the swings and the release. The throw must be viewed as a whole, linked by its various parts. Technique: The thrower begins from a position facing the opposite direction of the throw and toward the edge of the circle Feet approximately shoulder-width apart, arms extended, and body weight over the leg on the side of the hammer The throw initiated with one or two preliminary swings around the head while facing the starting position in the back of the circle
  54. 54. The thrower then accelerates into three-and-a-half complete turns with the hammer The hammer thrower attempts to build maximum velocity in the hammer head during the turns While rotating through the three-and-a-half turns, the hammer moves progressively from a low point to a high point and reaches a final angle of approximately 45 degrees at the release 3.3 Basic Rules Events Running Events Rules Starting blocks must be used for all races up to and including 400 meters Up to 400 meters, starting command is “on your mark, set” and the gun fired about 2 seconds after everyone is up and motionless Races over 400 meters, the starting command is “set” and the gun fired 2 methods of timing are considered official, hand timing (manual) and fully automatic timing. Hand times are recorded to the next tenth of a second. Add .24 seconds to hand times to convert to fully automatic times A false start is declared if the runner jumps the gun. A runner is disqualified after the second false start A competitor who cuts in front of another runner without proper clearance of one full strides shall be disqualified In all races run in lanes, runners shall start and finish in
  55. 55. their assigned lanes Hurdles All competitors must clear, within their lane, the required number of hurdles The hurdler may not run around the side of the hurdles, trail the leg below the level of the hurdle bar, run out of her or his lane, impede another hurdler, or deliberately knock down a hurdle with the hand or foot The entire body must pass over the hurdle Relays The baton must be passed in 20-meter passing zone The runner must remain in his or her lane and not interfere with other team exchanges The baton‟s position, not the body of either athlete, is the decisive point in determining if the exchange occurred within the zone The baton must be carried in the hand, and if dropped, must be recovered by the athlete who dropped it The last runner of the race must have the baton High Jump A legal high jump is one in which competitor jumps from one foot The crossbar must be cleared without displacement It is a failed attempt when, after clearing the bar and landing in the pit, the jumper stumbles against the uprights and displaces the crossbar
  56. 56. Pole Vault The crossbar must be cleared without displacement either with the body or the pole It is a failed attempt if the vaulter leaves the ground in an attempt to vault and fails to clear the bar A trial or failure may not be counted if a vaulter‟s pole breaks during an attempt to clear the bar The pole may be of any material or combination of materials, and it may be of any size and weight The landing pad measured beyond the vertical plane of the stopboard shall be a minimum of 4.88 m wide and 3.66 m deep Long and Triple The jumper‟s shoe must not extend over the foul line Jump The jumper must leave the pit under control beyond his or her mark made in the sand The triple jumper must take off and land on the same foot in the first jump, and any landing is permissible following the final jump In attempting a jump, it is foul jump if the jumpers runs beyond the foul line extended Shot Put and Must start from a stationary position Discus Must not leave the circle until the implement has touched the ground Must not exit from the back half of the circle once the implement has landed The implement must land within the sector
  57. 57. The proper implement must be used The shot must be held in close proximity to the chin, and the throwing arm must not drop behind or below the shoulder level No tape is allowed on hands unless there is an open cut or wound. Gloves are not permitted There are no form requirements while throwing the discus Must not touch the tip of the stopboard or ring, or outside the circle Javelin The throw must land within the sector The javelin must be held by the cord grip A regulation javelin must be used It shall be a foul and not measured if during the attempt to throw, the thrower touches with any part of the body, any surface of the foul line, the run-up lines, or the area outside of the foul line or run-up lines Hammer Throw The throw must land within the sector During the throw, the competitor must not leave the circle The hammer must be legal Gloves may be used
  58. 58. 3.4 Safety Precautions Proper warm up with a few flexibility and conditioning exercises prior to practice or competition to prepare the body and prevent injury Wear shoes that are suitable for the individual events and make sure they fit properly Take proper care of equipment Use caution in all throwing events. Carry the implements back to the thrower and make sure the throwing area is clear Check all jumping surfaces for stability and firmness. Take special precautions for wet, slippery conditions 3.5 Teaching Considerations Teaching and coaching track and field require the basic understanding of the physical and mental responses to training as well as a general knowledge of exercise physiology and biomechanical principles need to be used as a guideline in planning training programs. These guidelines should include the following principles: Principles Descriptions Training should be specific to the requirements of the Specificity of event in terms of the development of strength, power, Training speed, flexibility, and the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems The appropriate intensity, frequency, and duration of Training Loads training should be well planned
