The Future of Scholarly Communication


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Global thought-leaders define the future of research communication in the new book from Facet Publishing.

Governments and societies globally agree that a vibrant and productive research community underpins a successful knowledge economy but the context, mechanisms and channels of research communication are in flux. As the pace of change quickens there needs to be analysis of new trends and drivers, their implications and a future framework. The editors draw together the informed commentary of internationally-renowned experts from all sectors and backgrounds to define the future of research communication.

A comprehensive introduction by Michael Jubb is followed by two sections examining changing research behaviour and the roles and responsibilities of other key actors including researchers, funders, universities, research institutes, publishers, libraries and users.

Key topics include:

- Changing ways of sharing research in chemistry
- Supporting qualitative research in the humanities and social sciences
- Creative communication in a ‘publish or perish’ culture
- Cybertaxonomy
- Coping with the data deluge
- Social media and scholarly communications
- The changing role of the publisher in the scholarly communications process
- Researchers and scholarly communications
- The changing role of the journal editor
- The view of the research funder
- Changing institutional research strategies
- The role of the research library
- The library users' view.

This is essential reading for all concerned with the rapidly evolving scholarly communications landscape, including researchers, librarians, publishers, funders, academics and HE institutions.

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The Future of Scholarly Communication

  2. 2. A new edited collection from FacetPublishing where internationalthought-leaders define the future ofresearch communication.WHAT IS IT?
  3. 3. All concerned with the rapidlyevolving scholarly communicationslandscape, including researchers,librarians, publishers, funders,academics and HE institutions.WHO IS IT FOR?
  4. 4. A comprehensive introduction isfollowed by examinations ofchanging research behaviour andthe roles and responsibilities of keyactors including researchers,funders, universities, researchinstitutes, publishers, libraries andusers.WHAT IS IN IT?
  5. 5. Katie Anders - Imperial CollegeRichard Bennett - MendeleyMark L Brown - University of SouthamptonIan M Carter - University of SussexEllen Collins - Research Information NetworkFiona Collins - University of Sussex LibraryLiz Elvidge - Imperial CollegeJane Harvell - University of Sussex LibraryMichael Jubb - Research Information NetworkRobert Kiley - Wellcome LibraryContinues on the next slideWHO IS IN IT?
  6. 6. Mike McGrathDavid C Prosser - Research Libraries UKProfessor Henry S Rzepa - Imperial CollegeRoger C Schonfeld - Ithaka S+RDeborah Shorley - Imperial CollegeVincent S Smith - Natural History MuseumJohn Wood - Association of Commonwealth UniversitiesWHO IS IN IT?
  7. 7. chapter by chapterWHAT TOEXPECT
  8. 8. This introduction outlines some of the underlying issuesand developments that are shaping the changes in thecomplex ecology of research and communications in thesecond decade of the 21st century. It thus highlightssome of the key themes that are covered by thesucceeding chapters in the book, and the different roles,perspectives and interests of the key stakeholders in thescholarly communications system: researchers,universities, funders, libraries, publishers and learnedsocieties.Continues on the next slideScholarly communications - disruptions in acomplex ecology - Michael Jubb
  9. 9. It moves on to examine the key dimensions and shifts inthe patterns of research activity in the UK and globally;the rise of collaboration between researchers acrossinstitutional, disciplinary and national boundaries; andthe challenges as well as the opportunities created bythe rapidly-rising volumes of data and other kinds ofoutputs that are being generated by researchers. Thechanging volumes and roles of publishers, journals andindividual publications are examined, including thecritical importance of peer review, and changes in theway it is conducted; the growth of new forms ofpublication; and come of the key changes in businessmodels.Continues on the next slideContinued from the previous slide
  10. 10. Some of the key dimensions of the growth of both openaccess journals and of repositories are outlined, beforeintroducing some of the core developments in theinfrastructure of services for both authors and readers,including citation, indexing and navigation services, aswell as services that help researchers to gather, organiseand analyse published and unpublished sources moreeffectively, to manage their workflows, and tocollaborate and share their work with others. Theintroduction ends by stressing the importance ofcontinued innovation in the search for greaterefficiency and effectiveness both in generating and indisseminating new knowledge.Continued from the previous slide
  12. 12. The challenges of sharing research in chemistry areintroduced via the molecule and how its essentialinformation features might be formalized. The reviewthen covers a period of around 33 years, describing howscientists used to share information about the molecule,and how that sharing has evolved during a period thathas seen the widespread introduction of severaldisruptive technologies.Continues on the next slide1. Changing ways of sharing research inchemistry - Henry S Rzepa
