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Understanding the Brain: The Neurobiology of
Everyday Life
Assignment – Paraplegic in brain-controled
robotic suit kicks off World Cup
Fábio Castro
BBC, June 12th 2014 - Paraplegic in robotic suit kicks off World Cup
News summary: During the opening of the 2014 soccer World
Cup, a paraplegic man gave the “initial kick” using a brain-
controlled robotic suit developed by a computer-brain interface
research team from Duke University.
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-27812218
Excerpts:
• The exoskeleton uses a cap placed on the patient's head to pick up
brain signals and relay them to a computer in the exoskeleton's
backpack. This then decodes the signals and sends them to the
legs.
• "The basic idea is that we are recording from the brain and then
that signal is being translated into commands for the robot to start
moving," Dr Gordon Cheng, at the Technical University of Munich,
who is a member of the team, told the BBC in May.
• […] artificial skin for the exoskeleton […] containing pressure,
temperature and speed sensors […] applied on the soles of the feet
and allows the patient to receive tactile stimulation when walking
with the exoskeleton. When the robotic suit starts to move and
touches the ground, signals are transmitted to an electronic
vibration device on the patient's arm, which stimulates their skin.
[…] After lots of practice, the brain starts associating the
movements of the legs with the vibration in the arm. In theory, the
patient should start to develop the sensation that they have legs
and that they are walking.
Cap fitted with electrodes
detects electrical signals
from the brain
Computer converts the brain
electrical signals into
movement
Hydraulics system moves the
exoskeleton’s limbs.
Gyroscope in backpack helps
the exoskeleton to correct its
balance.
Sensors “feels” the touch
onto the ground and send a
touch to the arm. After
some training, this touch in
the arm is felt as a touch
onto the ground.
Patient’s spinal cord injury:
- The paraplegic condition is caused by an injury to the spinal cord,
between the cervical and lumbar regions;
- This does not allow the signals from motor neurons to transmit voluntary
movement signals from the motor cortex to the muscles, nor the sensory
neurons to transmit senses (touch, pain and temperature) to the brain
(thalamus and then sensory cortex).
Location of the sensory
cortex in the forebrain
Brain-Computer interface:
- Sensors in the cap sense the action-potential of the neurons in the motor
cortex;
- The action-potential has an amplitude of 100 mV and occurs when these
neuron cells are activated;
- Mechanism of the action=potential is the sodium-potassium pump =
active transportation of Na+ (sodium) ions through the ion channels of
the cell membrane change the electric potential across the cell membrane
from – 70 mV (minus 70 milivolts) to + 20 mV.
Brain-Computer interface:
- These sensors aim to detect activity in the motor cortex, most specifically, in the
are area responsible for leg’s voluntary movement, located in the inner side of the
motor cortex;
- Hundreds of neurons are responsible to activate a single movement. Great part of
the required training is to recognize the pattern of neuron activation in a single
patient.
Location of the motor
cortex in the forebrain
Region in the right
hemisphere's motor cortex
responsible for the left leg’s
movement
Conclusion:
• Parts of the nervous system that are active in the example: Motor
cortex, sensory cortex, sensory and motor nerves from the trunks up,
cerebellum
• Functions of the nervous system that are impaired in the example:
Sensory and motor nerves below the trunks
• How this course has allowed me to better analyze the events and
phenomena around you: Understanding on neuron function and
communication; brain different functions (sensory, motor, postural
control, homeostasis, higher functions); anatomy (parts and functions);
brain circulation (Blood brain barrier, CSF, CSF pressure).