  59. 59. The principle of gradual progressive overloads should be followed to allow for training adaptation Individuality Each individual has unique ability and skills A sensitivity to genetic and acquired differences should be considered Body size and composition and muscle type should be evaluated Individual temperament and tolerances should also be considered Adaptation to Adequate rest and recovery cycles should be included Stress in the training to allow for positive adaptation The “hard day, easy day” principle is a good policy to follow Overtraining can lead to injury, staleness, and burnout thus athlete needs regular recovery periods, both physically and psychologically 3.6 Class or Team Management As to achieve the various training goals, management requires a careful planning. The following tasks should be considered: Setting individual and group goals Designing daily, weekly, and monthly practice schedule Providing for equipment needs Staffing and teaching strategies
  60. 60. Proper selection and grouping of athletes into appropriate events Testing and evaluation of performances Motivational techniques and strategies 3.7 Conclusion As a core sport in school, it requires every single teacher to at least have knowledge of skill, basic techniques and rules of the athletic track and field events. This is important to ensure teacher can administer student athletes for the school sport day. Besides, teacher can guide and trained potential student to be a successful athletes. Since athletic develop fitness as whole, teacher can help student to stay fit and healthy by this activity.the correct technique help to reduce the pain of injury as well. Therefore, teacher needs to have the basic skill and technique for this athletic track and field event. SELF-TEST 1 1. Describe the basic rules of hurdles 2. What are the fundamentals skills of throw event? Explain all. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: Outline and discuss a training program for selected track and field events.
  61. 61. CHAPTER 4 RECREATION – OUTDOOR LEARNING OUTCOMES When you complete this module will be able to: Explain and describe the basic of outdoor recreation Be able to know the benefit of outdoor Be able to know the values of ourdoor 4.0 Introduction Experiential education is learning by doing or by participating in an experience. Through direct experiences with nature, people, objects, things, places and by actually learning by doing, scientific evidence has shown that the learning process is faster, what is learned is retained longer, and there is greater appreciation and understanding for those things that are learned firsthand. Outdoor education is a form of experiential education that is important in society today. 4.1 Outdoor Education Outdoor education usually refers to organized learning in an outdoor setting. Outdoor Learning has become a more contemporary term for arguably the same thing, but it reflects well the distinction between discovery/active learning (which Ardroy promotes) and didactic education, which is more the domain of mainstream education. Outdoor education programs usually involve residential or journey-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous, memorable challenges. The community aspect of living in a residential environment for a period of time should not be down-played either. Definition of Outdoor Education
  62. 62. Outdoor education can be simply described as experiential learning in the outdoors. The term „outdoor education‟, however, is widely used to refer to a range of organized activities, which take place in a variety of ways, in predominantly outdoor environments. Outdoor education programs sometimes involve residential or journeybased experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges in the form of outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses, and group games. Outdoor education draws upon the philosophy, theory, and practices of experiential education and environmental education. Outdoor recreation activities have been defined as those activities that: are undertaken outside the confines of buildings (i.e., in the outdoors); do not involve organized competition or formal rules can be undertaken without the existence of any built facility or infrastructure may require large areas of land, water and/or air; may require outdoor areas of predominantly unmodified natural landscape The outdoor education must encompass: an educational element which stimulates personal and social development an experience which includes themes of “outdoor”, “adventure”, and “education” learning as an experiential process which utilizes direct experiences an increased self and social awareness, plus increased awareness of community and environment 4.2 Benefits of Outdoor Education Health Benefits Personal health, including psychological health, is one of the important outcomes of outdoor recreation participation. Psychological health can be demonstrated as:
  63. 63. Stress reduction–. Relaxation, rest and revitalization all happen as people participate in outdoor activities. The influence of a natural environment, the opportunity to escape the pressures of urban life and the sense of achievement that occurs through participation all contribute to increasing the ability of individuals to deal with the world around them. Good self-esteem and positive self-image–. Achievement, stress reduction, positive lifestyle options and choices all contribute to individuals‟ feelings of having control over their life and of success. Life satisfaction, inspiration and self-realization–. Many individuals use outdoor recreation as a major motivating force. Instead of describing themselves as a teacher or a banker many people prefer to describe themselves as a rock climber or a bushwalker. The personal rewards and satisfaction they achieve through their participation mean that many participants regard it as an integral component of their life, providing the impetus for work and participation in their community, and the goal at the end of the week can all be provided by their activity. Physical health can be demonstrated in all active people through: reduced heart disease decreased obesity greater fitness Environmental Benefits Outdoor recreation participants have historically demonstrated their willingness to preserve the conservation values of sites through substitution, maintenance and rehabilitation projects arising through an active communication and consultation process with landholders. Outdoor recreation participants are likely to be highly motivated to assist in conservation initiatives on a site to which they feel attached. Collaboration and consultation with these groups and individuals are likely to result in successful communication of and compliance with restrictions on sites with conservation values that are incompatible with outdoor recreation use