  13. 13. These include e-mail and its now ubiquitous attachment,the world wide web and its modern expression via blogsand wikis. The review describes how digital documentshave similarly evolved during this period, acquiring insome cases digital rights management, metadata andmost recently an existence in the cloud. The review alsodescribes how the dissemination of digital research datahas also changed dramatically, the most recentinnovation being data repositories, and speculates whatthe future of sharing research via the latest disruptivetechnology, tablets, might be.Continued from the previous slide
  14. 14. click here to download a PDFTHIS CHAPTERIS AVAILABLEFOR FREE
  15. 15. This chapter uses the Mass Observation Archive (MOA), avast collection of qualitative data on many subjectthemes, as a case study to examine how the availabilityof new technologies and tools for research has changedthe way in which information professionals can supportthe use of data of this nature in the humanities andsocial sciences. It explores the different ways in whichresearch in these disciplines can be supported throughdigitization, and outlines how important it is to ensurethat there is a ‘curatorial voice’ for the researcher indigital material, showing how this adds value to theresource. Continues on the next slide2. Supporting qualitative research in thehumanities and social sciences: using theMass Observation Archive- Fiona Courage and Jane Harvell
  16. 16. The chapter also details the various projects with whichMass Observation has been involved to open up andenhance the usability of the Archive. These include theJISC-funded Observing the 1980s Open EducationalResource project, which offers opportunities for thereuse of newly digitized material under a CreativeCommons licence, and the SALDA project whichproduced sets of openly available Linked Data extractedfrom the records of the MOA Catalogue. By workingclosely with academics and information professionalson projects such as these, the authors of this chapterargue, they have been able to offer many new ways forresearchers in the social sciences and the humanitiesand other disciplines to use and manipulate thecollection.Continued from the previous slide
  17. 17. Scholarly communication is not just aboutcommunication. It is not the final stage of thepublication process, solely a means of providing the‘minutes of science’. Rather, it is a vital part of theresearch process itself, inspiring researchers along newavenues of discovery and enabling the creation ofconnections between concepts and people.Continues on the next slide3. Researchers and scholarlycommunications: an evolvinginterdependency - David C Prosser
  18. 18. The ways in which researchers disseminate theirresearch have changed and developed over the fourcenturies since the launch of the first scientific journals.But it can be argued that scholarly communication hasin turn affected the way in which researchers behave.This chapter explores some of the interaction andinterdependencies between researchers and scholarlycommunication. It also describes how the move toonline, electronic publishing might further influencethe research processContinued from the previous slide
  19. 19. Technological advancement has transformed researchacross the STEM (science, technology, engineering andmathematics) disciplines, leading to the development ofnew fields of enquiry, as well as novel research tools andmethodologies. It has also generated a variety of originalmedia for communicating scholarly research. Yet,despite this, articles in highly ranked, peer-reviewedjournals remain – for better or worse – the panacea.Continues on the next slide4. Creative communication in a publish orperish culture: can postdocs lead the way -Katie Anders and Liz Elvidge
  20. 20. Postdocs working at research-intensive universities arerequired to demonstrate innovation to further theircareers. However, the pressure to publish in order tosecure a permanent academic post means that the gapfor creative research communication is narrow. Mostpostdocs are accordingly conservative in the way thatthey report and disseminate their research. This chapterlooks at how the ‘publish or perish’ culture affects theways postdocs understand and make choices aboutcommunicating their research. Using a recent publicoutreach project as a case study, it explores the benefitsof participating in creative dissemination projects anddiscusses the broader value of creative forms of sciencecommunication.Continued from the previous slide
  21. 21. The way taxonomic information is created, tested,accessed, thought about and used is changingdramatically with the application of information andcommunications technologies (ICTs). This cyber-enabledtaxonomy is not only changing the efficiency and workpractices of taxonomists, but also changing ways ofdisseminating taxonomic data, and, arguably, the verynature of taxonomic knowledge. In this chapter Iexamine some of the major outputs of taxonomicresearch; how ICTs are affecting their production,dissemination and reuse; and common impediments tofurther progress, including a lack of incentives to build,sustain and populate appropriate infrastructures.5. Cybertaxonomy - Vincent S Smith
