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Facts about planet earth


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I introduce my File Facts about earth.pdf, which contain the useful information about Earth planet. There are also some pictures of Earth. I hope that, they will provide to you useful knowledge about astronomy in general and Earth in particular.

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Facts about planet earth

  1. 1. Discovering Planet Earth The earth has already been in existence for 4.6 billion years. Humans came into being foronly about 2.5 million years. Knowing these things, it would seem ridiculous to conclude thathumans first discovered the earth. Be that as it may, it is still worthy to know how we, humans,advanced our way to the discovery of the planet earth.The Shape of the Earth During ancient times, people believedthat the Earth’s shape was flat. Differentcivilizations had their very own flat model ofthe earth which ranged from large circulardiscs to a square shaped earth which floated inwater. Believing that the earth was so leftphilosopher and educated men into a similarconclusion that the earth has edges whereexplorers could fall. This is the reason whyChristopher Columbus had a very hard timelooking for a crew in his journey around theworld Pythagoras was the first person known to have publicly called that the Earth was reallyround. The theory was further strengthened by Aristotle and the amazingly accuratemeasurement of the Earth’s diameter by Eratosthenes. The first person who actuallycircumnavigated the earth was the crew of Ferdinand Magellan. However, Magellan himself didnot accomplish the feat of travelling around the world because he was killed during suchexpedition.The Solar System According to Early Greek philosophy, the Earth was the center of the universe where thesun, moon and other naked eye planets are circling around it. During medieval times, everyonebelieved this theory which is strongly backed up by the church. The geocentric model was notchallenged until the release of Copernicus’ theory that the earth and the other planets wasactually revolving around the sun via the heliocentric model. In 1610, Galileo Galilei started supporting Copernicus’ theory and was called to recanthis belief of the heliocentric view by the Roman Inquisition. Of course, Galileo did not heed thiswhich resulted to him being in house arrest for the rest of his life. It was not long when ascientist named Giordano Bruno formulated his own cosmological theory basing his findings onCopernicus’ and Galileo’s concept which placed the Sun as merely one of many other stars
  2. 2. existing throughout the universe. With this theory, Bruno was burned at the stake after beingconvicted of heresy. When his theory was found to be correct by modern science, he was famedas a martyr of free thinking and scientific ideas.The Earthrise, Blue Marble and the Small Blue Dot In the Christmas Eve of 1968, themost influential photograph in historywas taken. A picture of the earth wastaken by the crew of Apollo 8 while on amission passing over the moon. Thisphotograph was called the earthrise whichshows an image of the earth floating in avast void of darkness which remindedhumanity of the delicateness of ourworld. This picture launched numerousenvironmental movements and broughtpublic consciousness for the preservationof the earth. In 1972, astronauts were ableto take a picture of the whole earthincluding the south polar ice cap. Thispicture called the Blue Marble was themost widely distributed picture of the Earth. In 1990, another picture of the Earth was taken from the Voyager 1 spacecraft at a vastdistance of 3.7 billion miles. It showed the Earth as a tiny speck of dust which showed us howvast the space is and how insignificant our size is compared to the incalculable vastness of space.With the aid of modern technology, humans will probably have a good shot on the discovery ofthe planet earth sooner than we think.How Humans Came To Be Human life has been in existence in this world as homo sapiens (the upright human) forabout 100,000 years. However, hominid or human like species has been discovered to exist forabout 4-6 million years ago. There are a lot of theories that seeks to explain how we, humanbeings, came into existence in this world. The Theory of Evolution by Charles Darwin may verywell explain how the modern man came into existence. In this article, it will be discussed howhumans came to occupy planet Earth. There are two major theories that try to explain how life existed on earth and howhumans came about. These are the Theory of Intelligent Design and the Theory of NaturalSelection.