Other related articles:
http://www.beyondboundariesnicolelis.net/~beyond/pdf/Seek
ingTheNeuralCode.pdf
Scientific American, December 2006 – Searching the Neural
Code (pag 122-128)
http://www.beyondboundariesnicolelis.net/~beyond/pdf/Cont
rollingRobotsWithMind_2008version.pdf
Scientific American, 2008 – Controling robots with the mind
(pag 73-78)

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Assignment fabio castro

  • 1. Understanding the Brain: The Neurobiology of Everyday Life Assignment – Paraplegic in brain-controled robotic suit kicks off World Cup Fábio Castro
  • 2. BBC, June 12th 2014 - Paraplegic in robotic suit kicks off World Cup News summary: During the opening of the 2014 soccer World Cup, a paraplegic man gave the “initial kick” using a brain- controlled robotic suit developed by a computer-brain interface research team from Duke University. http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-27812218
  • 3. Excerpts: • The exoskeleton uses a cap placed on the patient's head to pick up brain signals and relay them to a computer in the exoskeleton's backpack. This then decodes the signals and sends them to the legs. • "The basic idea is that we are recording from the brain and then that signal is being translated into commands for the robot to start moving," Dr Gordon Cheng, at the Technical University of Munich, who is a member of the team, told the BBC in May. • […] artificial skin for the exoskeleton […] containing pressure, temperature and speed sensors […] applied on the soles of the feet and allows the patient to receive tactile stimulation when walking with the exoskeleton. When the robotic suit starts to move and touches the ground, signals are transmitted to an electronic vibration device on the patient's arm, which stimulates their skin. […] After lots of practice, the brain starts associating the movements of the legs with the vibration in the arm. In theory, the patient should start to develop the sensation that they have legs and that they are walking.
  • 4. Cap fitted with electrodes detects electrical signals from the brain Computer converts the brain electrical signals into movement Hydraulics system moves the exoskeleton’s limbs. Gyroscope in backpack helps the exoskeleton to correct its balance. Sensors “feels” the touch onto the ground and send a touch to the arm. After some training, this touch in the arm is felt as a touch onto the ground.
  • 5. Patient’s spinal cord injury: - The paraplegic condition is caused by an injury to the spinal cord, between the cervical and lumbar regions; - This does not allow the signals from motor neurons to transmit voluntary movement signals from the motor cortex to the muscles, nor the sensory neurons to transmit senses (touch, pain and temperature) to the brain (thalamus and then sensory cortex). Location of the sensory cortex in the forebrain
  • 6. Brain-Computer interface: - Sensors in the cap sense the action-potential of the neurons in the motor cortex; - The action-potential has an amplitude of 100 mV and occurs when these neuron cells are activated; - Mechanism of the action=potential is the sodium-potassium pump = active transportation of Na+ (sodium) ions through the ion channels of the cell membrane change the electric potential across the cell membrane from – 70 mV (minus 70 milivolts) to + 20 mV.
  • 7. Brain-Computer interface: - These sensors aim to detect activity in the motor cortex, most specifically, in the are area responsible for leg’s voluntary movement, located in the inner side of the motor cortex; - Hundreds of neurons are responsible to activate a single movement. Great part of the required training is to recognize the pattern of neuron activation in a single patient. Location of the motor cortex in the forebrain Region in the right hemisphere's motor cortex responsible for the left leg’s movement
  • 8. Conclusion: • Parts of the nervous system that are active in the example: Motor cortex, sensory cortex, sensory and motor nerves from the trunks up, cerebellum • Functions of the nervous system that are impaired in the example: Sensory and motor nerves below the trunks • How this course has allowed me to better analyze the events and phenomena around you: Understanding on neuron function and communication; brain different functions (sensory, motor, postural control, homeostasis, higher functions); anatomy (parts and functions); brain circulation (Blood brain barrier, CSF, CSF pressure).
  • 9. Other related articles: http://www.beyondboundariesnicolelis.net/~beyond/pdf/Seek ingTheNeuralCode.pdf Scientific American, December 2006 – Searching the Neural Code (pag 122-128) http://www.beyondboundariesnicolelis.net/~beyond/pdf/Cont rollingRobotsWithMind_2008version.pdf Scientific American, 2008 – Controling robots with the mind (pag 73-78)