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1.1 oral candidiasis


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Oral candidiasis, or oral thrush "can be" used as pathognomonic diagnosis of human immunodeficiency. Taken from Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles & Practice of Infectious Diseases. Copyrights belong to owner. Educational purposes only.

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1.1 oral candidiasis

  1. 1. Fadel Muhammad Garishah Diponegoro Medical SchoolTo be a medical research institution 2012
  2. 2. World Health Organization HIV/AIDS Staging
  3. 3.  Primary HIV infection has been associated with severe aphthous stomatitis and with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. Candida infections of the hard and soft palates, buccal mucosa, tongue, pharynx, and hypopharynx are observed frequently.
  4. 4. pharynx, and hypopharynxhard andsoft palatestongue buccal mucosa
  5. 5.  Fungi kingdom; Opportunistic fungi Candida albicans is the species most commonly identified, but Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei infections also occur.
  6. 6.  Systemic Candida infections due to defects in phagocyte function and number Mucosal Candida infections result from impaired cellular immunity. Particularly as CD4+ lymphocyte counts fall below 200 to 300/omm3. An opportunistic infection, it is predictive of the disease progression and development of other AIDS-related infections.
  7. 7. Candida albicans induces a T helper 1 (TH1) and TH17 cell-mediated immune responsethat is essential to clear the fungi.
  8. 8.  Generally cottage cheese plaques that can be removed with a tongue blade are seen on the soft palate, tonsils, and buccal mucosa Atrophic candidiasis: erythematous plaques distrib-uted in the same way as the pseudomembranous form of the disease but without the characteristic white exudate. Underdiagnosed by clinicians
  9. 9.  Candida can cause a nonscrapeable white plaque similar to that in hairy leukoplakia (hypertrophic candidiasis). Leukoplakia: corrugated lesions and hairlike projections, candidal lesions are smooth.
  10. 10.  Candida infection of the lateral lip (angular cheilitis) is another common complication.
  11. 11.  Physical examination, Potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation (scraped material from a plaque), The response to antifungal therapy establish the diagnosis.
  12. 12.  Wide use of oral triazole antifungal agents - emergence of disease caused by drug-resistant fungi Patients treated with HAART, rates of flu- conazole resistance were relatively low, even though many had received several previous courses of fluconazole, suggesting that advanced immunosuppression is the most important risk factor for resistance Some species, C. krusei and C. glabrata, are frequently less sensitive to fluconazole.