  3. 3. Theory of Intelligent Design This theory describes that the formationof the universe and life was done by virtue of anintelligent cause and not by any random processor natural selection. In this theory, a supremedesigner (which could be God or extraterrestrialbeings) is responsible for the existence of life onearth and possibly explains how humans cameto occupy the planet Earth. Our present form isthe product of the exact biological design thatour designer has intended it to be. As such, ourexistence and what we are today is not based onchance. This only connotes that there is a reasonfor our existence here in the universe which westill do not know. The theory of intellectual design has been accused to be a form of theologicalcreationism in the guise of being explained through science by deliberately avoiding therevelation of the identity of this Intellectual Designer which would probably be the ChristianGod. This school of thought has been denied to be a part of science because it violates afundamental requirement of science in proving such claim by experimentation. Clearly, theexistence of a supreme designer cannot be proven by any scientific process.Theory of Natural Selection This theory also known as the “survival of the fittest” has been formulated by a biologistnamed Charles Darwin. In this theory, the existence of humans today is a result of a very longand continuing process of evolution. It is believed in this theory that all organisms came from asingle organism who continued reproducing. In the process, several accidents would happenwhich would result to a better version of such organism to suit the efficiency of reproduction. Inthe animal level, certain habitat conditions make animals more efficient than others. Throughtime, some animals will be born with irregularities which could give them some advantage insurviving the environment they are in. While those who do not have such advantage will die inthe process, those who survive will continue on reproduction. Repeating the entire process wouldbring us to superior creatures that are more suited to living in their respective habitats. To make the long story short, the Theory of Natural Selection explains how humans cameto occupy the planet Earth through evolution. Certain similarities between human and apespecies show that there is a strong possibility that they share the same genetic ancestry. Ourhuman form today and superior intellectual capacity is a product of a very long and tediousdeduction process in singling out the most superior qualities to obtain the best chance of survival.
  4. 4. Planet Earth May Not Be Able To Support Us In TheNear Future The question of "how much human life can the earth sustain?" could prove to be verydifficult. As early as 200AD, Tertullian wrote about the finiteness of the world’s resources tosustain human life. At that time, the population of the earth was just about in its hundredthmillion or so. In 1679, Anton Van Leeuwenhoek first estimated the human carrying capacity ofthe earth to be about 13.4 billion. The Germans in 1765 however claimed that the world couldsupport 13.9 billion people.Thomas Malthus In 1798, Thomas Malthusproduced a writing which provoked a hotdebate on the carrying capacity of theearth and asserted the imminent doom ofmankind due to overpopulation. Heargued that the Earth population isincreasing geometrically which means thatit is almost always being multiplied by aminimum of 2. This poses a great problemsince food production could only increasearithmetically. As such, there will come atime where the availability of food willnot be enough to feed enough humans ifthe population growth is to remainuncontrolled. The writings of Thomas Malthus were very controversial as it criticized the view of theUtopians who believed that life could only become better and perfected as time goes by. He alsocriticized some pro-poor laws that seem to encourage people to have more kids which can lead abad effect to the population and food supply. Given this situation, there are two kinds of checks that could hold the population to amanageable and sustainable level. These are the positive checks and the preventive checks.Positive checks are those that increase humans’ death rate. It includes wars, diseases, calamityand famine. Moreover, Malthus believed that if the people are made aware of famine ordeveloped a fear for famine, they will somewhat be prevented from procreating due to fear ofstarvation. Preventive check, however, is a different story. This talks about the lowering of birthrate such as moral restraint to marry and have children at a certain age, abstinence,homosexuality and birth control.
  5. 5. How Can We Cope In the mid-1800s, the human population was able to obtain its first billion. In the mid-1900s the population more than doubled to 2.5 billion. Today, the human population is nearlyreaching a whopping 7 billion. While it may take some time to reach the earlier predicted 13-plusbillion marks, it must be noted that the human lifestyle back then was more in harmony withnature than what we are doing today. Despite the fact that technology is able to provide us withmore efficient ways of growing and producing food, it may not be enough due to high rate ofpopulation growth rate. How much human life the Earth could sustain? The answer does not rely on foodproduction alone. There still are things that should be taken into consideration. Such otherproblems to deal with are the availability of fresh water that are safe for humans to use, theprotection of the atmosphere to prevent global warming and the depletion of oil and fossil fuelsas sources of energy. Since overpopulation is starting to become a big threat as it is shown by mass povertyespecially in third world countries, it is about time for our leaders to think beyond the currentstatus quo and formulate ways on how to control the population and equally distributing wealthto avoid wastage of resources.Life and the Planet Earth For quite a number of years, we havebeen learning things about our planet Earth.While we are still in the process ofdiscovering its mysterious secrets, one thingthat we can be sure of is that life exists here inour planet. Thus, it is safe to assume that lifeis nothing without planet Earth. In this article,it will be discussed how our planet is able tosupport life.Temperature The earth is the third planet from theSun. Its location in the solar system is suchthat it is not too cold and not too hot. This zone in the solar system is called the Goldilocks zone.Moreover, the Earth moderates the heat received from the sun by air currents that distributes heatand cold to different parts of the globe. Moreover, the greenhouse effect also helps by stabilizingthe temperature on the ground and providing heat in the atmosphere by absorbing the heat of thesun and thus limiting the albedo effect.
