Pakistani architecture


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Pakistani architecture

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Pakistani architecture

  1. 1. Pakistani Architecture
  2. 2. <ul><li>Pakistani architecture includes various structures built during different time periods. </li></ul><ul><li>With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>This was followed by the Gandhara style of Buddhist architecture that borrowed elements from the Ancient Greece. These remnants are visible in the Gandhara capital of Taxila. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Indus Valley Civilization <ul><li>Archaeologists excavated numerous ancient cities, among them Mohenjo Daro, Harappa and Kot Diji, which have a uniform, appropriate structure with broad roads as well as well thought out sanitary and drainage facilities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The majority of the discovered brick constructions are public buildings such as bath houses and workshops. Wood and loam served as construction materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale temples, such as those found in other ancient cities are missing. With the collapse of the IVC culture the architecture also suffered considerable damage </li></ul>
  5. 5. Buddhist & Hindu Architecture <ul><li>With the rise of Buddhism outstanding architectural monuments were developed, which have lasted into the present. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the Persian and Greek influence led to the development of the Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century A.D.. </li></ul><ul><li>The high point of this era was reached with the culmination of the Gandhara style. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Important remnants of Buddhist construction are stupas and other buildings with clearly recognizable Greek statues and style elements like support columns which, beside ruins from other epochs, are found in the Gandhara capital Taxila in the extreme north of the Punjab. </li></ul><ul><li>A particularly beautiful example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in the northwest province. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mughal Architecture <ul><li>The arrival of Islam in today's Pakistan - first in Sindh - during 8th century A.D. meant a sudden end of Buddhist architecture. However, a smooth transition to predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>The way early mosques were built with decorations oriented them strongly to the Arab style. The earliest example of a mosque from the days of infancy of Islam in South Asia is the Mihrablose mosque of Banbhore, from the year 727, the first Muslim place of worship on the Indian Subcontinent. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Delhi Sultan the Persian-centralasiatic style ascended over Arab influences. Most important characteristic of this style is the Iwan, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open. Further characteristics are wide prayer halls, round domes with mosaics and geometrical samples and the use of painted tiles. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The most important of the few completely discovered buildings of Persian style is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam (built 1320 to 1324) in Multan. </li></ul>
  9. 9. British Colonial Architecture <ul><li>In the British colonial age predominantly representative buildings of the Indo-European style developed, from a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic components. Amongst the more prominent works are Mohatta Palace and Frere Hall in Karachi. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mohatta Palace, Karachi
  11. 11. Frere Hall, Karachi
  12. 12. Post Independence Architecture <ul><li>After independence Pakistan strove to express its new found national identity through architecture. This reflects itself particularly in modern structures like the Faisal Mosque in the capital built during the 1960s. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, buildings of monumental importance such as the Minar-e-Pakistan in Lahore or the mausoleum established with white marble known as Mazar-e-Quaid for the founder of the state expressed the self-confidence of the nascent state. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Monument in Islamabad is one the latest examples of integrating culture, independence and modern architecture. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Faisal Mosque
  14. 14. Minar-e-Pakistan
  15. 15. Mazar-e-Quaid
  16. 16. Habib Bank Plaza, Karachi