  64. 64. Outdoor recreation activities based in natural environments raise the profile and community importance of looking after these places, providing insurance for a new and improved environmental future. 4.3 The Values of Outdoor Education Promote active learning through direct personal experience and offer excitement, fun and adventure within a framework of safety Active learning and adventure outdoors can take place in a variety of environments: rural and urban, local and more remote. Outdoor education, training and recreation involve both young people and adults in a wide range of experiences, including adventurous activities on land and water and activities with an environmental focus. Methods used include skills-focused learning, problem solving, team building and self-reliant journeys and activities, with residential experience an especially valued feature Challenging experience outdoors impacts powerfully upon a young person‟s intellectual, physical, spiritual, social and moral development Use of the outdoors makes a major contribution to physical and environmental education and enhances many other curriculum areas. It contributes to personal growth and social awareness and develops skills for life and the world of work. Qualities such as a sense of responsibility and a purpose in life are nurtured. There is also a great deal of intrinsic enjoyment and satisfaction to be experienced from participation in outdoor activities. Building self confidence and self esteem is fundamental to any young person‟s development Outdoor activities provide valuable alternative, often non-competitive, avenues for achievement, as well as opportunities to develop independence and self reliance. Through successfully facing up to the challenges which outdoor activities provide, overcoming fears and apprehensions along the way, young
  65. 65. people make major strides in confidence, with implications for all aspects of their development. A positive attitude to learning is essential if young people are to make the most of their education Participation in exciting and enjoyable outdoor activities with teachers, youth workers and peers reinforces a positive attitude to education and contributes significantly to the general ethos of a school or youth group. Direct experience out of doors stimulates and reinforces learning across many areas of the curriculum, and the use of the outdoors encourages young people to take greater responsibility for their own learning Awareness of the needs and contributions of others and the ability to sustain effective relationships, at work and in the family, are vital in today‟s society Experience in the outdoors provides rich opportunities for personal and social development through carefully structured group work in challenging situations. Trust, care, tolerance and the willingness to give and accept support are all encouraged and anti-social behavior is challenged. Opportunities are presented to exhibit and develop effective inter-personal behavior and to work co-operatively and effectively in teams. The purposeful use of leisure time is increasingly seen as making an important contribution to a fulfilling lifestyle Outdoor recreation introduces young people to a range of worthwhile leisure pursuits which will enrich their future lives, and develops the skills and knowledge essential for safe participation. Outdoor exercise contributes greatly to health and fitness and continuing participation in outdoor pursuits encourages the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle into middle age and beyond. Our relationship with the environment is a key issue facing tomorrow‟s citizens
  66. 66. Active learning and adventure outdoors introduces young people to the environment in a way which develops understanding appreciation, awe, wonder and respect. It fosters sensitivity to the environment, helps young people to see themselves in a global context and helps to develop citizens with an awareness of the need for sustainable use of the world‟s natural resources Tomorrow‟s successful citizens will possess the adaptability to cope with a rapidly changing world of work and the responsibility to be an effective member of a community Challenging outdoor experiences promote the development of communication, problem solving and decision making skills which have currency across a range of occupations. They encourage a positive “opting in” and “can do” attitude. Young people‟s horizons are broadened, new challenges come to be relished rather than shunned, and perseverance and determination are reinforced. Values and attitudes developed in a context of shared endeavor help to form a sound basis for responsible citizenship 4.4 Conclusion Experience of outdoor education is both unique to the individual and equally just as prone to development and change. Outdoor education is the blending of both adventure and environment approaches into a program of activities or experiences. Through exposure to the outdoor setting, individual learn about their relationship with the natural environment, relationships between the various concepts of natural ecosystems and personal relationships with others and their inner self. Outdoor education as one means of assisting each student in developing an attitude of personal responsibility for our finite and fragile environment. This quality need to be adding to the curriculum view of the school teacher.