  6. 6. Atmosphere A breathable atmosphere is probably the most obvious reason why our life exists here onEarth. The gas that we and most other animals breathe is called oxygen. It is present in theEarth’s atmosphere and in water as well. While the Earth’s supply of oxygen is limited, it isconstantly being refreshed because plants reconvert the carbon dioxide gases that animalsexhales through photosynthesis. As such, plants play a very significant role in maintaining life onEarth. Moreover, the Earth’s atmosphere protects the surface from harmful radiation given off bythe sun and from small asteroids from crashing hard on the Earth’s surface.Water Two-thirds of the Earth is composed ofwater. It can mostly be found in liquid form,solid in the form of ice, and gas floating inthe atmosphere in the form of clouds.Moreover, there is no creature in the worldthat is made up of less than 50% of water.Water is a vital ingredient for life. It allowsan environment for life producing moleculesand contains oxygen that is considerednecessary for life. Water is also necessary for drinking.Without it, we and the other life forms onearth will die of thirst and starvation. Whilewater from the oceans are not suitable fordrinking, it is converted to fresh water by theprocess of evaporation and condensation in the form of rain. Assuch, water is then transported to the land which animals, humans and plants use to drink.Sun The earth receives ample amount of heat from the sun. Without it, the Earth would just bea barren planet made of ice. Furthermore, the Earth’s rotation on its axis for 24 hours providesjust the right amount of heat and light to be equally distributed around it. The light provided bythe Sun is also needed by plants to produce food and oxygen for animals through the process ofphotosynthesis. Light is also responsible for the survival of living creatures in order to see thingsthat can be used for food and avoid danger. The Sun’s gravity is also very important in keeping the planets in the solar system withinits axis. Without it, the Earth and other planets will be merely floating defenselessly in the vastfield of the universe.
  7. 7. Conclusion Indeed, life is nothing without planet earth. The conditions brought about by thisseemingly perfect combination of circumstances made it possible for the Earth to host life in itsvery complexity.The Late Great Planet Earth Review In 1973, the book called The Late, Great Planet Earth by the American writer andevangelist Hal Lindsey was published by Zondervan. Due to the way things were during the 70’sand 80’s the book became a very big hit which sold around fifteen million copies and was laterproduced in film. Soon, most people and the religious were taking the book seriously and werestudying it carefully through passages in the bible. In this book, Hal Lindseycreated a straightforwardassertion where our world washeaded to. By using somepassages from the Old and NewTestament of the bible, he wasable to reconcile and put togetherthat time’s current events to theprophecies indicated in it. Thecentral point of this story is thatthe end times will come soon asJesus Christ will soon be comingto Earth by 1988. Israel, becoming a nationstate in 1948 probably triggeredLindsey to write this book as itwas predicted by the bible thatthe rebirth of Israel is a mark ofthe Second Coming of Christ. This was also pointed out by Jesus in the New Testament thatwhen the fig tree’s buds starts to sprout, it will be as sign that summer is near. As it is wellknown that the bible symbolically refers to Israel as a fig tree, Lindsey pointed out that the otherevents happening around the world may also relate to the other prophecies on the SecondComing of Christ. The bible also prophesized that Israel will soon repossess Jerusalem whichreally did actually happened in 1967. These events merely strengthened the credibility ofLindsey’s assertion at that time.
  8. 8. At the peak of the book’s success, the contents of The Late Great Planet Earth was beingthoroughly studied in schools and has become a required to be read among Christian schools.Soon, everyone was expecting that the rapture is happening very soon and news reports werebeing compared to what is written in The Late, Great Planet Earth. Today, most of what iswritten in the book did notoccur. As far as we all know,Jesus Christ did not comeback to Earth in 1988, nor didthe Antichrist did not manageto exert his influence to theworld. The third world wardid not come into realizationand all those prophesy aboutother countries did not takeplace. In the final chapters ofhis book, he told readers tokeep an eye out on Israel as itwill become “fantasticallywealthy and influential in thefuture.” (p.173) As far as weknow, Israel is not doing great given what is happening in the Middle East today and all that itendured during the past century. While some of the book’s prophecies were a total failure, thereare still some of them that came about. In his book Lindsey warned the world about drugaddiction becoming a worldwide problem. To come to the point, this book is still an interesting read despite the obsolete argumentsthat it claims as true. It could be nostalgic to read for some of us who enjoyed the 70’s and 80’s.It could also be fun to read for the younger generation to discover parts of our history and whatpeople were thinking back then.