  22. 22. The impact of the data deluge is affecting all disciplines– from the humanities to large-scale science. Makingdata openly available allows us to approach globalchallenges holistically. In many cases we need to assesshuman factors alongside the legal, medical andtechnology issues: for example, in the field of worldenergy demand. So there is a need for commonstandards for preservation and access in order to ensureinteroperability. Yet the field is developing very fast,with many funders arguing that publicly fundedresearch must be made publicly available. This does notsimply mean that the data is dumped somewhere: itmust be accessible to other researchers in an intelligiblemanner. Some large international projects are trying tosolve these issues, and there is increasing evidence thatgovernments have woken up to the issues. Continues...6. Coping with the data deluge - John Wood
  23. 23. A key challenge will be for the researchers themselves.Projects in biodiversity, for example, require individualresearchers to come together – physicists, spacescientists and computer scientists working alongsidebiologists and environmental scientists. Themanagement of such projects requires skills that fewpossess at present. Hence the need is urgent to look athow researchers are trained, how they manage suchprojects and the role of the data specialist. How willdemocracy work if data is publicly available in thefuture? This chapter seeks to open up these and manyother issues that will affect society in fundamentalways. Informed debate is needed in order to ensure thatthe immense opportunities offered by the data delugeare not lost for future generations.Continued from the previous slide
  24. 24. Social media have been hailed as a significantopportunity for scholarly communications, offeringresearchers new and effective ways to discover andshare knowledge. Tools such as blogs, wikis, Twitter andFacebook, as well as their underpinning principles suchas crowdsourcing and the value of enhanced ornetworked data, have all been explored to varyingextents by academics, librarians and publishers in theirattempts to improve the efficiency of scholarlycommunications and to reach new or wider audiences.Continues on the next slide7. Social media and scholarlycommunications: the more they change, themore they stay the same - Ellen Collins
  25. 25. This chapter examines such use of social media andsuggests that all of these groups use social media onlywhere it mimics or reinforces their existing behaviours.For the most part, they adopt those elements of socialmedia that make tasks easier or more efficient, butreshape tools or the way in which they are used in orderto avoid challenging traditional cornerstones ofscholarly communications, such as journal articles andpeer review.Continued from the previous slide
  26. 26. This chapter investigates to what extent scholarlypublishing has been affected by the transition to digitalcommunication, what opportunities have been createdand how the transition is shaping the future of theindustry. It breaks down the publishing process intothree stages – input, processing and output – to analysehow much each of these areas has been affected and ifsome areas of the publishing process have been affectedmore than others. It analyses the changing businessmodels in the scholarly journals market and looks at theeffect that the introduction of Open Access (OA)publishing has had on both the subscription businessmodel and the way that the communication of researchis being financed. Continues on the next slide8. The changing role of the publisher in thescholarly communications process -Richard Bennett
  27. 27. It finds that scholarly publishers have undergone a hugetransition over the last 20 years, moving from a slow,print-based model to purely digital delivery in manycases; but for all that change, the process of scholarlypublishing (peer review, editorial review and thestructure of a scientific paper) has changed very little.What has changed is the way that users are using andaccessing the information, and the business models thathave now developed for digital media, such as the BigDeal and Gold OA. Many scholarly publishers are still inthe middle of a transition to true digital publishing andthe mechanisms involved in scholarly communicationhave yet to take full advantage of many of thetechnologies available today, and so this industry willhave to continue to adapt and change to meet the needsof the next generation of researchers.Continued from the previous slide
  29. 29. This chapter looks at the key drivers for change in thejournal marketplace: the drive for profit by the largecommercials and the impact of rapidly developingtechnology which is enabling different access andpublishing models to be explored. These drivers areleading to changes in the editorial function, inparticular the role of peer reviewing moving from pre-to post-publication review. The exaggeration of theadded value contributed by publishers may be a matterof debate.Continues on the next slide9. The changing role of the journal editor -Mike McGrath