  67. 67. SELF-TEST 1 1. Explain outdoor recreation education. 2. Explain benefit outdoor recreation. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: What are the values that you gain in outdoor recreation activity? Explain in school based program.
  68. 68. CHAPTER 5 RECREATION – SAFETY LEARNING OUTCOMES When you complete this module will be able to: Explain and describe the importance of safety in outdoor Be able know the principles of safety in outdoor Be able to know the leadership function in safety outdoor 5.0 Introduction Safety management has been continuously developed and has emerged as a distinct discipline. Many organization realize that the preventing or avoiding looses improves the bottom line, but controlling hazards, managing risks and maintaining proactive safety program are essential activities still overlooked by many top leadership management. A well organized safety program plays a vital role in meeting the challenges of providing effective patient care and other services within a safe environment. Integrating safety into the care environment using a systems approach remains the most proven method for achieving these desired results. The challenges facing organizations include: Making safety an integral part of job performance. Understanding accidents and their relationship to cost, time and performance factors. Educating all personnel on basic safety management concepts and principle. Increasing involvement of staff and departments in the safety program. Establishing a functional safety committee that can make a difference. Implementing as effective system of information collection and evaluation. Conducting safety related causation analyses.
  69. 69. Applying system safety orientation, training and education sessions. Focusing on unsafe behaviors as well as hazard control. Definition of Safety Safety is the state of being "safe", the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered non-desirable. Safety can also be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. This can take the form of being protected from the event or from exposure to something that causes health or economical losses. It can include protection of people or of possessions. Types of Safety It is important to distinguish between products that meet standards, that are safe, and those that merely feel safe. The highway safety community uses these terms: Normative safety Normative safety is a term used to describe products or designs that meet applicable design standards and protection. Substantive safety Substantive or objective safety means that the real-world safety history is favorable, whether or not standards are met. Perceived safety Perceived or subjective safety refers to the level of comfort of users. For example, traffic signals are perceived as safe, yet under some circumstances, they can increase traffic crashes at an intersection. Traffic roundabouts have a generally favorable safety record yet often make drivers nervous.