  30. 30. The very significant impact of Open Access (OA) isassessed and some predictions are made, including thelikely demise of the Big Deal, at least in its present form,because of the impact of OA. The chapter concludes byarguing that publishers have contributed greatly toincreasing access to the academic literature but are nowacting as a brake on further developments through theirexploitation of copyright law and digital rightsmanagement constraints. All these factors will see therole of the journal editor change dramatically in thenext five to ten years, more quickly in the fields ofscience, technology and medicine, and more slowly inthe humanities and social sciences.Continued from the previous slide
  31. 31. This chapter considers the benefits of Open Access (OA),the challenges that still persist – especially in terms ofcompliance with funders’ policies – and the costs andsustainability of OA publishing, with particularreference to the work of the Wellcome Trust since 2005.To provide context to the Trust’s initiatives, a briefanalysis of the OA landscape in the UK, Europe andbeyond is also provided. The chapter also discusses therationale behind the development of eLife, the new OAjournal developed by the Wellcome Trust incollaboration with the Howard Hughes Medical Instituteand the Max Planck Society.10. The view of the research funder -Robert Kiley
  32. 32. This chapter seeks to explore the relationship betweeninstitutional research strategies and scholarlycommunications and to see how each may have affectedthe other and how they might do so in the future. Itdescribes the purpose and structure of an institutionalresearch strategy, and how these are changing. Ithighlights the linkages between strategy,implementation plans and policies, where the latterencourage desired behaviours. In the context ofscholarly communications, the research strategy is thepublic document in which an institution states itscommitment to such forms of communication: thatdiscovering new knowledge and sharing that discoveryin meaningful ways are at the heart of the institution.Continues on the next slide11. Changing institutional researchstrategies - Ian M Carter
  33. 33. The discussion then moves to the changing nature ofscholarly communications, including the Open agenda,and questions how scholarly communications fits intothe wider spectrum of institutional communications.The chapter concludes that there has probably been littledirect connection between research strategies andapproaches to scholarly communications, but that this ischanging. Both institutions and individual researcherswish to demonstrate the quality, relevance andaccessibility of their research, in order to be attractive tocollaborators, funders and employers. Successfulinstitutions will ensure that strategy and scholarlycommunications activities are mutually supportive, tothe benefit of both their researchers and theorganization.Continued from the previous slide
  34. 34. This chapter reviews the role of research libraries inresponding to an increasingly complex researchenvironment, and the response of libraries to theacceleration of digital publishing, escalating costs andthe long-term preservation needs of research outputs, aswell as their positioning in the debates on Open Accessand research data management. Research libraries arebringing knowledge and professional expertise to thetask of enhancing the effectiveness of the researchenvironment, which is placing them in the role ofadvocates and service integrators. The success of thisactivity has been underpinned by a strengthening of thenatural tendency of research libraries to form strongcollaborative networks that can share knowledge,pursue joint initiatives and work co-operatively.12. The role of the research library -Mark L Brown
  35. 35. This chapter focuses on scholars, rather than on alllibrary users. In it I examine some of the key changes inscholarly practices and associated attitudes in recentyears. What are some of the key aspects of therelationship between the academic library and thosescholars who may make use of its collections andservices? Against a shifting background of significantincreases in the accessibility of a variety of informationsources and services, how is that relationship changing?I will attempt to examine what it might mean to think ofscholars as having the identity of ‘library users’,ultimately arguing that there has been a structuralreadjustment in the nature of the user’s relationshipwith information services providers, including thelibrary.Continues on the next slide13. The library users view - Roger C Schonfeld
  36. 36. The perspective presented in this chapter is rooted tosome degree in the US higher education community.There, it has become clear in recent years that theprincipal differentiator among faculty members’attitudes and practices is discipline, far more thaninstitutional type, years in the field or othercharacteristics. In 2012, Ithaka S+R is conductingresearch programmes with components in both the USAand the UK. So far, these have identified no evidence ofany essential differences in the views of academics inthe UK and the USA that would bear substantively onthe issues covered in this chapter.Continued from the previous slide
  37. 37. if you wantto order thebook...
  38. 38. You can click here to order the book directlyfrom the Facet Publishing website.Customers in the US and Canada can clickhere to order from the American LibraryAssociation.Remember you can browse a free samplechapter first by clicking here.THE BOOK IS OUT NOW!