  70. 70. 5.1 Safety Management Principle Accidents, injuries and loss events occur as a result of management deficiencies and reveal the existing of managerial and leadership problems. The following actions should be taken to minimize the likelihood of accidents: Correct the causal factors to make better use of human and material resources. Understanding that placing blame never addresses real safety problem. Use analysis to help pinpoint system problems. Improve safety throughout the organization by integrating safety programs into all functions within the organization. Improve organizational performance and the bottom line. Determine ways to reduce the costs of accidents, insurance, equipment, hiring and training. Bolster worker morale and promote good public relations. 5.2 Management Efficiencies and Safety Management deficiencies and inefficiencies lead to errors of omission and commission. Management deficiencies set the stage for accident events. Most accidents result in interruptions and the loss of someone‟s time. Good management eliminates the causes of accidents while poor management generates accidents. The occurrence of accidents has a domino effect on the entire organization. Safety Program Fundamental Top management must demonstrate a total commitment to the organization‟s safety program. An effective program considers maintaining worker safety to be a fundamental responsibility of the organization: Workplace Analysis
  71. 71. Management must ensure that effective workplace hazard surveys are conducted. Hazard information must be accurately analyzed to better permit the organization to anticipate and prevent accidents. Accidents Prevention and Hazard Control Organizations should stress accident prevention and safe work practices to all employees. Actions should be taken to control hazards through the design of work areas or job task itself. When it is not feasible to eliminate hazardous conditions, the organization must implement measures to protect individuals from unsafe conditions or unhealthy exposures. Employee Training Training is the key to success. The mature of the training depends on the type, size and complexity of the organization. Training is also based on potential hazards, risks or exposures present Coordinating Safety Coordinating hazard control and safety activities that address behaviors can be difficult for a number of reasons. Coordination can‟t take place unless the cultural and communication aspects of the organization are understood. The coordinating function of management is the vehicle to change behaviors and expectations. Result occurs when the culture is understood, communication is effective and coordination takes place. Management commitment provides the motivating force for organizing and controlling safety related programs. A clearly stated worksite policy regarding safety and working conditions demonstrates the priority management has placed on safety in relation to other organizational values. Policy Statements
  72. 72. Good policy statements express a belief or philosophy. An understanding philosophy regarding safety provides the foundation for an organizational policy statement and a good policy statement provides direction for meeting established safety goals or objectives. Senior leadership must approve the safety policy statement. Developing a Safety Policy Statement: Develop a safety policy that effectively expresses a belief or philosophy. Publish the policy in writing, using clear and easy to understand language. Be sure the policy is written using broad terms and that it focuses on long range objectives. Understand that effective policies support a proactive, not reactive and approach to safety. Remember that the policy must promote direct involvement by all organizational members and departments. Plan to use a well written safety policy for at least 5 years. Understand the changing policies can create confusion with regard to the direction of the safety program. Don‟t focus too much on compliance issues; instead promote safety as being the right thing to do. Recommended that the policy address the importance of off the job safety. Allow senior management to publicize the policy. Safety Environments It is consists the buildings, equipment and people. A proper design and management of the physical environment contribute to creating a safe and comfortable environment of care that helps support and maintain patient dignity, promotes interaction, reduces stress and encourages family participation in the care process. Environment Safety Challenges Establishing a multidisciplinary process or committee to resolve care environment issues. Appointing appropriate representation from clinical, administrative and support areas.
  73. 73. Identifying and analyzing care and environment issues in a timely manner. Developing and approving recommendations for improvement as appropriate. Establishing appropriate measurement guidelines with appropriate staff input. Communicating issues to organizational leaders and improvement coordinator. Coordinating environmental safety issues with leadership of the patient safety program. Basics Safety Environment Considerations: Proper lighting. Privacy. Appropriate use of space that considers the clinical philosophy of care. Security of person, property and valuables. Orientation and access to nature and the outside. Color schemes that enhance care. Reductions and control of environmental hazards and risks. Developing an environment that minimizes unnecessary environmental stress. Leadership Responsibilities: Publish a safety policy that expresses commitment to the program. Establish realistic safety goals and expectations. Provide the resources necessary to ensure achievement of these goals. Communicate the importance of the program to staff members. Assign responsibilities and authority as necessary to carry out the plan. Hold the organizational members accountable for safety goals and objectives. Personally communicate safety at every opportunity. Establish an off the job safety related topics is to be discussed at all meetings or training sessions. Implement an effective education program for all third shift workers. Encourage key department managers to personalize the safety message. Promote safety as a proactive endeavor that pays off by improving the system
  74. 74. Safety Supervisor Responsibilities: Analyze work areas to identify unrecognized potential hazards. Maintain personal protective and ensure it proper use. Provide job training on potential occupational hazards. Be sure that workers know the protective measures to follow. Reinforce employee training through continual performance feedback. Enforce compliance with safety rule and practices. Complete accident reports and conduct initial investigations. Conduct periodic safety inspections. Worker Involvement: Appointing the employees to positions in the safety program. Placing hourly workers on safety committee. Requiring workers to report accidents and injuries immediately. Providing quick responses to concerns about safety. Assessing and correcting problems and hazardous conditions. Training and educating workers on a recurring basis. Successful Safety Programs Safety programs developed to fit the needs of an organizational can be succeeding if the plan properly managed. Stress results oriented activities based on defined goals. Investigate and analyze causal factors that result in loss. Develop a management actions plan in addition to publishing policies. Establish measurement criteria to assess program effectiveness. Publish contingency plans to deal with potential problems. Written Program Considerations: Implement a program structure that best serves the organization.
  75. 75. Ensure that the program utilizes a systems approach that integrates safety. Assign responsibilities and delegate authority to a qualified safety officer or director. Establish lines of communication within the safety management function. Develop comprehensive orientation, training and education programs. Specifically address patient, worker, visitor and community safety objectives. Stress accidents prevention and worker‟s compensation cost containment. Develop effective reporting, hazard identification and investigation procedures Developing or Revising a Written Safety Program Assessment: a. Review statistics, claims, trends and severity or frequency rates. b. Evaluate effectiveness and scope of current loss control practices c. Talk with workers to reveal their feelings, perceptions and reactions. d. Identify any other problem areas that impact loss control efforts. Organizational Safety Policy Statement: a. Be sure that a philosophy has been defined before publishing any safety policy statement. b. Obtain approval to issue the policy statement from the highest level in the organization. c. Write the policy statement using simple language that communicates to everyone involved. d. State objectives in broad terms in terms in the statement, as detail will be provided in the written safety program. e. Understand that an effective safety policy statement promotes integrated and decentralized actions while at the same time it gave the organizational leaders the right to act. f. Don‟t allow the written safety program to conflict with the policy statement Assigning Authority and Responsibilities:
  76. 76. a. Find the authority for implementing a safety program in the codes, regulations and organizational policy. b. Appoint a safety officer, director or coordinator to lead the program. c. Assign responsibilities and delegate authority to ensure program success. d. Ensure that all employees understand their responsibilities. Establishing Documentation and Training Procedures a. Determine recordkeeping requirements for injury and accident report. b. Obtain all required regulations, job procedures and safety regulations. c. Publish written safety policies, job procedures and safety regulations. d. Establish documentation requirements for all employee training sessions. e. Develop concise and complete job descriptions for all employees. Developing Evaluation Guidelines a. Determine how frequently to evaluate the program for effectiveness. b. Involve department heads by requiring periodic self inspections. c. Advise departments that safety officers will evaluate each department on a regular basis. Establishing a Safety Committee or Proves Team to Oversee the Safety Management Program a. Take a proactive role to promote and oversee safety activities. b. Be given the authority to cross departmental boundaries. c. Take all actions necessary to accomplish program objectives. d. Be structured to meet the needs of the organization. Safety Committees It does not require a specific type of safety committee but does require a safety management proves to help develop, implement, evaluate and resolve safety matters. Committees or other processes must have representatives from administration, clinical and support department. Other suggestions include the following:
  77. 77. Make recommendations related to program improvement or revision. Report safety related activities to upper level management on regular basis. Maintain documentation of action and results of the management process. Develop a process of coordination between various departments. Reasons for Ineffective Safety Programs Safety efforts focus on activities instead of behavioral elements. Safety problems and issues are not addressed using a systems approach. Senior leadership fails to define the organizational safety philosophy. Safety education and training program focus too much on simply documenting attendance. Leaders fail to address or deal with turf kings and queens. Effective accident investigation techniques are not implemented. Root cause analysis methods are used only for patient safety not all safety events. Safety Planning It also requires a specific type of safety management plan that will provide a physical environment free of hazards. The plan must address ways to manage staff activities and reduce the risk of injuries at all campus facilities, as well as: Outline activities that will reduce the risk of human injury. Ensure the safety of grounds, facilities and equipment. Provide readily identified and accessible emergency service areas. Establish a risk assessment program to evaluate safety. Provide for the appointment of a qualified safety officer. Establish accident investigation procedures. Require departments to develop safety programs. Require safety training, orientation and education of all employees. Examine safety issues raised by clinical departments. Develop plans to promote worker safety.